Session List
Interactive Presentations
Reserve Papers
Monday, 05. September 2022
RaumTrack 1Track 2Track 3Track 4Track 5Track 6Track 7Track 8Track 9Track 10Track 11Track 12Track 13Track 14
07:00
08:00
Registration
08:00
09:00
Opening Ceremony - Chair: Azevedo J.L. ICAS President BR
09:00
10:00
ICAS Daniel & Florence Guggenheim Memorial Lecture, “Aeronautical Innovation – Swedish and European Perspectives” , Anders Blom, Sweden - Chair: J.L. Azevedo, ICAS President, BR
10:00
10:30
Coffee Break
10:30
12:00
1.1
Future Combat Air Systems – Requirements & Technologies (invited)
2.1
MDAO 1
3.1
Unconventional Configurations 1
4.1
Numerical Methods
5.1
GARTEUR 1 (invited)
6.1
Experimenta Investigations on Laminar Flow
7.1
Design Space Exploration
8.1
Computational Aeroelasticity 1
9.1
More / Hybrid / Electric Propulsion 1
10.1
Impact
11.1
UAV Navigation 1
12.1
AMAN / DMAN 1
13.1
Airworthiness / Certification
14.1
Future Operations
12:00
13:00
Lunch Break
13:00
14:00
“Future Airspace – Meeting Demand Through Integration” Lynne Thompson Hopper, USA
14:10
15:40
1.2
Progress toward sustainable aviation 3 (invited)
2.2
MDAO 2
3.2
UAS 1
4.2
Hypersonic Aerodynamics
5.2
GARTEUR 2 (invited)
6.2
Experimental Investigations on Vortical Flows
7.2
Sustainable design, manufacture and maintenance of aerostructures EASN (invited)
8.2
Computational Aeroelasticity 2
9.2
More / Hybrid / Electric Propulsion 2
 
11.2
UAV Navigation 2
12.2
AMAN / DMAN 2
13.2
Human Factors
14.2
Sustainment Digitalisation
15:40
16:00
Break
16:00
18:00
1.3
Assessment of Unconventional Aircraft Configurations Through MDO (invited)
2.3
Technology Assessment
3.3
UAS 2
4.3
Actuation Systems
5.3
Sustainable Aircraft i (invited)
 
7.3
Composite Damage and Repairs
8.3
Aeroelastic Experimental Investigations
9.3
MDO for Collaborative Propulsion Design
10.3
Flight Modelling and Simulation 1
11.3
UAV Control and AI
12.3
Climate / Environment Impacts
13.3
UAV/UAM
14.3
Operations Optimisation
Tuesday, 06. September 2022
RaumTrack 1Track 2Track 3Track 4Track 5Track 6Track 7Track 8Track 9Track 10Track 11Track 12Track 13Track 14
08:00
09:00
“Towards Certification by Analysis for Flight Characteristics” Robert Gregg III , USA
09:00
10:30
Interactive Presentations (Coffee will be served after 10:00) - Chair: O. Pinon Fischer, ICAS PC Member, US
10:30
12:00
1.4
Next Steps Towards Certification by Analysis (invited)
2.4
Artificial Intelligence Application
3.4
Unconventional Configurations 2
4.4
Reduced Order Models
5.4
Wing Transition Control
6.4
Aerofoil Performance Studies
7.4
Emerging Material Processes
8.4
Morphing 1
9.4
Supersonic / Hypersonic Propulsion
10.4
Flight Modelling and Simulation 2
11.4
UAV Navigation 3
12.4
Navigation
13.4
Safety / Security
 
12:00
13:00
Lunch Break
13:00
14:00
ICAS Enoch Thulin Lecture for Innovation in Aeronautics “Implementation of active flutter suppression into the aircraft MDO process” Eli Livne - Chair: C. Atkin, ICAS PPSC Chair, GB
14:00
15:30
1.5
Wake Impact Severity Assessment (WISA) for arrivals and departures as part of SESAR 2020 Wave 2 (invited)
2.5
More Electric Aircraft
3.5
Supersonic and Hypersonic Aircraft 1
4.5
Aerodynamic Optimization
5.5
Boundary Layer Stability
6.5
Unconventional Airframes
7.5
Fabrication Techniques
8.5
Morphing 2
9.5
ISABE (invited)
10.5
Aircraft Handling Qualities
11.5
UAV Control 1
12.5
UAV & Small A/C
13.5
Additive Manufacturing
14.5
Aerospace Education and Skill Development
15:30
16:00
Break
16:00
18:00
1.6
Development of a Framework for Validation of Computational Tools (NATO AVT-297) (invited)
2.6
Digital Collaboration
3.6
Urban Air Mobility
4.6
Scale Resolving Simulations
5.6
Fluid Dynamics Phenomena
6.6
High Lift Devices
7.6
Aerospace Grade Composites
8.6
Design of Aircraft Structures 1
9.6
Nacelle 1
10.6
Flight Controller Design 1
11.6
UAV Control 2
12.6
Electric Components
13.6
Manufacturing Management
14.6
John J. Green / DLR Design Challenge / AIAA student award lecture (invited)
18:00
19:30
ICAS Speed Mentoring: For all early careers (students and young professionals) Meeting professionals from companies, research institutes, and universities in aeronautics all over the world
Wednesday, 07. September 2022
RaumTrack 1Track 2Track 3Track 4Track 5Track 6Track 7Track 8Track 9Track 10Track 11Track 12Track 13Track 14
08:00
10:00
General lecture III: Panel session “Towards Sustainable Air Transport”
10:00
10:30
Coffee Break
10:30
12:00
1.7
Progress toward sustainable Aviation (invited)
2.7
HMI & Cabin Design
3.7
Hybrid-Electric Aircraft & LH2 1
4.7
IFAR (invited)
5.7
Aircraft Aerodynamics
6.7
Advanced Measurement Techniques
7.7
Numerical Modeling of Materials
8.7
Testing and Measurements
9.7
Nacelle 2
10.7
Flight Controller Design 2
11.7
Systems of Systems Analysis
12.7
Universities - part of the Innovation chain (invited)
13.7
Advanced Manufacturing
14.7
System Condition & Emergency Systems
12:00
13:00
Lunch Break
13:00
13:45
“Developing and Flying the Gripen E” Marcus Wandt, Sweden - Chair: G. Holmberg, ICAS Treasurer, SE
13:55
15:55
1.8
ICAS Digital Pioneering Initiative (invited)
2.8
Design Methods
3.8
Hybrid-Electric Aircraft & LH2 2
4.8
High Order Methods
5.8
Airframe Characterization
6.8
Aeroacustic Measurements
7.8
UAV Path Planning
8.8
Design of Aircraft Structures 2
9.8
Propulsion System & Aircraft Performance 1
10.8
Flight Test and Equipment 1
11.8
Simulation
12.8
Council Meeting
13.8
Network
14.8
Cabin & Cargo
15:55
16:15
Break
16:15
18:45
1.9
Progress toward sustainable aviation 2 (invited)
2.9
Sustainable Aircraft 1
3.9
UAS 3
4.9
CFD Applications 1
5.9
Propulsion Systems
6.9
Experimental Configuration Studies
7.9
Advances in Aerostructures
8.9
Lift and Stall Control
9.9
Combustion & Heat Transfer
10.9
Flight Test and Equipment 2
11.9
MBSE 1
12.9
DLR/LuFo session on the green deal (invited)
13.9
Trajectory
14.9
System Design
Thursday, 08. September 2022
RaumTrack 1Track 2Track 3Track 4Track 5Track 6Track 7Track 8Track 9Track 10Track 11Track 12Track 13Track 14
08:00
09:30
General lecture V: ICAS/IFAR „Transforming Aviation towards Zero Emission - to mitigate the climate impact“ I. Yimer, NRC Canada, M. Lesturgie, ONERA France, M. Fischer, DLR Germany, Y. Watanabe, JAXA Japan, P. Krus, SARC Sweden - Chair: D. Mavris, ICAS PC Chair, US
09:30
10:00
Coffee Break
10:00
12:30
1.10
Selected Highlights from Clean sky/Clean Aviation 1 (invited)
2.10
Sustainable Aircraft 2
3.10
Hybrid-Electric Aircraft & LH2 3
4.10
CFD Applications 2
5.10
Turbulence Modelling
6.10
Wind Tunnel Testing Technology 1
7.10
Fatigue Analysis
8.10
Vibration and Damping 1
9.10
Propellers, Fan Compressors
10.10
Flight Control
11.10
MBSE 2
12.10
Student Final
13.10
Operation
14.10
Sustainment Systems
12:30
13:30
Lunch Break
13:30
15:30
1.11
Selected Highlights from Clean sky/Clean Aviation 2 (invited)
2.11
Wing Design
3.11
Supersonic and Hypersonic Aircraft 2
4.11
Transition and Flow Stability
5.11
Aeroacoustics and Sonic Boom Predictions
6.11
Wind Tunnel Testing Technology 2
7.11
Metallic Structures
8.11
Vibration and Damping 2
9.11
Propulsion System & Aircraft Performance 2
10.11
Flight Modelling
11.11
Systems Architecting
12.11
Icing
13.11
UTM / UAM
14.11
UAV Design
15:30
16:00
Break
16:00
17:00
16:00-17:00 ICAS von Karman Lecture: “The Clean Sky programme and achievements” - Chair: A. Krein, ICAS PC member and Head of Clean Sky Programme, DE
17:00
17:30
Closing Ceremony - Chair: Azevedo J.L. ICAS President BR
1.1Future Combat Air Systems – Requirements & Technologies (invited)
Chair:
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  10:30 11:00 1.1.1 THE SWEDISH AIR FORCE INTO THE FUTURE – AIMING FOR A HIGHER GROUND AND A SHARPER EDGE
A. Persson, Sweden
The presentation will outline the future plans, going into space, the benefit of a national industry and the urge for research and technology in order to achieve tactical superiority.
  11:00 11:30 1.1.2 BAE SYSTEMS ICAS BRIEF FUTURE COMBAT AIRCRAFT SYSTEM (FCAS) - THE COMPLEXITY OF THE SKILLS EQUATION
S Hopkins, BAE Systems, United Kingdom
Change in the workplace has become part of our daily lives, effecting both what we do and more importantly how we do it. This paper identifies some of the key people challenges we face in the Combat Air sector and how this is impacting the future skills we need to deliver complex next-generation programmes.
2.1MDAO 1
Chair: S. Bagassi
Track 2
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  10:30 11:00 2.1.1 LARGE-SCALE MULTIFIDELITY AEROSTRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION OF A TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT
N. Y. Wu, United States
Presenter: Neil Wu, University of Michigan

Aided by the adjoint method, high-fidelity aerostructural aircraft optimizations have become more widespread in recent years. However, they are still computationally expensive and suffer from optimization convergence issues. In this work, we address some practical issues with large-scale aerostructural optimizations using a multifidelity approach together with a different geometric parameterization. We perform an optimization of a notional transport aircraft analyzed over ten flight conditions, including close to 1000 design variables and 1000 constraints. We compare the result against a reference single-fidelity optimization, and show simultaneous computational cost reduction and an improved level of optimization convergence.
  11:00 11:30 2.1.2 REGIONAL JET RETROFITTING DESIGN: FROM STAKEHOLDERS’ NEEDS AND SYSTEM’S REQUIREMENTS TO MDAO WORKFLOW FORMULATION
M.-M. Mandorino, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
In this paper, a process useful for the verification of economic, environmental and performance requirements related to the retrofit of a 90 passengers regional jet aircraft is described. Requirements are defined according to scenarios and stakeholders’ needs. The overall process is implemented in the framework of the AGILE 4.0 research project, leading to a thorough MBSE problem definition.
  11:30 12:00 2.1.3 COAST - A SIMULATION AND CONTROL FRAMEWORK TO SUPPORT MULTIDISCIPLINARY OPTIMIZATION AND AIRCRAFT DESIGN WITH CPACS
D. Kiehn, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
This paper presents COAST (CPACS-Oriented Aircraft Simulation Tool), a fixed-wing aircraft simulation software specifically tailored for MDO aircraft design with the CPACS format. Due to its interface with the DLR full flight simulator AVES and a built-in generic flight control system, it offers the potential to use virtual flight testing in MDO toolchains and in early stages of aircraft design.
Reserve Paper 2.1.R OBJECT ORIENTED MULTI FIDELITY AIRCRAFT DESIGN TOOL FOR FIXED WING EVTOL UAVS
T Seren, Chair of Aircraft Design - Technical University of Munich, Germany
3.1Unconventional Configurations 1
Chair: J. Melkert
Track 3
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  10:30 11:00 3.1.1 HIGH-SPEED COMPOUND HELICOPTER RESEARCH AT JAXA
M. Sugiura, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan
An overview on the research of a high-speed compound helicopter carried out in JAXA is presented. A distinctive configuration of a compound helicopter was proposed by JAXA. The main rotor is combined with a fixed wing to generate lift. The torque caused by the main rotor is canceled out by a couple of motor-driven propellers installed on the fixed-wing tips with differential thrusts between them.
  11:00 11:30 3.1.2 DESIGN OF A FLYING V SUBSONIC TRANSPORT
J. Benad¹, R. Vos¹; ¹Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
This work intends to chronical the technical development of the Flying V aircraft concept. Development began in 2013 at Airbus Future Projects and has been continued at Delft University of Technology with Airbus and KLM. Various studies on the design are currently ongoing in fields such as aerodynamics, structures, manufacturing, flight dynamics, environmental impact, integration and operation.
  11:30 12:00 3.1.3 DESIGN AND WIND TUNNEL TESTING OF A GENERAL AVIATION BLENDED WING BODY AIRCRAFT
F. M. Staub, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Research over the last 3 decades has repeatedly suggested that a BWB aircraft will burn about 20-30% less fuel than a tube-and-wing aircraft for the same payload and range. Despite this, we still do not see BWBs in service today. This study proposes a way we can realize larger BWB aircraft in the future. while also providing immediate benefits in fuel efficiency to the general aviation market.
Reserve Paper 3.1.R EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A NEXT-GENERATION AIRLINER WITH BOUNDARY LAYER INGESTION
P.-D. Bravo-Mosquera, University of São Paulo, Brazil
4.1Numerical Methods
Chair: K. Fidkowski
Track 4
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  10:30 11:00 4.1.1 UNSTEADY TURBULENT FLOW SIMULATION OF ROTOR BLADES ON MOVING CARTESIAN GRIDS USING RECURSIVE FITTING APPROACH
K. Sugaya, The University of Tokyo, Japan
To simulate turbulent flow around moving bodies, we propose a new method capable of automatic grid generation and accurate turbulent flow simulation. The automatically generated body-fitted Cartesian grid moves with the bodies. To examine the capability of the proposed method, two- and three-dimensional unsteady flow are simulated.
  11:00 11:30 4.1.2 COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF SUPERSONIC FLOW AROUND A WEDGE AND A CYLINDER USING BUILDING?CUBE METHOD
K Abe, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Japan
The Cartesian mesh CFD has received renewed attention in recent years due to its ease of mesh generation and small computational cost. Cartesian mesh CFD is conducted to solve supersonic flow to predict shock waves and heat flux. The computational targets are a cylinder and a wedge, and bow shock and oblique shock are precisely. In addition, shock wave interference between a wedge and a cylinder are computed.
  11:30 12:00 4.1.3 ON THE INFLUENCE OF GRADIENT RECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES OVER THE ACCURACY OF FINITE VOLUME BASED SCHEMES
F. B. Oliveira, ITA, Brazil
The present work analyzes three different gradient reconstruction procedures, using three different simulation test cases, namely the zero-gradient flat plate, the ONERA M6 wing and the wing-body common research model. Overall increase in algorithm robustness is observed when the gradient-calculation scheme that brings into the formulation the information from the discontinuous solution is used.
Reserve Paper 4.1.R INVESTIGATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL VORTEX DYNAMICS IN V103 CASCADE CHANNEL
Y. Zhao, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Fudan University, China
5.1GARTEUR 1 (invited)
Chair: A. Blom
Track 5
15 - Guest lectures
  10:30 11:00 5.1.1 GARTEUR: NEARLY HALF A CENTURY OF EUROPEAN COLLABORATION IN AERONAUTICS RESEARCH
P. Renzoni, Centro Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali S.C.p.A., Italy
This contribution will give an overview of the role played by the Group for Aeronautical Research and Technology in EURope (GARTEUR) over nearly half a century in the European collaboration in aeronautics research. The mission of GARTEUR, its organisation and principles, and its vision, as well as its fields of activities are presented. Conclusions and perspectives for future cooperation are addressed, addressing the challenges Europe has identified both in the civil and military domains.
  11:00 11:30 5.1.2 THE GROUP OF RESPONSABLES AERODYNAMICS GOR AD AN OVERVIEW OF ACTIVITIES AND SUCCESS STORIES
G. Mingione Mingione, CIRA, Italy
The GoR AD is active in initiating and organising basic and applied research in aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics. Aerothermodynamics is closely related to space operations and flight through the earth’s atmosphere at very high speeds.

This contribution will give an overview about GoR AD research activities, will highlight some very successful highlights and give an outlook on future activities.

  11:30 12:00 5.1.3 THE GARTEUR GROUP OF RESPONSABLES “STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS: AN OVERVIEW OF ACTIVITIES AND SUCCES STORIES
G.S.J. Thuis, Netherlands Aerospace Centre NLR, Netherlands
The Garteur SM is active in initiating and organizing aeronautics oriented research on structures, structural dynamics and materials in general. Materials oriented research is related to material systems primarily for the airframe; it includes specific aspects of polymers, metals and various composite systems. Structural research is devoted to computational mechanics, loads and design methodology. Research on structural dynamics involves more especially response to shock and impact loading.
The group is active in theoretical and experimental fields of structures and materials to strengthen development and improvement of methods and procedures. Of great importance is the mutual simulation of the diverse scientific approaches. Experiments give new insights into the mechanisms of structural behavior that can be included in improved theoretical models. Finally, the theoretical results must be verified and validated by comparison with results from suitable experiments or trials.
Although the specific topics vary over the years, the scientific basis remains largely unchanged. The work is looked upon as an upstream research intended to discover valuable areas of future activity;
Activities within the Exploratory and Action Groups cover several aspects of improved conventional and new technologies, new structural concepts and new design and verification criteria. Recent, current and upcoming work is devoted to:
• Fatigue and damage tolerance assessment of hybrid structures
• Damage repair with composites in composite and metallic structures
• Characterization and modelling of Composites with Ceramic Matrix submitted to severe thermo-mechanical loading
• Characterization of composites with polymer matrix at high temperatures
• Characterization and optimization of shock absorbers for civil aircraft fuselages
• Additive Layer Manufacturing
• Structural health monitoring for hydrogen aircraft tanks.

At present the following exploratory grou
6.1Experimenta Investigations on Laminar Flow
Chair:
Track 6
03.2 - Experimental Aerodynamics
  10:30 11:00 6.1.1 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF THE YAW ANGLE ON THE DRAG REDUCTION RATE FOR TRAPEZOIDAL RIBLETS
A. Inasawa, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan
The effects of yaw angle of riblets on the drag reducing effect was examined experimentally for riblets having trapezoidal valleys in turbulent wind channel. The drag reduction effect was weakened when the yaw angle exceeded 10 deg and thus was more sensitive to the yaw angle than for saw-tooth riblets.
  11:00 11:30 6.1.2 ON THE GROWTH OF DISTURBANCES IN A LAMINAR SEPARATION BUBBLE SUBJECTED TO FREESTREAM TURBULENCE
TMJ Jaroslawski, France
Experiments are conducted on a two-dimensional laminar separation bubble subjected to a large range of free stream turbulence levels (0.18% < Tu < 6.26%) and integral length scales (8.31mm < Lu < 17.18mm). Spectral analysis of the unsteady velocity measurements and wall-normal disturbance pro les revealed the co-existence of two modes in the bubble: a modal instability attributed to a convective instability and a non-modal instability linked to streaks. The streamwise growth of the energy disturbances is exponential for the lowest levels of freestream turbulence and gradually becomes algebraic as the level of freestream turbulence increases. In occurrence with previous studies, an increase in the level of freestream turbulence, advances the transition position, decreasing the size of the bubble, with its eventual elimination at the highest levels. Finally, for a relatively fixed level of Tu, the variation of Lu has modest effects, however a slight advancement of transition with the decrease in Lu is observed.
  11:30 12:00 6.1.3 REDUCTION OF TURBULENT EVENTS BY THE USE OF STAGGERED CAVITIES
F. Scarano, ISAE - Supaero, France
The physics of a boundary layer developing over perforated plates at a moderate Reynolds number is gained from a combined experimental and numerical investigation.
The experiments are conducted combining hot wire anemometry and steresocopic PIV.
The findings are consistent with literature as to the possibility of reducing drag with circular perforations.
7.1Design Space Exploration
Chair: O. Pinon Fischer
Track 7
02 - Systems Engineering and Integration
  10:30 11:00 7.1.1 A SEMANTIC KNOWLEDGE BASED ENGINEERING FRAMEWORK FOR THE RAPID GENERATION OF NOVEL AIR VEHICLE CONFIGURATIONS
J. Zamboni, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
This paper presents a recently developed, novel knowledge-based engineering framework, which allows for the transparent digitization of conceptual design knowledge and its interconnection using semantic-web technologies. It focuses on describing an effective structure for capturing and storing the expert’s knowledge and on the procedures required to solve and analyze the resulting complex system.
  11:00 11:30 7.1.2 RULE-BASED VERIFICATION OF A GEOMETRIC DESIGN USING THE CODEX FRAMEWORK
B. M. Boden, DLR, Germany
This paper presents the codex-geometry module for geometry modelling using semantic web technologies within the Codex KBE framework. We use rules to express geometric requirements and analysis functions, which are automatically evaluated in order to verify a geometric design. We show our approach by the example use case of a conventional fuel system model, including pipe systems and fuel pumps.

8.1Computational Aeroelasticity 1
Chair:
Track 8
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  10:30 11:00 8.1.1 AEROELASTIC ANALYSIS OF HIGH ASPECT RATIO AND STRUT-BRACED WINGS
Y. D. Le Lamer, ISAE-Supaero, France
Increasing the aspect ratio of transonic aircraft wings is a promising path to reduce aviation carbon footprint. This paper focuses on the development of high and low fidelity aeroelastic models for high aspect ratio and strut-braced wings. These models are implemented within an aeroelastic analysis framework. Finally, high and low fidelity analysis will be performed and results compared.
  11:00 11:30 8.1.2 COMPARING REDUCED ORDER MODEL FORMS FOR NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS
D. S. Clifford, University of Southampton, United Kingdom
This work presents a comparative study between two contrasted ROM approaches: Intrusive against Non-Intrusive techniques. To this aim, a model-based projection method and a machine-learning based system are presented and benchmarked using nonlinear dynamical test cases. Followingly, we perform a thorough performance analysis to highlight the benefits of each approach.
  11:30 12:00 8.1.3 NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON THE DOUBLE TRANSONIC DIP OF SUPERCRITICAL AIRFOIL FLUTTER
T. Miyake, Japan
The supercritical airfoil uniquely exhibited a double transonic dip on the flutter boundary. The second transonic dip at a high Mach number condition was only observed for the supercritical airfoil. It was indicated that the generation of the second transonic dip was associated with the unsteady behaviors of flow separation and reattachment over the lower surface.
Reserve Paper 8.1.R AEROELASTIC STABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE HAMMERHEAD LAUNCH VEHICLE USING CFD-CAE COUPLED METHOD IN THE TRANSONIC REGION
H.G. Rho, Korea Aerospace University, South Korea
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 8.1.R A STUDY ON THE AEROELASTICITY OF AIR-TO-AIR MISSLE IN OVER-THE-SHOULDER LAUNCH
K Lu, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
9.1More / Hybrid / Electric Propulsion 1
Chair: M. Fioriti
Track 9
05 - Propulsion
  10:30 11:00 9.1.1 SERIES-HYBRID RETROFIT OF AN XV-15 TILTROTOR AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURE ENERGETIC ANALYSIS
J. Serafini, Roma Tre University, Italy
This work reports the retrofit of the propulsion system of a XV-15 tiltrotor aicraft into a series-hybrid one. The performance and the environmental impact are reported, considering current technology and future trends. Moreover,an emergency landing procedure suited for this kind of aircraft is defined and its performance is assessed.
  11:00 11:30 9.1.2 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTROLS STRATEGY FOR FUEL CELL-POWERED ALL-ELECTRIC AERO ENGINES BASED ON A FHA
S. de Graaf, DLR e.V., Germany
This work sheds light on the challenges imposed on powertrain controls by the fuel cell technology of today, in general, and the LT-PEM fuel cell, in particular. Controls tasks specific to fuel cell-powered aero engines were derived and strategies developed to comply with the demanding performance and safety requirements of aviation and enable the introduction of sustainable electrified aero engines.
  11:30 12:00 9.1.3 TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATOR HYBRID POWER SYSTEM FOR NEW GENERATION OF VTOL UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES WITH MTOW UP TO 300 KG
M. -M. Wojtas, ?ukasiewicz Research Network - Institute of Aviation, Poland
Paper discusses the concepts of a technology demonstrator of a hybrid power system for new generation of VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with MTOW up to 300 kg. The authors discussed the steps of preparing the technology demonstrator. Presented the obtained results of the demonstrator tests, as well as the pros and cons of the proposed solutions and further goals in subsequent projects.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 9.1.R THERMAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR A HYBRID ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEM BASED AIRCRAFT DESIGN
S.S. Sahoo, Mälardalen University, Sweden
10.1Impact
Chair:
Track 10
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  10:30 11:00 10.1.1 FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING FOR THE DESIGN OF A PROTECTIVE SHIELD FOR A LEADING EDGE TO WITHSTAND BIRD STRIKE EVENTS
A. De Luca, University of Campania L. Vanvitelli, Italy
In this paper, a Finite Element model has been developed to assess the structural effectiveness of an aluminium shield introduced behind the leading edge of the wing of NGCTR-TD, to enhance flight safety with respect to the integrity of the systems routed inside it.
  11:00 11:30 10.1.2 A REDUCED ORDER MODEL FOR FULL-SCALE DRONE COLLISIONS
Florian Franke¹, Uli Burger¹, Christian Hühne, German Aerospace Center, Germany; ¹Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, Germany
In parallel to bird strikes and hailstorms, drone strikes also pose a threat to manned aviation. This paper presents a novel model to calculate the impact force during mid-air collisions of drones with manned aircraft. This model can be used to determine the force-time curve and use the results for a preliminary design of endangered structures.
  11:30 12:00 10.1.3 HIGH FIDELITY AIRWORTHINESS BIRD AND DRONE IMPACT ANALYSIS OF ON-DEMAND AIR MOBILITY SERVICE AIRCRAFT
P Vaghela, CRASH Lab, Dept of MAE, University at Buffalo, United States
Direct and oblique impacts from bird and drone are modeled on canopy, wings, structure and engine of a modern short take-off and landing aircraft for On-Demand Air Mobility using highly representative finite element analysis. Post-impact behaviors of the structures are investigated to establish new analysis strategies as well as airworthiness criteria.
11.1UAV Navigation 1
Chair:
Track 11
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  10:30 11:00 11.1.1 LANDING SIMULATION OF A HIGH-ALTITUDE PLATFORM WITH SKID-TYPE LANDING GEAR – FLIGHT PROCEDURE, CONTROLLER, AND LOADS
Y. J. Hasan, DLR, German Aerospace Center, Germany
This paper addresses three issues associated with the landing of high-altitude platforms: first, it presents a manual landing procedure that has a potential of reducing the risk of the landing for such aircraft, second, it describes the positioning process of skids that are used as landing gear and third, it includes the resulting landing loads in the aeroelastic design.
  11:00 11:30 11.1.2 INTRUDER TRACKING ALGORITHM ENABLING SAFE INTEGRATION OF UAS INTO CIVIL AIRSPACE
A. Braun, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
This paper proposes an onboard detection and tracking system to enable situational awareness and hence allow for a safe integration of UAS into civil airspace. An IMM Kalman filter is used to filter and track other aerial vehicles. Considering the requirements, different models used within the algorithm are developed. The system is evaluated using simulated data as well as using real data from ADS-B, FLARM and UAS Traffic Management (UTM) receivers.
  11:30 12:00 11.1.3 ALTITUDE ESTIMATION BY WIDE-FIELD-INTEGRATION OF OPTIC FLOW
H.H. Hiraiwa, Kyushu University, Japan
This paper presents an altitude estimation method by using Wide-Field-Integration (WFI) of optic flow. WFI of optic flow is a method for fast estimation of motion variables. The proposed method can additionally estimate the altitude of a flying vehicle by using two patterns of optic flow acquired by two onboard cameras. The proposed method is useful for autonomous flight in GPS denied environment.
12.1AMAN / DMAN 1
Chair:
Track 12
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  10:30 11:00 12.1.1 REAL-TIME CALCULATION AND ADAPTION OF CONFLICT-FREE AIRCRAFT GROUND TRAJECTORIES
L. Nöhren¹, M. Schaper¹, L. Tyburzy¹, K. Muth¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
In this paper an algorithm is presented, which enables calculation and adaption of aircraft surface traffic trajectories in real-time. It is a combination of an A* algorithm and a genetic algorithm and uses a configurable target function to reach specific optimization goals. The paper closes with test results from a simulation of a complex traffic scenario.
  11:00 11:30 12.1.2 DEVELOPING A DEPARTURE QUEUE MODEL TOWARDS INTEGRATED ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE RUNWAY OPERATION
E. Itoh, The University of Tokyo/ENRI, Japan
This study designs a methodology to develop an aircraft departure queue model at a runway using a time-varying fluid queue, which allows us to input actual time-varying takeoff and landing rates at the runway. The proposed model enables us to design an optimal control approach dealing with an integrated arrival and departure air traffic management.
  11:30 12:00 12.1.3 ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF ARRIVAL FLOW AND WAITING TIME APPLYING GT/GI/ST+GI TIME-VARYING QUEUEING MODEL
K. Higasa, The University of Tokyo, Japan
To propose operational strategies to control arrival traffic efficiently, the Gt/GI/st+GI time-varying queueing model, which enables detailed analysis of time-dependent factors, is applied to the actual arrival flow in Japan. The waiting time of entering aircraft in different arrival scenarios is calculated, focusing on the time-varying capacity of airspace and the flight time distribution.
Reserve Paper 12.1.R QUANTUM ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE MANAGEMENT
N Yoshikawa, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Japan
13.1Airworthiness / Certification
Chair: S. R. Conway
Track 13
10 - Safety and Security
  10:30 11:00 13.1.1 LONG TOUCHDOWN THROUGH A SAFETY-II PERSPECTIVE
Reiser, C. Reiser, Embraer S/A, Brazil
Safety-II assumes that individuals and organizations habitually adjust their performance to match current demands, resources, and constraints to compensate the incompleteness of procedures. It suggests that everything happens basically in the same way, despite of the outcome. This paper shows the analysis of aircraft touchdown routine by this perspective, using a customized and quantitative FRAM.
  11:00 11:30 13.1.2 SYSTEM SAFETY-BASED SUSTAINABLE AVIATION FUEL SAFETY ASSESSMENT METHOD AND AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION
S. Ding, Civil Aviation University of China, China
In this paper, we propose a system safety-based SAF safety assessment method. With the system safety as the top-level objective, this method upgrades the similarity check in the certification process from the fuel level to the engine level. The certification process we proposed can effectively improve certification efficiency and unlock fuel potential while maintaining system safety levels.
  11:30 12:00 13.1.3 DECISION LADDER APPLICATION ANALYZING A HELICOPTER EMERGENCY
B.R. Teixeira, Brazilian Air Force Flight Test and Research Instittute, Brazil
This article aimed to analyze how the decision ladder can be used to evaluate emergency situations in aircraft, assist in identifying relevant information, and even improve existing procedures. A case study was conducted based on a real occurrence of an emergency light indicating the presence of metallic particles in a Black Hawk helicopter transmission oil flying in the Amazonian scenario. Based on the decision ladder methodology, it was verified that the occurrence analyzed was not correctly addressed in the flight manual and there would be a need for the inclusion of a new emergency procedure in the flight manual, which would allow the crew to separate a situation of major risk from one of minor risk.
14.1Future Operations
Chair: S. Ying
Track 14
11 - Operations and Sustainment
  10:30 11:00 14.1.1 OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY STUDY OF AIR TAXI SERVICE USING EVTOL
H Takizawa, Suwa University of Science, Japan
The purpose of this study is to investigate the demand with consideration of flight performance of the eVTOL, and discuss the operational feasibility of the eVTOL-based air taxi. The eVTOL station for takeoff and landing, and a business model for operation will be studied by comprehensively taking into account some constraints.
  11:00 11:30 14.1.2 NEW GENERATION SPACE VEHICLE OPERATIONS IN THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES – AN AIRSPACE AND RISK ASSESSMENT
O. Lehmann, Abu Dhabi University, United Arab Emirates
The purpose of this study is to understand in detail how New Generation Space Vehicle Operations could be integrated into a highly dense airspace when operating from and to a United Arab Emirates spaceport. The results show, that the performance of the glider during the return continues to be a challenge for a safe and efficient operation that does not threaten and obstruct other airspace user.
  11:30 12:00 14.1.3 REGIONAL AIR MOBILITY MARKET STUDY
C Y JUSTIN¹, D Mavris¹; ¹Georgia Institute of Technology, United States
Recent years have shown renewed interest in regional air mobility. Efficiency improvements brought by electric powertrains have brought optimism amongst operators. We investigate if technologies and revamped concept of operations are sufficient to re-energize this segment. We quantify the demand for operations from underutilized regional airports and assess the demand for these electric aircraft.
Reserve Paper 14.1.R A GLOBAL APPROACH TO ASSESSING THE CLIMATE RESILIENCE OF AIRPORTS
M P P Osund-Ireland, susteer AB, Sweden
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 14.1.R THE DIONYSUS PROGRAM: 99942 APOPHIS, TRANS-MARS INJECTION AND SPACE LIFT CONSTRUCTION (99942 AT-MIASLC)
A Sanks, United States Air Force Academy, United States
1.2Progress toward sustainable aviation 3 (invited)
Chair: F. Collier
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  14:10 14:40 1.2.1 A ROADMAP TOWARDS AN ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE AVIATION MARKETPLACE
B Loxton, MAGNIX, United States
Different industry players and research organizations have recently joined the challenge towards the
emission?free aviation by 2050. Such cooperation is encompassing experiences and advancements in
various technological fields, including synthetic fuels, hydrogen in gas turbines and hydrogen fuel cells,
revolutionary gas turbine cycles, electric propulsion systems, hybrid?electric, optimized battery systems
and climate?friendly routing. The numerous advantages offered by electric propulsion in particular have
resulted in a dramatic increase in excitement around this concept.
Lower capital cost, lower fuel (or zero fuel) and maintenance costs, decreased noise and air pollution,
improved safety, availability and reliability and enabling solutions for unique aircraft design are among
the benefits of this revolution; however, the realization of the full potential for the electric aircraft market
will require significant advances in motor, inverter and battery technology, with focus on optimizing the
various concepts at system level and on realizing higher power densities.
magniX, established in 2009 as an electric motor R&D company, has designed, developed, and tested
multiple electric motor architectures, topologies, and technologies from superconducting motors to
induction motors to axial flux, radial flux, and more, on its mission to lead the commercial aerospace and
defense industries by providing high performance, reliable and environmentally friendly electric
propulsion solutions (EPU’s).
In 2017, the company designed and built its first aerospace prototype motor, the magni5. By leveraging
and further developing its technology features, magniX has flight?proven the successor to the magni5, a
560kW propulsion system known as the magni500.
The magni500 was designed, built, and tested to be aerospace focused as a complete solution that
includes the electric motor, electric motor inverters, motor controllers,
2.2MDAO 2
Chair: K. Rinoie
Track 2
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  14:10 14:40 2.2.1 MULTIDISCIPLINARY DESIGN OF AN ADVANCED EMPENNAGE AND REAR FUSELAGE CONCEPT FOR A COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT
RC Llamas, Airbus OSL, Spain
Design synthesis and aero-structural optimization of an innovative efficient rear fuselage and empennage concept for a mid-sized commercial aircraft, including experimental validation, numerical studies and overall aircraft integration evaluation. The focus is on improving fuel burn efficiency and manufacturing complexity and evidences are given on the merits of the novel configuration.
  14:40 15:10 2.2.2 AN EFFICIENT SOLUTION FOR AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION WITHIN THE MID-RANGE APPROXIMATION FRAMEWORK
Y ZHANG, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
This paper presented an efficient solution for aerodynamic shape optimization based on the latest developments in the Mid-range Approximation Method (MAM) within a trust-region optimization framework. The proposed method can achieve the design goal successfully for high-fidelity large-scale aerodynamic shape optimization problems with enhanced robustness and efficient performance.
  15:10 15:40 2.2.3 SYSTEMS ARCHITECTING A PRACTICAL EXAMPLE OF DESIGN SPACE MODELING AND SAFETY-BASED FILTERING WITHIN THE AGILE 4.0PROJECT
A.K. Jeyaraj, Concordia University, Canada
This paper introduces an approach of filtering a large design space of system architectures using safety heuristics that will enable the exploration of large design spaces consisting of novel aircraft system architectures. These architectures are modelled using a function based modelling approach that can generate large sets of candidate architectures. The system architecting process is made effective
Reserve Paper 2.2.R EFFICIENT SURROGATE-BASED MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM WITH A NEW ADAPTIVE WEIGHT VECTORS GENERATION
Zuo Lu, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
3.2UAS 1
Chair: J. Mielosszykk
Track 3
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  14:10 14:40 3.2.1 UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE – HUMAN PERFORMANCE EVALUTION UNDER CRITICAL OPERATIONAL SCENARIO
E.T. Thomaz da Silva , Aeronautics Institute of Technology, Brazil
The design of UAS has a paradigm since they are not “flown”, they are commanded by a pilot/operator on a Ground Control Station . At the core of this paradigm there are questions related with Human Machine Interface (HMI). This manuscript discusses the matter and proposes the construction of an HMI prototype that emulate the UAS operation aiming workload and situational awareness optimization
  14:40 15:10 3.2.2 RESEARCH ON THE OVERALL DESIGN OF A HIGH-SPEED MORPHING UAV
C.-D. Ding, China
This paper takes the air-launch high-speed aircraft with the morphing wing as the research object, carries out the overall design research according to the proposed task requirements, forms the calculation method of the overall parameters of the variant high-speed aircraft, and proposes a variable outer wing aerodynamic layout form.
  15:10 15:40 3.2.3 MULTI-DISCIPLINARY OPTIMISATION OF A FUEL-CELL-POWERED EVTOL FIXED-WING CARGO UAV
D. Verstraete, The University of Sydney, Australia
Aerial delivery has gained momentum in recent years. However, delivery range is limited by battery technology. Fuel cells can help overcome this hurdle when integrated correctly. In this article, we compare the performance of the fuel-cell-powered UAV with a baseline battery-powered platform and give a detailed description of the optimised vehicle.
Reserve Paper 3.2.R MULTIDISCIPLINARY DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A LOW OBSERVABLE UAV
M. Shafique, Pakistan
4.2Hypersonic Aerodynamics
Chair: G. Pezzella
Track 4
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  14:10 14:40 4.2.1 LES SIMULATION OF COMBUSTION IN THE STRATOFLY SMALL SCALE FLIGHT EXPERIMENT
C Ibron, FOI, Sweden
This work covers LES simulations of the flow through a hydrogen fueled vehicle using a dual mode ramjet for propulsion. The simulations replicate conditions in a wind tunnel experiment. The analysis is focused on how interaction of compressible flow, thermodynamics and chemistry affect performance and generation of nitrous oxide emissions in the DMR module.
  14:40 15:10 4.2.2 VALIDATION STUDY OF BLUNTED AND SHARP CONES AT HYPERSONIC SPEED
E. K. T. Carias¹, S. A. Prince¹; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
The circular cone shaped nose had been the prime interest of study for high speed aerodynamics for quite some time. It is a fundamental shape at which most general pointed bodies are derived from. Besides from its simplicity, the flow field it produces can be easily studied since the flow is conical in nature. This study aims on invistagating blunted and sharp cones in the hypersonic regime.
  15:10 15:40 4.2.3 AERODATABASE DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF HYPERSONIC CRUISER VEHICLES IN MORE&LESS PROGRAM
P. Roncioni, CIRA, Italy
The European Commission is funding the H2020 MORE&LESS Project (MDO and REgulations for Low boom and Environmentally Sustainable Supersonic aviation), aiming at developing a wide design platform for future supersonic aviation on the base of global environmental regulations. A multi-disciplinary optimization framework to assess the holistic impact of supersonic aviation onto environment is foreseen that can incorporate high-fidelity modelling activities and test campaigns. At first, different disciplines will tackle separate design topics through modelling and tests and then the environmental impact of these aircraft concepts will be evaluated through the holistic framework.
To further extend the validity of theories and models, the entire spectrum of supersonic speed regime ranging from Mach 2 to Mach 5 is considered. Moreover, the analysis is not only restricted to aircraft using traditional hydrocarbon fuels, but it moves beyond, addressing aircraft concepts exploiting alternative fuels, such as biofuels and cryogenic fuels. The idea of considering more case-studies with different configurations, performance and fuels fosters the enhancement of the flexibility of the tools, which, starting from the case-studies, are developed based on modelling activities and test campaigns as products that can be flexible enough to be applied to several future vehicle concepts.
In order to achieve this aim one important activity is the development of the aerodynamic database. This paper deals with the development and integration of increasing-fidelity aerodynamic modelling approaches in the conceptual design of hypersonic cruisers. This methodology foresees the development of aerodynamic aerodatabases by means of incremental steps starting from simplified methods (panels methods and/or low fidelity CFD simulations) up to very reliable data based on high fidelity CFD simulations and experimental measurements with associated confidence levels. This allows us to follow the de
5.2GARTEUR 2 (invited)
Chair:
Track 5
15 - Guest lectures
  14:10 14:40 5.2.1 THE GROUP OF RESPONSABLES “FLIGHT MECHANICS, SYSTEMS AND INTEGRATION”: AN OVERVIEW OF ACTIVITIES AND SUCCESS STORIES
B. Korn, DLR Institute of Flight Guidance, Germany
The GoR-FM is responsible for all research and development subjects starting from the air vehicles and their flight mechanics until their integration into Air Traffic. It covers embedded sensors, actuators, systems and information technology, cockpits, ground control and human integration issues, with reference to automation for both inhabited and uninhabited aircraft.

  14:40 15:10 5.2.2 • THE GROUP OF RESPONSABLES “ROTORCRAFT (GOR RC)”: AN OVERVIEW OF ACTIVITIES AND SUCCESS STORIES
A. Visingardi, CIRA - Italian Aerospace Research Centre, Italy
This paper illustrates the main objectives of the GARTEUR Group of Responsabes "Rotorcraft", formerly Helicopters GoR, since its creation in 1984.
  15:10 15:40 5.2.3 AVIATION SECURITY CONCERNS
A V Vozella, Italian Aerospace Research Centre, Italy
Safety and Security represent two challenges (concerns) for aviation which, though have historically followed two different paths and dynamics, are intrinsically interdependent and nowadays there is a common understanding about the need to harmonize them by design.
This paper will give an overview of the areas which are of greater interest for future research activities, starting from analyzing for safety and security for aviation: the basic concepts, the traditional approaches, the best practices, the lesson learnt and the state of the art for both concerns.
6.2Experimental Investigations on Vortical Flows
Chair:
Track 6
03.2 - Experimental Aerodynamics
  14:10 14:40 6.2.1 STRAKE SECTION IMPACT ON HYBRID-DELTA-WING AERODYNAMICS
D Sedlacek, Technical University of Munich, Germany
Highly-agility aircraft often consist of a nonslender main wing and a slender strake.Thus, two vortices form and interact with each other. In this study, the influence of the strake-length of a triple-delta and a double-delta wing on the vortex systems is analysed. For this investigation, force and moment measurements, particle image velocimetry and oil-flow visualization were conducted.
  14:40 15:10 6.2.2 VOLUMETRIC VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS OF A HELICAL VORTEX PAIR
D. Schröder, Institute of Aerospace Systems, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
The presented work provides valuable insights from a novel experimental study convcerning mutual interactions and instability phenomena of a closely-spaced helical vortex pair. The superordinate goal of the proposed tip design is to minimize the negative effects of concentrated tip vortices in rotor applications, such as BVI for helicopters and unwanted wake characteristics for wind turbines.
  15:10 15:40 6.2.3 CFD AND EXPERIMENTS ON THE DLR-F23 COMBAT AIRCRAFT WIND TUNNEL MODEL
C.-I. Zastrow, DLR, Germany
The combat aircraft wind tunnel model DLR-F23 produces a multi-vortex system that experiences vortex-shock-, vortex-vortex-interactions and vortex breakdown. The flow topologies change throughout the Mach-number and angle of attack regime of the conducted experiments. The unsteadiness of the flow was investigated on, in order to increase the understanding and capabilities in numerical prediction.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 6.2.R INFLUENCE OF TIP DIHEDRAL ON ROTOR AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE AND TIP VOTEX
R. Yao, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
7.2Sustainable design, manufacture and maintenance of aerostructures EASN (invited)
Chair: A. Gustafsson
Track 7
15 - Guest lectures
  14:10 14:40 7.2.1 ASSESSMENT OF THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CIRCULAR ECONOMY PRINCIPLES IN PRODUCING AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
Dionysios Markatos¹, Spiros Pantelakis¹; ¹University of Patras, Greece
Presenter: Dionysios Markatos

The current work aims to contribute to the assessment of the implementation of circularity principles in the production of aircraft structures. To this end, a decision support tool will be implemented to aid decision makers and stakeholders identify and select a recycled material, among alternative ones, that best fit to their preferences and needs.
  14:40 15:10 7.2.2 INVESTIGATION ON INTEGRATING RECYCLABILITY AS A FUNCTION AT THE DESIGN PHASE OF COMPLEX-LOADED STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
A. Filippatos, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany
We consider recycling as a complex, non-mechanical function during the design phase, and its impact on the main structural function of a component by applying the novel spiral development method. The integration of the function is defined and included at the requirements and the design phase. Here, the recycling-as-a-function approach aims to design by meeting the recycling criteria.
  15:10 15:40 7.2.3 SIGMOIDAL SENSING DEVICES FOR MONITORING TO IMPROVE MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS IN AERONAUTICS
H Pfeiffer, KU Leuven, Belgium
This paper presents and intents to stimulate the implementation of “sigmoidal responding sensing devices” for the health monitoring of structures and systems in diverse aircraft segments to essentially avoid problems arising from a too weak “contrast” between actual damage signals and interfering background variations.
8.2Computational Aeroelasticity 2
Chair:
Track 8
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  14:10 14:40 8.2.1 ON THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF WINGS WITH ELECTRIC WINGTIP-MOUNTED PROPULSION
M. Schubert, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
This paper studies the impact of additionally integrated electric wingtip-mounted propellers on the modal parameters and the structural dynamic behaviour on wings of representative 19-seater commuter aircrafts redesigned for electric flight. Aeroelastic and dynamic response analyses of the wing structure are carried out by use of finite element simulation.
  14:40 15:10 8.2.2 XRF1 HIGH LIFT LOAD ANALYSIS OF WING AND HIGH LIFT SYSTEM
S. Pülm¹, V. Handojo¹, R. B. Seidler¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
Presenter: Sven Pülm, German Aerospace Center (DLR)

To investigate the potential of wing load alleviation in cruise flight, the repercussions on take-off, approach and landing are of interest. CFD analysis of XRF1 high lift load cases deliver aerodynamic loads on wing and high lift devices. Using a condensed structural model, the loads are superposed with inertial loads.
  15:10 15:40 8.2.3 AEROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS VIA OPEN SOURCE PROGRAMS
AB Bhambhani, Student at Linköping University, Sweden
This aerostructural analysis investigation case was carried out with open-source tools. The analysis consisted of a high-fidelity aerodynamic simulation and a low-fidelity aerostructural simulation. One involved conventional CFD for 3D cases, while the other involved panel-methods with data transfers for structural understanding of a UAV and its performance.

9.2More / Hybrid / Electric Propulsion 2
Chair: I. Yimer
Track 9
05 - Propulsion
  14:10 14:40 9.2.1 ASSESSMENT OF A SERIAL COOLING CONCEPT FOR HTPEM FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR AVIATION APPLICATIONS
A. Link, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Germany
A serial cooling concept for HTPEMFCs is proposed to reduce system weight for aviation applications by trading liquid coolant mass against fuel cell efficiency and mass. The presented studies across different system parameters of the fuel cell and thermal management system indicate that the proposed concept offers significant weight savings with limited drawbacks in system efficiency.
  14:40 15:10 9.2.2 LITHIUM-ION BATTERY HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND SAFETY RISK MANAGEMENT IN AIRCRAFT WITH ELECTRIC PROPULSION
M.-Y. Yildiz, Erciyes University, Turkey
Safety management of LIB in propulsive system of electric aircraft as a sole onboard source of energy is a must. In this study bow-tie model is applied to assess the risk of LIB operations in electric aircraft to examine how effectively LIB key hazards could be either controlled or mitigated.
  15:10 15:40 9.2.3 DEMONSTRATION FLIGHTS OF HYBRID ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT
P. Bohnert, United Kingdom; S. X. Ying, United States; M. Selier, Netherlands
Due to the need of carbon reductions in the aviation sector, Ampaire, an electric aircraft company, demonstrated regional point-to-point flights with a retrofitted hybrid-electric Cessna 337, showing the ability of hybrid-electric aircraft to operate real-life routes in a distributed aviation system and reduce direct emissions by up to 38%.
10.2UAV Navigation 2
Chair:
Track 11
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  14:10 14:40 10.2.1 FIXED-WING UAVS CONTROL WITH MODEL UNCERTAINTIES
M. R. Kartal, Cranfield University, United Kingdom
This paper proposes a comparison of four different control algorithms (LQR, LQRDO, IBS, and IKBS) against model uncertainties of fixed-wing UAVs. Since model uncertainty is a quite frequent problem, this research will be beneficial for every collaborator of UAVs platforms or even the robotics field.
  14:40 15:10 10.2.2 TERRAIN INFORMATION MEASURE FOR VISION-BASED MAP-REFERENCED NAVIGATION
S. Kim, KAIST, South Korea
In order to predict the performance of vision-based map-referenced navigation, it is important to consider how informative the terrain under the aerial vehicle is. This study proposes a new method for terrain information measure, which can be used to adjust the navigation filters. To demonstrate the effect on navigation performance, simulated flight results will be shown and discussed.
11.2AMAN / DMAN 2
Chair:
Track 12
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  14:10 14:40 11.2.1 MACHINE LEARNING METHODS ENSURING BOTH PERFORMANCE AND INTERPRETABILITY OF ESTIMATING AIRCRAFT ARRIVAL TIMES
N.-M. Morikawa, The University of Tokyo, Japan
To further improve efficiency of runway management, we applied machine learning models to estimate aircraft arrival times using real data in Japan. Various indicators such as SHAP values were introduced to ensure not only the models’ performance, but also interpretability for stakeholders involved in the operation.
  14:40 15:10 11.2.2 APPLYING MACHINE LEARNING FOR TAXI-TIME PREDICTION AT TOKYO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
F Kato, The University of Tokyo, Japan
This study proposes a methodology to apply Machine Learning (ML) methods as possible alternatives to accurately predict taxi-time of departure aircraft from Tokyo International Airport. The experiment demonstrated that random forest regression was able to predict the taxi time with the mean error of about 80 seconds, which is much more accurate than the result of a previous study.
  15:10 15:40 11.2.3 AN AUCTION-BASED MECHANISM FOR A PRIVACY-PRESERVING MARKETPLACE FOR ATFM SLOTS
C. G. Schuetz, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria
In case of reduced capacity of the European air traffic network, the Network Manager initiates a regulation, which typically causes flight delay. The SlotMachine system will allow airspace users to submit preferences regarding the departure times of individual flights, which are then considered during a privacy-preserving optimization run that aims to find an optimal flight list.
12.2Human Factors
Chair: D. Kügler
Track 13
10 - Safety and Security
  14:10 14:40 12.2.1 EXPECTED TEAMWORK ATTRIBUTES BETWEEN HUMAN OPERATOR AND AUTOMATION IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
ÅS Svensson, LFV, Sweden
In air traffic control, teamwork between controllers and automation is a key component to safely direct the aircraft. However, the willingness to accept automation relates to the purpose of the automation. Thus, this study presents how controllers want to work with an automated tool in the future and what qualities the automation should have.
  14:40 15:10 12.2.2 HANDLING QUALITIES RATING SCALE THE IMPACT OF THE PILOT SUBJECTIVITY IN WORKLOAD EVALUATION
Mariane D. Turaça, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
This work evaluates the impact of the pilot subjectivity in the workload evaluation using the Handling Qualities Rating Scale. Some emergency maneuvers were performed by flight test pilots, and the tasks were classified using the Cooper-Harper Scale. Results showed a strong variation in ratings for different pilots performing the same tasks.
  15:10 15:40 12.2.3 PILOT’S ATTENTION DISTRIBUTION MODELING USING HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS
J. Vlk, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
This work is focused on fusion of the eye-tracking data with the flight variables acquired during simulated flight experiments. The flight data itself were collected in a series of experimental flight tasks performed by real pilots with a different level of experience.
Reserve Paper 12.2.R STRESSING SAFETY ASSESSMENT METHODS BY HIGHER LEVELS OF AUTOMATION
L.-P. Meyer, LFV, Sweden
13.2Sustainment Digitalisation
Chair: T. Gulrez
Track 14
11 - Operations and Sustainment
  14:10 14:40 13.2.1 DIGITAL TWIN CAPABILITIES AND CHALLENGES IN THE CONTEXT OF IVHM IN AVIATION
M. Castaño Arranz, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden
The paper discusses capabilities required for maintenance-oriented Digital Tiwns identified within the context of military aviation, and discusses the challenges related to such capabilities. Military aviation is characterized by being a complex geographically distributed system with large and dynamic demands in terms of maintenance to enable mission tactical planning.
  14:40 15:10 13.2.2 OPERABILITY PROJECTION OF MAJOR AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS DURING EARLY AIRCRAFT DESIGN
S. S. Manikar, ISAE Supaero / Airbus, France
Airline profitability depends on many factors; one major factor being the high availability of the aircraft at acceptable cost, which we call ‘operability’. Aircraft operability is one of the most critical criteria for trade-off in early design. This paper proposes a method using Bayesian networks for enabling design trade-off with a high-level definition of the aircraft.
  15:10 15:40 13.2.3 DIGITAL TWIN CONCEPT FOR AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS
H. MEyer, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Germany
Digital twins are one way to develop future intelligent systems. Aviation brings with it very special circumstances, since the majority of the components do not remain in the first aircraft over the life cycle. Many of them are subjected to a maintenance process and then reassembled to another aircraft. In this paper, a digital twin concept is developed for these components.
Reserve Paper 13.2.R DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE AVIATION SOLUTIONS WITH DIGITAL TWIN APPROACH
M. J. Grundström , Tampere university, Finland
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 13.2.R ESTIMATION OF ROTOR IMBALANCE AND MODEL DISCREPANCY USING A BAYESIAN APPROACH
N/A Rameshbabu, Georgia Institute of Technology, United States
1.3Assessment of Unconventional Aircraft Configurations Through MDO (invited)
Chair: K. Rinoie
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  16:00 16:30 1.3.1 A MULTIFIDELITY MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO UNCONVENTIONAL AIRCRAFT DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSMENT WITH APPLICATIONS
D. W. Zingg, University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Canada
We present an approach to the investigation and assessment of unconventional aircraft configurations based on multifidelity multidisciplinary optimization, in particular to the problem formulation, including the choice of disciplines, the associated level of fidelity of the analysis, and the operating requirements. Applications to the strut-braced wing and hybrid wing-body aircraft are presented.
  16:30 17:00 1.3.2 OVERVIEW OF AERODYNAMIC DESIGN ACTIVITIES PERFORMED AT ONERA TO REDUCE AVIATION\'S CLIMATE IMPACT
M. Méheut¹, G. Arnoult¹, O. Atinault¹, Q. Bennehard¹, C. Francois¹; ¹ONERA, France
This paper aims at summarizing the most relevant aerodynamic design activities performed at ONERA on the most promising innovative aircraft and engine integration concepts to reduce Aviation's climate impact. Within different projects of the European Programme Clean Sky 2, ONERA decided to explore two specific aircraft configurations for a typical Small Medium Range (SMR) mission:
• Aircraft concepts :
o The High Aspect Ratio Strut-Braced Wing (HAR SBW) concept in the U-HARWARD project;
o The Blended Wing Body (BWB) concept in the NACOR project) and two innovative engine integration solutions.
• Engine integration technologies :
o The Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI) technology coupled with the BWB concept in the NACOR project;
o The Distributed Propulsion technology in the frame of the ADEC project.

  17:00 17:30 1.3.3 MDAO OF A TRANSONIC TRUSS-BRACED WING VISION VEHICLE
N. A. Harrison, the Boeing Co., United States
MDAO of SUGAR TTBW vision vehicle.
  17:30 18:00 1.3.4 APPLICATION OF AERODYNAMICS AND AERO-STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION FÖR ENERGY EFFICIENT AIRCRAFT
O Brodersen, Germany
APPLICATION OF AERODYNAMICS AND AERO-STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION FÖR ENERGY EFFICIENT AIRCRAFT
2.3Technology Assessment
Chair: S. Bagassi
Track 2
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  16:00 16:30 2.3.1 VALIDATION OF SCALED FLIGHT TESTING
P. Schmollgruber, ONERA, France
In the frame of the European programme Clean Sky 2, a specific activity is dedicated to the validation of scaled flight testing as a viable test mean to derisk new technologies or configurations. The work is divided into a theoretical stream to investigate similarity and an experimental one relying on flights with a demonstrator similar to a known reference aircraft.
  16:30 17:00 2.3.2 TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION FOR FUTURE AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATIONS
D Reckzeh, Airbus, Germany
The recent ambition towards massive emission reduction on future aircraft triggers a range of technical disruptions. Advanced simulation chains and targeted verification approaches are required to demonstrate viability and allow a synergetic integration on overall product level.
  17:00 17:30 2.3.3 MARKET ANALYSIS, TLARS SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY DESIGN INVESTIGATIONS FOR A REGIONAL HYBRID-ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT
V. Marciello, University of Naples "Federico II", Italy
This research work is focused on the description of the workflow implemented to define the Top-Level Aircraft Requirements (TLAR) for a non-conventional 50 pax regional class hybrid/electric aircraft and on the identification of key specifications in terms of on-board energy storage, shaft power level and weight. The work is framed in the context of the CS2 GENESIS Project.
  17:30 18:00 2.3.4 UNMANNED AEW/ISR PLATFORM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT
C Jouannet, Saab Aeronautics, Sweden
This paper presents a case study of a study of an unmanned AEW/ISR platform, where current methods under development at Saab Aeronautics to provide better insight to technology impact and prioritization with respect to a future aircraft programs in aircraft conceptual design . The goal of this work was to test the capabilities and find the boundaries of a new tool for modelling and simulation recently introduced at the Saab. To this end, a typical technology assessment study was crafted as an application case, in which the impact on mission and vehicle performance metrics is assessed when different on-board system architectures and technology clusters are applied. The study was carried out in accordance to the methodology developed at Saab for technology assessment which has been already documented in previous publications
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 2.3.R INVENTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING PRINCIPLES APPLIED TO DECISION-MAKING PROCESS OF PRODUCTS PLATFORM
P.B. Barros Soares, Embraer S.A., Brazil
3.3UAS 2
Chair: J. Mielosszykk
Track 3
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  16:00 16:30 3.3.1 A COMMON FRAMEWORK FOR THE DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF FIXED-WING, MULTICOPTER AND VTOL UAV CONFIGURATIONS
F. Pollet¹, S. Delbecq¹, M. Budinger, ICA, Université de Toulouse, ISAE-SUPAERO, MINES ALBI, UPS, INSA, France; J.-M. Moschetta¹, J. Liscouët, Concordia University, Canada; ¹ISAE-SUPAERO, France
This paper focuses on the multidisciplinary design of multicopter, fixed-wing, and quadplane drones. Lightweight models for drone sizing are proposed and integrated with an optimal design approach. The results are validated with commercially available drones, and a comparative study allows to determine the best configuration to perform a mission.
  16:30 17:00 3.3.2 DEVELOPMENT OF A TURN-KEY, INTEGRATED RAPID DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING ENVIRONMENT FOR SUAS
D. Verstraete, The University of Sydney, Australia
Small unmanned aerial systems (SUAS) are traditionally designed and used for a narrow range of dedicated missions. Our turn-key design and optimisation framework provides a paradigm shift through the delivery of bespoke one-off SUAS tailored to mission-specific needs. Drones can be built in-situ in mobile fabrication labs using rapid manufacturing technology.
  17:00 17:30 3.3.3 DESIGN OF A HALE UAV FOR ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING
V. N. Fernandez-Ayala¹, L. Vimláti¹, A. Matoses Gimenez¹, H. Delmotte¹, M. Ivchenko¹, R. Mariani¹; ¹KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
An electric, fixed-wing HALE UAV is being developed to aid research of high altitude atmospheric phenomena, by carrying imaging equipment above the cloud coverage. This work describes the conceptual design phase of the aircraft, as well as the initial manufacturing and flight testing process of a half-scale prototype.
  17:30 18:00 3.3.4 ENHANCING UAS DESIGN PROCESS FOR SPECIFIC CATEGORY OPERATIONS USING SORA.
R Kalra, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
This paper aims to introduce a novel UAS design process from the manufacturer’s perspective by using specific aspects of the SORA to enhance the design process of the UAS by introducing the necessary design and analysis modifications in both the hardware and software of the UAS, as identified by SORA into the preliminary design phases itself. The SORA as originally intended to be a risk assessment procedure to be performed by the operator of the UAS can prove to be an important and useful tool when carefully integrated into the design process by the UAS designer or the manufacturer. This novel approach proposes to use the recommendations and requirements identified at various stages of SORA as a guiding tool in the initial phases of the UAS design process, thus eliminating the need for major design changes at later stages.


Reserve Paper 3.3.R OPENVSP BASED AERODYNAMIC DESIGN OPTIMIZATION TOOL BUILDING METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION TO TAILLESS UAV
K.-J. Kim, The University of Tokyo, Japan
4.3Actuation Systems
Chair:
Track 4
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  16:00 16:30 4.3.1 MODEL-BASED PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AIRCRAFT ACTUATOR TECHNOLOGIES
F Larsson, Saab Aeronautics, Sweden
This paper intends to demonstrate some of the challenges with selection of technology for aircraft actuation system and ease the process through the proposition of a model-based evaluation methodology. This methodology considers comparison of power consumption and cooling needs of electrified- and hydraulic actuators, and is used to study the suitability of the technologies for a fighter jet.
  16:30 17:00 4.3.2 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INNOVATIVE DIGITAL HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS FOR PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL
V. J. Juliano De Negri, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil
This paper presents a fast and flexible method for evaluating new actuators for primary flight control, using the Aero-Data Model In A Research Environment - Admire, demonstrating the modeling integration with three innovative and highly-efficient actuator designs based on digital hydraulics.
  17:00 17:30 4.3.3 AN EVALUATION METHOD FOR AIRCRAFT ACTUATION SYSTEMS OPERATIONAL COST
K C Reichenwallner, Linköping university, Sweden
This paper will introduce a method for evaluating operational cost with respect to the aircraft actuation system. The method in the paper considers the weights, volumes, power consumption and cooling needs of components closely related to the actuation system. Trade-studies of the above-mentioned quantities is done in a case study involving a highly maneuverable fighter jet.
  17:30 18:00 4.3.4 DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENT HYDRAULIC POWER PACK
L.Z.L. Zanetti de Lima, Liebherr-Aerospace Lindenberg GmbH, Germany
As a first tier supplier, Liebherr-Aerospace faces the ever growing challenge to provide the different airframers with competitive products within a highly competitive and agile business environment. Costs, time-to-market, product maturity, and ramp-up capabilities are certainly driving factors for technology selection, but environmental aspects play a growing role and must be taken into consideration by airframers and suppliers, since they are key criteria for success and customer satisfaction.
The electrification of aircraft systems contributes to the goal of greener air transportation, with reduced emissions and decrease in fuel consumption. Several solutions have to be developed at system level to give airframers the elements necessary to turn the “more electric aircraft” into reality.
Liebherr proposes a high efficient solution to for decentralized hydraulic power generation, providing the airframes the flexibility to place the hydraulic power pack close to the consumers, eliminating long pipe sections between power generation and consumers. Two size of high efficient power packs were conceived, one for large power demand, typically applied for main landing gear retraction/extension system, and one mid-sized pack for primary flight controls consumers placed in the aircraft tail (rudder and elevators). The system works solely on electric power, and thus is an important brick for the electrification of future aircraft.
This paper shows how Liebherr-Aerospace faced the challenge of maturing the solution, bringing our customers a solution with excellent performance while being tailored for high production rates and easy maintenance.

Reserve Paper 4.3.R USING EXISTING HARDWARE IN THE EARLY CONCEPT PHASE OF FLIGHT CONTROL ACTUATION SYSTEM DESIGN
A. Dell'Amico, Sweden
5.3Sustainable Aircraft i (invited)
Chair:
Track 5
15 - Guest lectures
  16:00 16:30 5.3.1 FLYZERO: THE UK VISION FOR ZERO-CARBON EMISSION AIR TRAVEL
D J Debney, Aerospace Technology Institute, United Kingdom
FlyZero is an independent UK study to investigate the options for zero-carbon emission commercial flight. It assessed the sustainability impact, design challenges, operational requirements and market opportunities. It concluded that research into liquid hydrogen aviation should be accelerated in parallel to sustainable aviation fuel research. This paper will outline the findings.
  16:30 17:00 5.3.2 IMPACT OF NASCENT TECHNOLOGIES ON THE SUSTAINABILITY ATTRIBUTES OF AN EVOLUTIONARY SINGLE-AISLE AIRCRAFT
N. J. Allen, Aerospace Technology Institute, United Kingdom
The Single-Aisle Future Aircraft Model (SAFAM) demonstrates the performance benefits achievable through incorporating evolutionary technology improvements on an aircraft with intended EIS of 2035. Although zero emissions aircraft will be crucial to meet environmental goals, ultra-efficient aircraft like SAFAM will also be essential to achieving emissions reduction, combined with the use of SAF.
6.3Composite Damage and Repairs
Chair:
Track 7
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  16:00 16:30 6.3.1 DAMAGE RECOGNITION OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURES BASED ON DOMAIN ADAPTIVE MODEL
Y Yang, Aircraft Strength Research Institute, China
Deep learning can help to improve the guided-wave-based damage detection of composite structures, but it needs a large number of damage samples. Based on a great amount of simulated damage samples and a small number of real ones, a domain adaptive damage identification model is designed to realize the migration from simulated damage detection to real damage detection. Firstly, guided-wave signals of faked damage are collected extensively in the form of mass attachment on to the structure surface, and corresponding deep learning model based on convolutional-timing-sequential hybrid neural network is designed to achieve a high accuracy of damage detection. Secondly, a certain amount of guided-wave signals of real damage are collected, and a domain adaptive module is adopted by the model, which approximates the data distribution law of simulated damage and real dam-age in the feature space. With this framework, the model could detect the real damage without the labelling process in advance, and the experimental results demonstrate the detection accuracy of 85.7%, which is ahead of other traditional deep learning models.
  16:30 17:00 6.3.2 NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOSITE ADVANCED JOINT FOR ULTRA LIGHT AEROSPACE PLATFORMS
A. Polla, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
The proposed research activity has evaluated the elastic and explicit failure behaviour of composite bolted joints subjected to quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. A High fidelity shell-cohesive progressive damage failure analysis (PDFA) method has been applied to numerically reconstruct the physical performances of selected samples based on two different mechanical configurations.
  17:00 17:30 6.3.3 THE ROLE OF 3D STRESS STATE ON THE OHT (OPEN HOLE TENSION) STRENGTH OF THICK-PLY AND THIN-PLY LAMINATED COMPOSITES
C.A. Cimini, UFMG - Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil
The effect of 3D stresses in the behavior of open hole tension (OHT) composite laminates manufactured with thick and thin plies was studied. Specimens, fabricated using unidirectional carbon/epoxy prepreg with two stacking sequences: thick-ply and thin-ply (homogenized) with same angles, were subjected to tensile and open hole tension (OHT) tests. Model predictions and test results were compared.
  17:30 18:00 6.3.4 COMPARISON OF SCARF REPAIR AND SCARF JOINT PERFORMANCE UNDER TENSILE LOAD CONSIDERING THE EFFECT OF STACKING SEQUENCE
S Tashi, Sharif University of Technology, Iran
The current study is meant to investigate the eligibility of scarf joint specimen as a representative for scarf repair by predicting the strength of scarf repair and its equivalent scarf joint using Cohesive Zone Model of Abaqus software. Considering influence of stacking sequence on performance of scarf repair and joint under tensile load, strength of these two models are obtained and compared.
Reserve Paper 6.3.R APPLICATION OF THE VIRTUAL CRACK CLOSURE TECHNIQUE FOR CRACKS IN BUILT-UP PANELS
W. R. P. Mendonca, Embraer S.A., Brazil
Presenter: Willy Mendonca, Embraer S.A.
7.3Aeroelastic Experimental Investigations
Chair:
Track 8
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  16:00 16:30 7.3.1 WIND TUNNEL EXPERIMENT WITH AN EPP-WING TO INVESTIGATE AEROELASTIC EFFECTS OF NONLINEAR ELASTIC STIFFNESSES
K. Bramsiepe, DLR - German Aerospace Center, Germany
The idea of this concept is to modify the linear properties of wing structures to influence the lift distribution for load alleviation.
This work demonstrates the nonlinear elastic characteristics of a wing composed of foam material (EPP) in a wind tunnel test campaign. The degressive nonlinear elastic stiffness reduces the root bending moment of the wing.

  16:30 17:00 7.3.2 DESIGN OF AN INNOVATIVE WING TIP FOR AEROELASTIC CONTROL: FROM SCRATCH TO FLIGHT TEST
F. Toffol, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
The work illustrates the design and test process that led to the manufacturing of an innovative wing tip device in the framework of AIRGREEN2, a Clean Sky 2 platform.
The design involved several disciplines (structure, aerodynamics, actuation). Intermediate wind tunnel models and ground demonstrator provided experimental evidence of the utility of the concept. The item will be flight tested in '23
  17:00 17:30 7.3.3 LONGITUDINAL DYNAMICS IDENTIFICATION OF A FLEXIBLE UAV
P. Fernandes, Brazil
This paper shown an application of the system identification methodology in time domain to a flexible body UAV, restricted to the longitudinal dynamics. To execute the analysis, flights where planned and realized, following the Quad-M method. An instrumentation set that permits the collection of the special data need to the structural motion was applied. The rigid-body stability and control derivatives were estimated using the output error method. Then, the generalized stability and control derivatives that relates to the flexibility, coupling the rigid-body longitudinal dynamics and the structural motion, were obtained.
  17:30 18:00 7.3.4 EVALUATION ENVIRONMENT FOR CASCADED AND PARTLY DECENTRALIZED MULTI-RATE LOAD ALLEVIATION CONTROLLERS
C. Wallace, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
A development environment to evaluate a novel control approach for load alleviation is presented. The control structure includes cascaded and partly distributed gust load alleviation functions. The implemented control loops are processed by the central flight control computer as well as by decentralized and fast Remote Electronic Units which are located close to the control surfaces.
Reserve Paper 7.3.R SOME EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON DYNAMIC AEROELASTICITY OF PLATES AND SHELLS IN SUBSONIC AND SUPERSONIC FLOW.
J. Lübker, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Germany
8.3MDO for Collaborative Propulsion Design
Chair: R. Thomas
Track 9
05 - Propulsion
  16:00 16:30 8.3.1 MULTI-OBJECTIVE DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF SCRAMJET INTAKES USING DEEP LEARNING-ASSISTED EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS
C. Fujio, Kyushu University, Japan
Designing scramjet intakes necessitates sophisticated approaches to deal with hypersonic environments. Multi-objective optimization is useful while they are suffering from substantial computational costs. Deep learning-assisted evolutionary algorithms are presented to reduce computational costs as well as enable the exploration of desired design with deep comprehension of the underlying physics.
  16:30 17:00 8.3.2 A COMPARITIVE ASSESSMENT OF MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMISATION METHODOLOGIES FOR AERO-ENGINE NACELLES
A.E. Swarthout, Cranfield University, United Kingdom
Compact aero engine nacelles may promise to reduce the drag and weight penalties associated with ultra-high bypass ratio turbofans. These nacelles may be sensitive to off design conditions. This paper tests three methods of optmising compact nacelles with windmilling considerations. It demonstrates how to consider different sets of representative flow physics within complex optimisation problems.
  17:00 17:30 8.3.3 KNOWLEDGE-BASED CONCEPTUAL DESIGN METHODS FOR GEOMETRY AND MASS ESTIMATION OF RUBBER AERO ENGINES
J. Häßy, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
A knowledge-based conceptual design method for estimating engine geometry and mass at part level based on thermodynamic cycle data and an advanced parameterization of turbo components utilizing splines is presented. The procedure is validated for a modern geared turbofan and the applicability in the context of MDAO is shown by means of an engine design study.
  17:30 18:00 8.3.4 FAN OPTIMIZATION FOR ULTRA-HIGH BYPASS RATIO TURBOFANS
O.-S. Sjögren, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
Knowing the trade-offs and relationships between critical fan performance parameters early in the conceptual design phase can reduce the risk of sub-optimization on a system level. This study investigates the possibilities to estimate the overall trends of such trade-offs/relationships by using a combination of meta-modelling and throughflow modelling calibrated with CFD data.
Reserve Paper 8.3.R COUPLED AEROPROPULSIVE ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF A HIGH BYPASS TURBOFAN ENGINE
A. H. R. Lamkin, University of Michigan, United States
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 8.3.R MULTIDISCIPLINARY OPTIMIZATION OF COMBUSTION CHAMBER FOR SMALL GAS TURBINE ENGINES
Nhu Van Nguyen, Viettel Aerospace Institute, Viettel Group, Vietnam
9.3Flight Modelling and Simulation 1
Chair: S. Kim
Track 10
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  16:00 16:30 9.3.1 FLIGHT DYNAMICS SIMULATION AND FCS AUTO-GENERATION IN THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN PHASE OF AN UNSTABLE SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT
EJ Johansson, Saab Aeronautics, Sweden
The use of a 6-DOF flight mechanics model with automatically generated control laws is applied to achieve
faster design iterations and to provide early design feedback. Parametrisation of key design features provides
an improved exploration of design trades.
  16:30 17:00 9.3.2 VALIDATION OF A HYBRID LOADS OBSERVER FOR A SUBSCALE TEST AIRCRAFT WITH DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC PROPULSION
O. Luderer¹, F. Thielecke¹; ¹Hamburg University of Technology, Germany
By taking advantage of potential synergy between the propulsion and the wing, distributed propulsion opens the design space for innovative aircraft configurations. Future aircraft also tend to lighter wings & high aspect ratios, increasing the need of inflight load monitoring. In this paper a model-based hybrid load observer for load estimation is extended for aircraft with distributed propulsion.
  17:00 17:30 9.3.3 A BI-LEVEL CO-DESIGN APPROACH FOR MULTICOPTERS
J Mabboux, ISAE Supaero, France
In this paper, a co-design approach for the multirotor is presented with the objective of improving the energetic efficiency. The approach optimizes concurrently the design and the control. In contrast to conventional design approaches that sequentially designs each part, the co-design approach leads to a better optimal solution due to the consideration of the couplings between design and control.
  17:30 18:00 9.3.4 DEEP REINFORCEMENT LEARNING FOR EVTOL HOVERING CONTROL
D.S. Alarcon, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil
This work uses Deep Reinforcement Learning to control the hovering phase of an eVTOL. A 6DoF model of the Airbus Vahana is implemented in OpenAI Gym and the PPO method tested, with different hyperparamters. Then, compared with DDPG, TD3, SAC and a PID controller baseline. The result showed that the PPO was the best method for this task. This work is the first step of full eVTOL control with DRL.
10.3UAV Control and AI
Chair:
Track 11
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  16:00 16:30 10.3.1 ATTENTION-BASED RECURRENT NEURAL NETWORK ASSISTED EXTENDED KALMAN FILTER FOR MANEUVERING TARGET TRACKING
D Won, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, South Korea
In this paper, we consider EKF augmented by attention-based RNN to address the dynamical bias caused by the target maneuver. The maneuvering target tracking architecture based on RNN augmented KF can be accounted for by simultaneous maneuver parameter feedback and state estimation. The process noise error covariance matrix and the measurement uncertainty can be fine-tuned through RNN trained by the filter residual, innovation and gain matrix. The main contribution of this paper is to manifest the feasibility of the data-driven approach for compensating the dynamical model bias caused by target maneuvers based on recurrent neural network assisted extended Kalman filters.
  16:30 17:00 10.3.2 OPTIMAL HOVERING WING KINEMATICS OF FLAPPING-WING MODEL USING REINFORCEMENT LEARNING
H.-H. Yang, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, South Korea
The unsteady vortex method is modified to estimate the contribution of leading-edge vortices and was used to simulate the unsteady aerodynamics of the flapping wing model. The reinforcement learning environment to train flapping wing kinematics is established based on a deep neural network. The optimal hovering wing kinematics that leads to maximum lift and lift/drag ratio is found.
  17:00 17:30 10.3.3 USING DEEP REINFORCEMENT LEARNING TO IMPROVE THE ROBUSTNESS OF UAV LATERAL-DIRECTIONAL CONTROL
Rui Wang¹, Zhou Zhou¹, Zhu Xiaoping¹, Zheng Liming, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Inspired by PID and LQG control method, this paper presents an improved TD3 deep reinforcement learning Lat-Dir flight control law design method. Flight simulations are carried out in the nominal state and deviation state respectively. The results show that the TD3 controller has the advantages of clear physical meaning, simple structure of policy network and strong performance robustness.
  17:30 18:00 10.3.4 PREFLIGHT DIAGNOSIS OF MULTICOPTER ACTUATOR FAULT USING SUPERVISED LEARNING WITH DISTURBANCE OBSERVER OUTPUTS
T.G Kim, Chungnam National University, South Korea
This study proposes a preflight diagnosis method using disturbance observer outputs for health condition monitoring of multicopter actuators faults. While operating multicopters, determining whether it can perform the flight mission or not is essential. For this reason, we use the disturbance observer's output as a feature for diagnose of the fault.
11.3Climate / Environment Impacts
Chair:
Track 12
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  16:00 16:30 11.3.1 IMPROVED CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT FOR GREENER APPROACHES – EVALUATION OF A NOVEL PILOT SUPPORT CONCEPT
T. Bauer, DLR e.V., Germany
Speed and configuration management is the key to carrying out an approach that is not only safe, but as environmentally friendly as possible, minimising fuel / noise. A new operational concept and FMS functionality is developed and evaluated in piloted simulator trials to support the flight crew in this task under fluctuating wind and weather conditions while following individual ATC instructions.
  16:30 17:00 11.3.2 A COMPARISON OF CLIMATE-OPTIMISED AND FUEL-OPTIMISED INTERMEDIATE STOP OPERATIONS FOR SELECTED CASE STUDIES
Z. L. Zengerling¹, F. Linke¹, C. Weder¹, Katrin Dahlmann¹; ¹Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Germany
While increased fuel efficiency from Intermediate Stop Operations has been confirmed in previous research, an optimisation of this operational measure with regards to climate impact is performed in this work. Location of intermediate stop airport and cruise flight level influence both optimising options. Results are compared in terms of flight time, detour, fuel burn, and temperature response.
  17:00 17:30 11.3.3 IMPLICATIONS OF POTENTIAL NEW REGULATORY MEASURES TO ADDRESS AVIATION EMISSIONS
A. Nieto, UPM, Spain
Analysis of the implications of potential new regulatory policies being proposed in the European Union, such as the carbon tax, or the mandatory blending of SAF (on top of the already existing CORSIA or ETS), to address aviation emissions from a technical, operational and economic perspective.
  17:30 18:00 11.3.4 AN ENGINELESS TAXI OPERATIONS SYSTEM USING BATTERY-OPERATED AUTONOMOUS TOW TRUCKS
S. Zaninotto, University of Malta, Malta
This paper will detail the design of an algorithm for taxi operations using autonomous tow trucks. The system will be capable to elaborate conflict-free solutions with minimized delays for aircraft and tow trucks and it will be tested for a large number of scenarios characterized by various features.
Reserve Paper 11.3.R ENVIRONMENTAL-IMPACT ASSESSMENTS AT AIRPORT LEVEL OF CLEAN SKY 2 TECHNOLOGIES
M.J.A. van Eenige, Royal NLR, Netherlands
12.3UAV/UAM
Chair: A. Boucher
Track 13
10 - Safety and Security
  16:00 16:30 12.3.1 A NOVEL METHOD FOR DETECTING UAVS USING PARALLEL NEURAL NETWORKS WITH RE-INFERENCE
K. H. Forsberg, Mälardalen University, Sweden
In this paper, we suggest a method for detecting unmanned aerial vehicles using a parallel architecture consisting of three diverse convolutional neural networks, each with different properties. The system utilizes re-inference to increase detection capability. The results confirm the method works and show major improvements in total accuracy as well as lower mispredictions.
  16:30 17:00 12.3.2 URBAN AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT FOR COLLISION AVOIDANCE WITH UNCOOPERATIVE AIRSPACE USERS
I. Panchal¹, I.C. Metz, German Aerospace Center, Germany; M. Ribeiro, TU Delft, Netherlands; S.F. Armanini¹; ¹TU Munich, Germany
Urban Air Mobility operations are intended to take place at altitudes most frequented by drones and birds. Encounters will be inevitable. This work develops a collision avoidance system for conflict detection and resolution to prevent collisions between Urban Air Mobility vehicles and these uncooperative airspace users.
  17:00 17:30 12.3.3 A HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE ANALYSIS FOR TELEOPERATION OF UAV OVERTIME DELAY
A.G. Sarmento, Aeronautics Institute of Technology, Brazil
This research seeks to present an experiment that aims to analyze the influence of communication delay on pilot workload when operating a UAV. The development of the project was defined with the survey of factors, the creation of a simulator and the answers to be analyzed. The performance analysis will be based on physiological data and the ISA scale.
  17:30 18:00 12.3.4 IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED EMERGENCY LANDING FOR AUTONOMOUS AND AUTOMATED UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES
P. A. Hausmann, Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, Germany
The operation of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) entails serious risks and respective regulations. We have developed an emergency landing operation which aims to offer more security by identifying safe landing spots for both the environment, as well as the drone, using image segmentation.
Reserve Paper 12.3.R EVALUATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF THE POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF BIRD STRIKES IN URBAN AIR MOBILITY
A. Devta¹, I. C. Metz, DLR, Germany; S. F. Armanini¹; ¹Technical University of Munich, Germany
13.3Operations Optimisation
Chair: M. Kelly
Track 14
11 - Operations and Sustainment
  16:00 16:30 13.3.1 THE ALBATROSS PROJECT – A EUROPEAN INITIATIVE TO REDUCE AVIATION’S CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS IN LARGE SCALE
F. Sachs, DLR, Germany
The paper presents methodology used and results obtained by the ALBATROSS Project. The focus of the ALBATROSS project is to reduce fuel burn of commercial aviation flights by close collaboration of all stakeholders. ALBATROSS is a very large demonstration (VLD) that is performed for city pairs and gate to gate operations across Europe.
  16:30 17:00 13.3.2 ZERO-EMISSION REGIONAL AVIATION IN SCANDINAVIA
R. T. Sorrentino, Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory, United States
A modeling environment is implemented in Scandinavia and allows for an environmental assessment of various scenarios regarding technology advancements, paradigm shifts in powertrain configurations, new transportation policies, and emission offsetting schemes with the aim to inform technologists and decision-makers about viable and sustainable paths for new regional air operations.
  17:00 17:30 13.3.3 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE ARRIVAL OPERATIONS IN TERMINAL AREA
H Hardell, Linköping University, Sweden
In this work, we split the arriving air traffic into different clusters, for which we analyse the horizontal and vertical flight efficiency and relate it to the additional fuel burn. In addition, we study the impact of different factors, such as weather and traffic intensity. We suggest that such a targeted per-flow analysis helps to understand the sources of fuel inefficiencies within TMA.
  17:30 18:00 13.3.4 AERODYNAMIC INVESTIGATION OF VERY CLOSELY FLYING FIGHTERS TO DEVELOP NEW FORMATION TYPES
S.M. Aydin, Yildirim Beyazit University, Turkey
Aerodynamic analysis targeted for the development of a new close flight formation with the minimum distance between the 4th Generation Fighters that will turn the opponents' target distribution problem of radar systems against close flight formation into an advantage against new generation fighters increase the Survivability and Lethality factors in BVR engagement at operational environment.
Reserve Paper 13.3.R DATA-DRIVEN APPROACH TO OPTIMAL AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
C.O Okoro, National Aviation University, Ukraine
1.4Next Steps Towards Certification by Analysis (invited)
Chair: R. Wahls
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
2.4Artificial Intelligence Application
Chair: K. Rinoie
Track 2
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  10:30 11:00 2.4.1 AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION OF CRM WING VIA DEEP LEARNING-ASSISTED GENETIC ALGORITHM
M. A. Hariansyah, Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Japan
A large-scale wing shape optimization is characterized by its high dimensionality, making gradient-free population-based methods such as genetic algorithm (GA) unpopular in the field. We address this issue by incorporating deep learning techniques to assist a GA called NSGA-II and demonstrate the method by solving lift-constrained drag minimizations of the Common Research Model wing.
  11:00 11:30 2.4.2 SUCCESSIVE KNOWLEDGE BUILDUP AND TRANSFER DURING THE ANALYSIS OF SCALED UAV WINGS BY MEANS OF MACHINE LEARNING
T. Klaproth, Technical University of Munich, Germany
We provide formulas for scaling factors to estimate higher-fidelity results from low-fidelity methods. We demonstrate succesful correction of semi-empiric formulas that are intended for other aircraft classes. We explore the potential for knowledge buildup and transfer within an automated design optimization loop. We show an approach that avoids unquestioned imitation of higher-fidelity aero data.
  11:30 12:00 2.4.3 AIRCRAFT DESIGN PARAMETER ESTIMATION USING DATA-DRIVEN MACHINE LEARNING MODELS
S Shin, Seoul National University, South Korea
This research presented the validity of applying a data-driven approach to the aircraft initial sizing problem. The limitations of the existing methods are overcome by using machine learning techniques. K-nearest neighbors algorithm and Variational autoencoder were used in this study for the imputation of the incomplete aircraft data. Both of the models have successfully estimated target values.
3.4Unconventional Configurations 2
Chair: P. Schmollgruber
Track 3
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  10:30 11:00 3.4.1 EXPLORATION OF BOX-WING CONCEPT USING AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION
P.-D. Bravo-Mosquera, University of São Paulo, Brazil
This paper discusses the application of aerodynamic shape optimization of a box-wing concept based on RANS equations. A lift-constrained drag optimization problem is presented. The results demonstrate the potential of the box-wing concept, and the importance of high-fidelity tools towards the design of novel configurations that can lead to reduced fuel burn and carbon emissions
  11:00 11:30 3.4.2 CONCEPTUAL STUDY OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC BOX-WING AIRCRAFT TOWARD THE REDUCTION OF AVIATION EFFECTS ON LOCAL AIR QUALITY [..]
V. Cipolla, University of Pisa, Italy
Presenter: Karim Abu Salem, University of Pisa, Dep. of Civil and Industrial Engineering

The development of hybrid-electric aircraft with box-wing airframe aims to mitigate the impact of aviation on both local air quality and climate change. This research describes the environmental benefits of integrating hybrid-electric propulsion, which provides reductions in fuel consumption, with the greater aerodynamic efficiency of a box-wing lifting system.
  11:30 12:00 3.4.3 MULTIDISCIPLINARY DESIGN ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION PROCESS DEDICATED TO BLENDED WING BODY CONFIGURATIONS
J Gauvrit Ledogar, ONERA - The French Aerospace Lab, France
Since 2015, ONERA develops a dedicated multidisciplinary design analysis and optimization process to explore in depth the potential benefits of the Blended Wing Body configuration. The results obtained confirm the good performance expected for such new aircraft configuration, mainly through the reduction of the required fuel weight.
Reserve Paper 3.4.R TRANSONIC TRUSS-BRACED WING DEMONSTRATOR OVERVIEW
C. K. Droney, Boeing, United States
4.4Reduced Order Models
Chair: Z. Gao
Track 4
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  10:30 11:00 4.4.1 EFFICIENT UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION VIA MULTI-FIDELITY POLYNOMIAL CHAOS-KRIGING METAMODELLING TECHNOLOGY
Zhao Huan, Sun Yat-Sen University, China; Gao Zhenghong¹, Xia Lu¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Presenter: Huan ZHAO, SUN YAT-SEN UNIVERSITY

Surrogate model has been extensively employed in uncertainty-based design optimization for computationally expensive engineering problems. However, it often causes great difficulties to designers due to the unsatisfactory accuracy and the high sensitivity of surrogate prediction in presence of uncertainties. Worse still, some popular metamodeling methods also require a substantially higher computational cost than that in deterministic design to get an acceptable accuracy. To address these challenging problems, an efficient multi-fidelity polynomial chaos-Kriging (MF PC-Kriging) metamodeling technique is proposed. The developed metamodel first builds a PC-Kriging metamodel using low-fidelity evaluations to provide a model trend. Then, the MF PC-Kriging method utilizes a few HF computations to correct the low-fidelity PC-Kriging metamodel by using a comprehensive correction form. An adaptive leave-one-out cross-validation procedure is devised to select the optimal correction expressions for the optimal MF PC-Kriging metamodel. The developed methodology is examined by investigating an analytical function and a transonic aerodynamic application with both geometrical and operational uncertainties. It turns out that the proposed method is more efficient and provides better performance when compared with the universal Kriging and PC-Kriging methods. These results further demonstrate that the developed methodology is very efficient for uncertainty quantification in the highly nonlinear and multimodal landscape.
  11:00 11:30 4.4.2 WING BUFFET PRESSURE LOAD PREDICTION BASED ON A HYBRID DEEP LEARNING MODEL
R. Zahn¹, A. Weiner, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany; C Breitsamter¹; ¹Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany
A hybrid deep learning model based on a convolutional autoencoder and a long short-term memory neural network is applied for the prediction of transonic wing buffet pressure loads on the Airbus XRF-1 configuration. For training the hybrid model, experimental data is used. The model is applied for the prediction of varying buffet conditions, aiming to reduce expensive experimental investigations.
  11:30 12:00 4.4.3 MACHINE LEARNING FOR AERODYNAMICS PREDICTION
Rodrigo Castellanos¹, Alejandro Gorgues¹, Jaime Bowen¹, Esther Andrés¹; ¹INTA, Spain
Presenter: Rodrigo Castellanos, INTA

In this paper, the potential of machine learning techniques for the aerodynamics prediction of industrial-relevant aircraft configurations has been assessed. This is relevant for the aeronautic industry since CFD solvers are computationally expensive and machine learning methods can be very useful in certain situations, for instance inside an optimization process.
Reserve Paper 4.4.R APPLICATION OF DEEP ENSEMBLES TO QUANTIFYING PREDICTIVE UNCERTAINTY IN AERODYNAMIC DATA
S.W. Yang, South Korea
5.4Wing Transition Control
Chair: E. Stumpf
Track 5
03.3 - Basic Fluid Dynamics and Flow Control
  10:30 11:00 5.4.1 TRANSITIONAL FLOW MODELLING OF A HYBRID LAMINAR FLOW CONTROL AND VARIABLE CAMBER TRANSONIC TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT WING
M. M. Jentys, Technical University of Munich, Germany
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results and modelling approaches, considering transitional flow around an aircraft wing with a combined hybrid laminar flow control and variable camber system are presented in this contribution. The goal of the combination is an increase in aerodynamic efficiency, which is reflected by the CFD results using correlation based transition turbulence models.
  11:00 11:30 5.4.2 REACTIVE CONTROL OF BYPASS TRANSITION IN A WING BOUNDARY LAYER
J.M. Faundez Alarcon, KTH, Sweden
This investigation deals with the numerical implementation of a data-driven method for reactive control in a NACA0008 boundary-layer. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of the controller in damping the flow disturbances and the effect that this has on decreasing the skin-friction by maintaining a laminar flow.
  11:30 12:00 5.4.3 DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE EFFECTS OF ROTATION ON A THICK AIRFOIL
T. Coelho Leite Fava, KTH, Sweden
Direct Numerical Simulations of a rotating airfoil at Re=100,000, several angles of attack, and rotation speeds were performed. Rotation increased the reversal flow during separation and postponed the reattachment and transition. Lift was reduced, and drag was increased by rotation. Higher angles of attack and stronger separation enhanced the rotation effects.
6.4Aerofoil Performance Studies
Chair:
Track 6
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  10:30 11:00 6.4.1 ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF FLOW TRANSITION OVER THE WINGS OF THE BLADE DEMONSTRATOR
R. Larsson, Saab Aeronautics, Sweden
This paper describes the Saab flow transition analysis of a BLADE flight-test. It shows the methods and results based on geometries and transition lines given by AIRBUS and DLR. The Saab wing concept has a potential to reduce the total drag with about 9 % for typical A320 like aircraft.
  11:00 11:30 6.4.2 TO CFD OR NOT TO CFD? COMPARING RANS AND VISCOUS PANEL METHODS FOR AIRFOIL SHAPE OPTIMIZATION
E. J. Adler, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, United States
Using RANS CFD and a viscous panel method, we show the effect of aerodynamic analysis method selection on optimized aerodynamic shapes and the consequences of choosing one that does not capture the relevant flow physics. Our results provide aerodynamicists with the data and intuition to make informed decisions when selecting analysis methods for optimization.
  11:30 12:00 6.4.3 PUSHER PROPELLER INFLUENCE ON A LAMINAR WING TRANSITION LOCATION USING INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY
J.P Eguea, University of São Paulo, Brazil
The impact of a pusher propeller on a laminar wing boundary layer transition position are being investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. The results will bring a better understanding of this interaction, enabling a discussion on the concept impact on aircraft performance and contribution for making a greener aviation.
7.4Emerging Material Processes
Chair:
Track 7
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  10:30 11:00 7.4.1 EFFECT OF NITRIDING ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ON A TI64 ALLOY FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS
S. Stekovic, Linköping University, Sweden
Titanium is very strong in relation to its low weight making it very interesting for lightweight applications. However, use of titanium in certain aircraft components is limited as it is a relatively soft metal that quickly deteriorates when mechanically stressed. A nitriding heat treatment was developed for Ti64 with aim to improve wear properties without negative effect on fatigue and strength.
  11:00 11:30 7.4.2 FBG FIBER OPTICS BONDING FATIGUE CHARACTERIZATION
A. Brindisi, CIRA, Italy
To assess the capabilities of the sensor gluing and to verify the strain transmission conditions from the structure to the FBG sensor through the bonding layer (BL) during the operational phases of a landing gear, fatigue test campaign on the BL itself has been performed and results are here discussed.
  11:30 12:00 7.4.3 MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A COMPOSITE STRUCTURAL BATTERY LAMINATE
G. di Mauro, Università degli studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy
Recently, ambitious targets have been set out in various branches of transportation sector to restrict pollutant emissions and to combat climate change and environmental degradation. In this frame, with specific reference to the aeronautic field, new designs including electric or hybrid-electric powertrains propulsion systems penalize battery characteristics, especially in terms of limited energy and power density performances, in turn imposing an increase of the machine weight. Structural batteries (SB) constitute an interesting technology, with the potential to alleviate such problems.
In the literature, structural batteries can be classified into different categories depending on their degree of structural integration. Starting from a side-by-side combination of a structural element and a conventional battery (zero degree of integration) in a fully integrated system, in which the structural element also acts as an energy accumulator, a common classification of structural batteries is based on the integration parameter structural. The class including the integrated thin-film energy storages is not fully considered, as this approach is not expected to yield high enough energy densities for a meaningful contribution to the overall energy needs of an aeronautical vehicle. Furthermore, structural batteries are further divided into two categories: multifunctional structures (or decoupled systems) and multifunctional materials (or coupled systems). In the first case different materials within the structural battery perform a single function (either energy storage or load bearing), however the overall composite is multifunctional, whereas in the latter all materials adopt multiple functions (i.e. energy storage and load bearing). Multifunctional structures are best known as type-I and type-II, whereas multifunctional materials are usually named type-III and type-IV structural batteries. Although higher mass savings are predicted for high degrees of structural integra
8.4Morphing 1
Chair:
Track 8
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  10:30 11:00 8.4.1 THE DESIGN, PRODUCTION AND TESTING OF A LAMINAR FLOW WING LEADING EDGE
O. Steffen, German Aerospace Center, DLR, Germany
A multi-material leading edge for the NLF wing was designed, produced and tested in a 2.3 m span ground based demonstrator by DLR as part of the Clean Sky 2 programme. Being tested under cruise flight deformations, the design proofed to comply with NLF step height requirements between leading edge and wing upper cover and to be interchangeable without rework.
  11:00 11:30 8.4.2 TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF COMPLIANT TRAILING EDGE AIRFOIL WITH A PATH-FOLLOWING EQUILIBRIUM SOLUTION
C. E. de Souza, Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil
This work discusses the design of compliant trailing edge airfoil using topology optimization techniques through nonlinear equilibrium and neo-hookean material model.The problem considers the maximization of trailing edge displacement.To surpass instabilities in nonlinear stress-based optimization of compliant mechanisms, a strategy combining Newton-Raphson and arc-length procedures is proposed.
  11:30 12:00 8.4.3 MORPHING FORWARD WING SECTION SKIN DESIGN FOR A SAILPLANE CONSIDERING WING BENDING
F. Sturm, Germany
To increase aerodynamic performance of a sailplane, a morphing forward wing section and a flap can be applied. A composite skin is designed to achieve desired airfoil shapes for cruise and slow flight. A modelling approach which considers spanwise wing bending is shown, as this influences the elastic behavior of the morphing skin. With that, a parameter study of the laminate properties is done.
Reserve Paper 8.4.R EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF A PRE-STRESSED TENSEGRITY MEMBRANE
P.R.G. Kurka, UNICAMP, Brazil
9.4Supersonic / Hypersonic Propulsion
Chair: S. Remy
Track 9
05 - Propulsion
  10:30 11:00 9.4.1 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONCEPTUAL DESIGN TOOL TO PREDICT PERFORMANCE OF HYDROGEN FUELLED PRECOOLED AIRBREATHING ROCKET ENGINES
G. Grimaldi, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
For new propulsive architectures, such as precooled air-breathing rocket engines, no propulsive prediction models for a conceptual design phase are available. In this work, different models of increasing complexity are developed and validated based on SABRE by Reaction Engines Limited, showing good agreement with the available data published by the company.
  11:00 11:30 9.4.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION OF RAMJET TO SCRAMJET TRANSITION
- Fureby, Lund University, Sweden
To develop airbreathing hypersonic flight systems knowledge about the reacting flow physics in the transition regime between ramjet and scramjet modes is needed. Reacting Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the direct-connect ram-scramjet experiment by Fotia & Driscoll [J. Prop. Power, 28, 83] will here be described. The LES results and the experimental data will here be compared and jointly analyzed.
  11:30 12:00 9.4.3 AEROPROPULSIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HYPERSONIC CRUISER VEHICLE IN STRATOFLY PROJECT
P. Roncioni, CIRA, Italy
The H2020 STRATOFLY Project is a highly-multidisciplinary project co-funded by the European Commission that combines technological and operative issues for hypersonic civil aircrafts and aims to study the feasibility of high-speed passenger stratospheric flight. The main objectives were to refine the design and the concept of operations of the former LAPCAT-II MR2.4 vehicle, and to reach the ambitious goal of TRL=6 by 2035 for the concept, considering that the crucial technologies of STRATOFLY MR3 vehicle may represent a step forward to reach the goal of future reusable space transportation systems, drastically reducing transfer time (i.e. antipodal flights in less than two to four hours), emissions and noise, and guaranteeing the required safety levels. STRATOFLY MR3 vehicle presents a highly integrated structure which is characterized by a complex waverider configuration with dorsal mounted propulsive subsystem. Aerodynamic forces and propulsive thrust are strictly interdependent and need to be calculated with complete simulations that consider both external and internal flow path and in addition the detailed combustion process and the pollutants emission.
In this framework an aeropropulsive characterization of the MR3 hypersonic cruiser configuration was conducted in order to mainly compute and verify the amount of thrust required at cruise conditions (Mach=8). In order to do this both engineering tools (SPREAD) and detailed CFD computations have been conducted and several configurations of the combustion chamber have been analyzed. In particular, the aim of the present activity has been the aerodynamic characterization of the isolator part of STRATOFLY combustion chamber for what concerns its effect on the combustion process and, in particular, the possible back interaction with the air flow capturing operated by means of the intake part and, in general, to verify the correct capturing of air flow. This has been characterized by simulating a configuration tha
10.4Flight Modelling and Simulation 2
Chair: X. Zhang
Track 10
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  10:30 11:00 10.4.1 A MULTIPLE MODEL ADAPTIVE ESTIMATOR FOR AIRCRAFT AERODYNAMIC PARAMETER AND THRUST DEVIATION IDENTIFICATION
D. Ding, China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, China
Accurate measurement of engine thrust is difficult during the real flight of aircraft. The thrust measurement deviation introduces uncertainty to the estimation results of aerodynamic characteristics parameters. Therefore, a multiple model adaptive estimator based on an unscented Kalman filter is proposed in this paper to estimate the thrust measurement deviation and aerodynamic parameters simultaneously. Flight scenario and Monte Carlo simulations are utilized to validate and evaluate the proposed method. The results illustrates that the algorithm is an efficient and feasible method to deal with the aerodynamic parameter identification problem under the thrust measurement bias.
  11:00 11:30 10.4.2 DESIGN OF A TYPICAL MANEUVERING PROCESS SIMULATION TEST CONTROL SYSTEM WITH CONTROLLABLE RUDDER SURFACE
J.-F. Wang, China; H. Tan, China; H. Chen, China; S. Feng, China; M.-H. Wang, China
In the real-time system, the single-axis high-precision control and multi-axis synchronous control are realized through PID combined with fuzzy control theory, and the design of typical maneuvering course simulation test system with controllable rudder surface is completed?
  11:30 12:00 10.4.3 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF NOISE ABATEMENT APPROACH TRAJECTORIES
E. M. Thoma, Chalmers, Sweden
The study focuses on the evaluation of noise abatement approach operations and their environmental impact. The assessment starts from some standard trajectories, namely the Continuous Descent Approach and the Low-Drag-Low-Power and the aim is to look into more advanced procedures, such as the Steep Approach and optimized trajectories. The procedures are designed for an A321neo and compared and evaluated for noise and emissions, using empirical and semi-empirical correlations. It is indicated that multidisciplinary design and adaptation to specific conditions are required for the assessment of these interdependencies for flight procedures. It will, furthermore, be demonstrated that trajectory optimization can result in significant improvement when aiming to minimize emissions and noise for specific areas, e.g. communities around the airport.
11.4UAV Navigation 3
Chair:
Track 11
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  10:30 11:00 11.4.1 PREPARATORY RESEARCH FOR UAM COLLISION AVOIDANCE USING ADSB
S.M. Ahn, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, South Korea
In order for UAVs to share airspace with pilot-on-board aircraft, it is necessary to accommodate the flight rules including collision avoidance. A five-year project has been completed as preparatory research for UAM. A two-seat airplane has been modified to a UAV. The flight test results show that a UAV system with collision avoidance capability based on ADSB has been successfully developed.
  11:00 11:30 11.4.2 SAFE REINFORCEMENT LEARNING BASED MULTIROTOR COLLISION AVOIDANCE WITH UNEXPECTED OBSTACLES
H. Ahn, KAIST, South Korea
This paper suggest the safe RL for a quadrotor collision avoidance. The main contribution of this paper are 1) introducing the convex safety filter to guarantee the non-collision flight with RL framework, and 2) using simplified depth image to make easier application of the RL framework generated through the simulation to the real world, and to reduce the calculation time.
  11:30 12:00 11.4.3 INVESTIGATION OF SIMULATION FRAMEWORKS FOR THE EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED FLIGHT FUNCTIONS FOR EVTOL AIRCRAFT
Y Lemmens, Siemens Digital Industries Software, Belgium
This study investigated and demonstrated a simulation framework that can be used to evaluate automated flight functions. The framework coupled Siemens Simcenter® software with the ROS-framework and hence can interact with its toolboxes. Multiple scenarios with the PX4-Avoidance algorithm were simulated in order to evaluate the functioning of the framework.
12.4Navigation
Chair:
Track 12
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  10:30 11:00 12.4.1 DESIGN OF ELECTRONICALLY PHASE-TUNING REFLECTARRAY ANTENNA FOR AIRBORNE RADAR APPLICATION
G.-K Kong, Chengdu Aircraft Industrial (Group) Co., Ltd, China
A electronically phase-tuning airborne radar reflectarray antenna is proposed in this paper. The antenna is based on variable capacitor, which can improve the beam-scanning speed of airborne radar antennas. The electronically phase-tuning airborne radar reflectarray antenna is designed in a sandwich form with faster phase-tuning speed. The antenna will be an good candidate for airborne radar.
  11:00 11:30 12.4.2 SMART SKIN FOR AEW AIRCRAFT
Prabhat Khanal, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Per Hallander¹, Ruoshan Luo¹; ¹Saab AB, Sweden
A multifunctional fuselage structure has been developed. It provides the structural integrity necessary for smaller aircraft and permits the transmission of high-power microwave radiation characteristics for long-range surveillance radars. In particular, the solution permits a straightforward integration and allows for a curvature that improves buckling performance.
  11:30 12:00 12.4.3 CERTIFICATION ASPECTS OF AN EARTH OBSERVATION PAYLOAD INSTALLED ON COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT
R. Lopez Pereira, Safran Engineering Services GmbH, Germany; L. Rammos, Skyflox Sarl, Luxembourg
The use of commercial transport aircraft as platform for carrying Earth Observation equipment is an innovative use of the existing aviation infrastructure. The challenges of developing a system with as little operational interference as possible to regular operation – have made the development and certification process of the ORCA project one of a kind.
Reserve Paper 12.4.R CALVERT AND PAPI LIGHT SYSTEM USED FOR AN AUTOMATIC APPROACH AND LANDING
T. R. Rogalski, Rzeszow University of Technology,, Poland
13.4Safety / Security
Chair: G. Weber
Track 13
10 - Safety and Security
  10:30 11:00 13.4.1 TECHNICAL CONCEPTS FOR INSPECTING UAVS FOR DAMAGE
J. Eltgen, InstituteofAircraftProductionTechnology,HamburgUniversityofTechn, Germany
In this work, we analyzed motion and sensor concepts to investigate highly automated pre-flight check methods for vehicles in unmanned urban air mobility. This can be done in two steps. First a holistic scan of the drone with a camera with two ring lights for the illumination. Then a more specific inspection of the parts where failures detected by the camera with white light interferometry.
  11:00 11:30 13.4.2 LOCALIZATION OF INTERROGATORS WITH A 1030/1090 MHZ SPECTRUM MONITORING SYSTEM
Luciano Sarperi¹, Michael Jäger¹, Pascal Müller¹, Michael Felux¹; ¹ZHAW, Switzerland
We present a new method for localizing rotating, directional interrogators based on aircraft interrogator replies, which compared to previous work only requires the reception of aircraft transponders using one receiver on the ground. The data used was obtained with a proof-of-concept implementation of a distributed 1030/1090 MHz Spectrum Monitoring System based on Software-Defined Radios (SDRs).
  11:30 12:00 13.4.3 A FEDERATED LEARNING BASED SECURITY FOR CONTROLLER-PILOT DATA LINK COMMUNICATION
A Gurtov, Linköping University, Sweden
As the CPDLC protocol enables communications between air-ground networks, it opens an immense attack vector between the controller and pilot. This paper proposes a federated learning (FL) base security model for communication in aviation networks. Note that the focus of our scheme is to secure CPDLC from various cyber-attacks.

1.5Wake Impact Severity Assessment (WISA) for arrivals and departures as part of SESAR 2020 Wave 2 (invited)
Chair: M. Langer
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  14:00 14:30 1.5.1 DYNAMIC PAIRWISE WAKE VORTEX SEPARATIONS FOR ARRIVALS USING PREDICTIVE MACHINE LEARNING MODELS
L Frigerio¹, I De Visscher, Wake Prediction Technologies (WaPT)), Belgium; G Stempfel¹, R Barragan Montes², C Chalon Morgan²; ¹Euranova, Belgium ;²EUROCONTROL, Belgium
Presenter: Lorenzo Frigerio, Euranova

The potential encounter of wake vortices from a preceding flight is at the origin of the wake separation minima between aircraft on the final approach. The Dynamic Pairwise Wake Separation for Arrivals concept has been developed in order to safely reduce, when possible, wake separation minima between consecutive arrivals based on wake risk monitoring through the use of machine learning techniques.
2.5More Electric Aircraft
Chair: M. Padulo
Track 2
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  14:00 14:30 2.5.1 MORE ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT (MEA) SCALING ASPECTS AND WEIGHT IMPACT
E. Holmgren, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
This paper is about investigating the fuel consumption of passenger aircraft with conventional bleed-air driven Environmental Control System (ECS) and aircraft with equivalent electrical systems. A framework has been developed in MATLAB to run simulations under various conditions to study the passenger-scaling effect and impact of subsystem weight.
  14:30 15:00 2.5.2 SIZING AND OPTIMIZATION OF A MORE ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT INTEGRATING SHORT-TERM INCREMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES
T. Planès, ISAE-SUPAERO, France
This paper focuses on the sizing and optimization of a short-medium range aircraft architecture incorporating technological improvements available by 2030. FAST-OAD, an open source framework for overall aircraft design is used to size the architecture. Different optimizations are achieved and a life cycle assessment module is used to analyze the environmental performance of the aircraft.
  15:00 15:30 2.5.3 IMPLEMENTATION OF WING ICE PROTECTION SYSTEM IN MORE ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT TECHNOLOGIES
D. Haldar, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
More Electric Aircraft (MEA) technologies aim at reducing greenhouse gas emissions to make local and global air transport easier. This paper discusses the development of a tool to evaluate the Wing Ice Protection System (WIPS) power and fuel consumption of MEA airliners of any size and flight configuration.
3.5Supersonic and Hypersonic Aircraft 1
Chair: J. Melkert
Track 3
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  14:00 14:30 3.5.1 AEROSHAPE AND TRAJECTORY DESIGN OF NEXT GENERATION RE-ENTRY VEHICLES
- Montella, University of Campania, Engineering Department., Italy
The paper deals with the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of a next generation re-entry vehicle. Several MDO techniques are considered to determine the optimal aeroshape able to perform a re-entry flight characterized by prescribed levels of convective heat flux. Optimization is formulated minimizing the total integrated thermal load, with an assigned maximum peak heating. The optimal aeroshape is provided and its aerodynamic performance are detailed.
  14:30 15:00 3.5.2 A RAPID DESIGN METHOD FOR QUIET SPIKE OF SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT
Z.-W Zhang, China
Aiming at reducing severe sonic boom raised by supersonic aircraft, this paper proposes a new design method of quiet spike. Compared with the traditional method, one can obtain a quiet spike shape rapidly by using this method, and it can be applied to engineering.
  15:00 15:30 3.5.3 CONCEPT DESIGN OF A LOW BOOM SSBJ TO SATISFY SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY
- Horinouchi, SuperSonic Jet Planning Inc., Japan
Issues on environmental impact and cost-effectiveness against supersonic aircraft would become more and more stringent requirement. The material provides an outlook for the light/mid class supersonic business jet “SSJP-1” designed for low-boom supersonic cruise over-land capability coping with environment and economic issues at the same time.
4.5Aerodynamic Optimization
Chair: G. Pezzella
Track 4
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  14:00 14:30 4.5.1 ADJOINT SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF TIME DEPENDENT FLOWS WITH RESPECT TO NON-GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS
T. S. Privato, University of São Paulo, Brazil
This work extends the use of a continuous adjoint method for doing sensitivity analysis of incompressible flows with respect to non-geometrical parameters to time dependent systems, with time dependence either imposed by boundary conditions or appearing as a consequence of the system dynamics. The adjoint results are compared against those obtained by finite-differences in a variety of cases.
  14:30 15:00 4.5.2 POWER, COMPRESSION AND EFFICIENY: A BLADE PROFILE PARAMETRIC STUDY ON MULTI-STAGE AXIAL COMPRESSOR
A Koksal, Turkey
This paper focuses on adjustable geometries of blade profiles in High Pressure Compressor (HPC) stages and flow path between Low Pressure Compressor (LPC) and High Pressure Compressor (HPC) to investigate their effect on the compressor pressure rise.
  15:00 15:30 4.5.3 AUTOMATIC FREE-FORM DEFORMATION AS GEOMETRIC PARAMETERIZATION FOR AERDYNAMIC DESIGN
M. A. L. Matunaga, ITA, Brazil
An automatic Free-Form Deformation algorithm is presented in order to parameterize aeronautical configurations of interest. Results for 2-D and 3-D problems, for different aerodynamic parameters, such as, dihedral, span, sweep, twist and wing shape, are presented. The present tools can help engineers understand how FFD methods can be employed for aerodynamic shape optimization studies.
5.5Boundary Layer Stability
Chair: S. Fu
Track 5
03.3 - Basic Fluid Dynamics and Flow Control
  14:00 14:30 5.5.1 STABILITY OF A LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER OVER A LOCALISED SURFACE INDENTATION
Ricky Gowree, ISAE-SUPAERO, France
Experimental evidence of the co-existence of both an artificially excited convective mode and a natural mode in a confined laminar separation bubble is presented. The naturally excited mode takes the form of a wave-packet which became clearer when wavelet transform was applied to hot wire measurements. This mode had a characteristic frequency centred at a Strouhal number approximately 1 based on the freestream velocity and length of the bubble. It appeared to grow rapidly both in time and space, where the linear spatial growth is similar to the artificial convective mode, suggesting that the noise introduced in the system by the feedback loop from the bubble oscillation triggers an amplifier dynamics.
  14:30 15:00 5.5.2 NUMERICAL STUDY OF LEADING EDGE RECEPTIVITY TO DIFFERENT FREE-STREAM SCENARIOS
E. López Figueiras, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics , Belgium
The stability and receptivity analysis of the flow over a flat plate with elliptic leading-edge under different oncoming free-stream disturbances are treated. The conclusions derived about how the wing geometry or the flight conditions can affect the flow stability play an big role in the development of transition control towards the reduction of drag, improving the sustainability of the aircraft.
  15:00 15:30 5.5.3 DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF A TURBULENT AIR INTAKE
Y.-C. Xi, Tsinghua University, China
In this study, the numerical simulations of turbulent flow in an air intake are performed to understand the characteristics of skin friction in hypersonic inner flow. A direct numerical simulation of a boundary layer is performed first to obtain turbulent information at the inlet of intake, with the full process of transition and the growth of the boundary layer. Then the simulation of an air intake is undertaken. It is found that the main contribution of the total drag is due to turbulence. The turbulence amplification is found after the interaction of the shocks and turbulent boundary layer, which leads to an obvious increase in skin friction. The increase in skin friction is due to two factors. One is the enhancement of the turbulence, and the other is the strengthening of convection.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.5.R INSTABILITY AND TRANSITION OF SEPARATED FLOW UNDER UNSTEADY INLET CONDITIONS AND EXTERNAL ACTUATION
HM Marbona, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
6.5Unconventional Airframes
Chair:
Track 6
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  14:00 14:30 6.5.1 PRELIMINARY AERODYNAMIC WING DESIGN OPTIMISATION FOR WING-IN-GROUND EFFECT AIRCRAFT
R. J Jesudasan, KTH Royal Institute of Technololgy, Stockholm, Sweden
Wing-in-Ground effect aircraft have become an interesting concept in the context of reducing the environmental footprint and increasing the speed of coastal transport. In this work, a shape optimisation framework is proposed using OpenMDAO, combining a parametric shape modeler OpenVSP, a low fidelity solver VSPAERO and NSGA-II to support the preliminary
design of wing-in-ground effect aircraft.
  14:30 15:00 6.5.2 AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF LOW SPEED TANDEM CHANNEL WING FOR EVTOL AIRCRAFT CONSIDERING PROPELLER-WING INTERACTION
CM Chang, No.127 Youyixi Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China, China
The configuration described in this paper may greatly improve the low-speed level flight performance and allow the aircraft to quickly switch to level flight mode, saving energy and improving the safety. At the same time, this study provides a new choice for future urban aircraft configuration.
  15:00 15:30 6.5.3 ON THE APPLICABILITY ASSESSMENT OF VON KARMAN’S MOMENTUM THEORY IN PREDICTING THE WATER-ENTER LOAD OF V-SHAPED BODY
Y. Lu, China; A. Del Buono, Italy; T. Xiao, China; A. Iafrati, Italy; J. Xu, China
The present study is dedicated to implementing numerical analysis on a two-dimensional symmetric wedge and a three-dimensional cabin section with free fall water entry in order to investigate and build up kinds of relations on parameters, based on the transformation of conservation of momentum theory, such as maximal acceleration and the corresponding velocity.
Reserve Paper 6.5.R AERODYNAMIC AND AEROTHERMODYNAMIC ASSESSMENT OF A LIFTING-BODY RE-ENTRY VEHICLE
- Pezzella, Italy
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 6.5.R EFFICIENT AERODYNAMIC MODELING PROCESS FOR A TILT-WING EVTOL USING A MID-FIDELITY COMPUTATIONAL TOOL
D. Perdolt, German Aerospace Center, Institute of System Dynamics and Contro, Germany
7.5Fabrication Techniques
Chair:
Track 7
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  14:00 14:30 7.5.1 TI-6AL-4V ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING MEASURE OF QUALITY ACCORDING TO FATIGUE CRACK INITIATION VS. CRACK PROPAGATION
C. Matias¹, A. Diskin¹, O. Golan, Afeka- Tel-Aviv Academic College of Engineering, Israel; A. Garkun², E. Strokin²; ¹Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), Israel ;²The Israel Institute of Metals,, Israel
Additive Manufacturing technology is facing implementation challenges for airframe production. This is mainly due to lack of generic economic quality control methods to detect defects that compromise fatigue strength. The study done by an experimental campaign with Micro-CT inspections & SEM/Fractographic failure analyses, presents defect characteristics to be detected, for Ti-6AL-4V PBF via SLM.
  14:30 15:00 7.5.2 DEFECT BASED MODELLING OF LIFE IN ELECTRON BEAM MELTED TI-6AL-4V
H. Sandell, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden
Additively manufactured metals in aerospace are hindered by a lack of understanding regarding the effects of defects on fatigue behaviour. This work looks at ways to parameterize the material quality in terms of defects and surface condition for fracture mechanics calculations. Preliminary findings suggest that it is necessary to consider different parameterizations depending on material condition.
  15:00 15:30 7.5.3 RVE-BASED HOMOGENIZATION OF ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED POROUS METALS
G. Mantegna, Italy
The effect of size, number and spatial distribution of micro-voids on the stress-strain behaviour of additive manufactured AlSi10Mg is studied through numerical simulations using the Representative Volume Element approach. An in-house code is used to model a random porosity distribution inside the RVE; comparison with reference case studies are reported.
8.5Morphing 2
Chair:
Track 8
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  14:00 14:30 8.5.1 DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A DROOP NOSE MORPHING FOR ADVANCED REGIONAL AIRCRAFT
A. De Gaspari, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
This paper describes the design and experimental testing of a morphing droop nose ground demonstrator at different scales. A multi-level and multi-disciplinary design procedure goes from aerodynamic requirements to the realization of the prototypes. The functionality test of the full-scale device will contribute to increase the technological readiness level of the morphing concept.
  14:30 15:00 8.5.2 MORPHING FLAP DRIVEN BY LINK WITH ANTAGONISTIC SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY WIRES
Y.H. Harada, Meijo university, Japan
Research on morphing flaps for the improvement of aircraft’s performance. The prototype model for wind tunnel tests achieved the required flap angle of 10 degrees. However, it was found that further study is necessary to reduce the length of SMA wires as well as the placement philosophy. Experimental results showed new configuration of the actuator has a promise to overcome the issues.
  15:00 15:30 8.5.3 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF TWISTED/CURVED BEAMS USING A HYBRID METHOD
A Siami, Carleton University, Canada
Presenter: Fred Nitzsche, Carleton University

This paper presents a numerical approach for the structural dynamic analysis of initially twisted and curved beams. The variational asymptotical beam sectional theory due to Hodges is used to extract the set of nonlinear equations associated to the 2D beam cross-sectional analysis. The conventional perturbation solution is used as an analytical solution for the set of nonlinear equations obtained from the cross-sectional analysis. To compensate for the effect of neglecting the higher order terms, which have been eliminated in the perturbation solution of the equations, the Firefly algorithm (FA) as an iterative solution is introduced for the first time to the problem. To eliminate the sensitivity of the method to the initial values, the perturbation solution is chosen as an initial guess for the FA. The stiffness matrix obtained from the Firefly algorithm for twisted/curved beam is then used in the geometrically exact, fully intrinsic equations to analyze the dynamic behavior of the beam. The effect of flexible joints is introduced to the one-dimensional beam equations to consider more realistic boundary conditions. The accuracy of the calculated stiffness matrix of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by comparing the eigenfrequencies of an initially twisted blade with the results of a modal analysis done in ANSYS. The Campbell diagram of an initially twisted/curved rotating blade is extracted from the developed one-dimensional equations to demonstrate that the numerical solution provides a sufficiently accurate and fast solution of the problem.
9.5ISABE (invited)
Chair: F. Haselbach
Track 9
15 - Guest lectures
10.5Aircraft Handling Qualities
Chair: S. Lee
Track 10
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  14:00 14:30 10.5.1 HANDLING QUALITIES OF A DISTRIBUTED PROPULSION ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT
D.-P.A Planas Andres, ONERA & ISAE-SUPAERO, France
The use of DEP creates several aero-propulsive interactions between the wing and the propulsion system which can be leverage for achieving increased performance. Several methods exist for the modelling of these aerodynamic-propulsive interactions that occur between the engines and the wing, however few research has been done regarding how the handling qualities and the controllability of the aircraft can be affected when modifying the placing and sizing of the different engines and actuators, or when undergoing typical situations like engine failures. This problem will be studied in order to propose a multidisciplinary design methodology for the design of the different actuators and engines at the same time as the control laws, for a distributed electrical propelled aircraft.
  14:30 15:00 10.5.2 PRELIMINARY STUDY ON A DESIGN OF A RETURN FLIGHT TRAJECTORY OF A SUBORBITAL VEHICLE
A Kwiek, Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics Warsaw University, Poland
This paper presents outcomes of the study into return flight trajectory parameters of the tailless rocket plane to suborbital space tourist flights. This study focuses on the efficiency of control surfaces for high altitudes as well as the rocket plane's initial orientation to meet the mission requirements.
11.5UAV Control 1
Chair:
Track 11
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  14:00 14:30 11.5.1 FLIGHT SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION BEYOND VISUAL LINE OF SIGHT OF A VERTICAL TAKE-OFF AND LANDING UNMANNED AIRCRAFT
I.M.S. Soares, Speedbird Aero, Brazil
Aiming at the operational safety of the emerging drone delivery market, this work seeks to identify the aerodynamic model of the DLV-4 aircraft, the first VTOL type aircraft for drone delivery in Brazil, applying the parameter identification methodology. The aerodynamic derivatives were obtained using the AVL software. For identification, a BVLOS flight test campaign was conducted.
  14:30 15:00 11.5.2 NUMERICAL MODELLING OF PITCHING WINGS FOR GUST MITIGATION
W. Yuan, National Research Council (NRC) Canada, Canada
Urban environments are aerodynamically challenging for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) because of complex flow structures and high levels of turbulence encountered around buildings. Therefore, studies have started focusing on the effects that gusting has on UAV aerodynamic performance. This study develops gust modelling capabilities towards understanding the aerodynamic response and more specifically gust mitigation strategies for UAVs operating in gusty urban environments. In particular, a radial basis function is applied to a modified split-velocity method for the numerical modelling of pitching wings for gust mitigation.
  15:00 15:30 11.5.3 UAV TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION IN CONSTRAINED ENVIRONMENTS
J.N. Novák, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
The range of multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) applications has grown significantly over the last decade. Varying mission requirements with respect to UAVs’ target location, payload capacity, speed or time of flight combined with environment constraints such as no--fly zone avoidance can be hard to satisfy without use of modern trajectory optimization techniques examined by this paper.
12.5UAV & Small A/C
Chair:
Track 12
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  14:00 14:30 12.5.1 MACHINE LEARNING IN SHIP MOTION PREDICTION AND UAV RECOVERY
J Lakkis, RMIT University, Australia
Autonomous uncrewed aerial vehicles (UAVs) are highly sought after by maritime operators for several applications such as surveillance and cargo transfer. Although the benefits of autonomous naval UAVs have been extensively discussed, implementation is stagnant. The problem lies in the landing phase. It takes a naval pilot years of training to develop the skill and coordination to land safely; a feat that cannot easily be replicated by autonomous systems. A potential solution to this problem looks at ship motion prediction, specifically time-series forecasting of the flight deck motion. Having accurate knowledge of this motion gives us a means to identify quiescent periods where static landing conditions can be assumed. Various authors have resorted to using machine learning, specifically artificial neural networks (ANNs), as their method of time-series forecasting. Literature shows that ANNs have a clear advantage compared to other stochastic forecasting techniques. Although a proven concept, physical demonstrations of this approach remain scarce due to the trial-and-error nature of neural networks. From the demonstrations presented, a common fault is the lack of discussion over their chosen prediction model. This paper presents a much-needed review of the challenges of using machine learning for ship motion prediction and quiescent period identification, as well as a preliminary evaluation directly comparing ANNs as a part of an ongoing project.
  14:30 15:00 12.5.2 AIRCRAFT FUEL LEVEL GAUGE MECHANISMS: A HIGH PRECISION FUEL SYSTEM IN ACROBAT-CRAFTS
M. A. D. Di Marzo, University of São Paulo, Brazil
The AI technology may improve fuel quantity measurement. For that, this work's proposes a tool to generate synthetic sensor’s data: i) developed in an Open-Source software; ii) for studying and developing an efficient fuel gauging system; iii) for finding an optimal combination of probes; iv) for the comprehension of the relationship between the fuel level and the behavior of each sensor.
  15:00 15:30 12.5.3 VISION-BASED LOCALISATION FOR AUTONOMOUS AERIAL NAVIGATION IN GNSS-DENIED SITUATIONS
D. Sabel, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
GPS-based aerial navigation can fail due to unintentional radio frequency interference, or malicious jamming and spoofing. Spacemetric cooperates with the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm to tackle this problem using visual navigation. The paper presents results of ongoing research with image-based deep learning methods and an innovative approach to Terrain Referenced Navigation.
Reserve Paper 12.5.R INNOONBOARD FOR IMPROVED IMAGE HANDLING IN AIRBORNE COASTAL RECONNAISSANCE – A PROJECT PRESENTATION
E. Åsvärn, Spacemetric, Sweden
13.5Additive Manufacturing
Chair: D. Gu
Track 13
08 - Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management
  14:00 14:30 13.5.1 MANUFACTURE OF LARGE-SCALE SPACE EXPLORATION COMPONENTS USING WIRE + ARC ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
C Diao, Cranfield University, United Kingdom
Cranfield University, Thales Alenia Space and WAAM3D believe that WAAM process has great potential and is the go-to process for manufacturing large-scale aerospace space exploration components. With the combination of multi-functional tool, intelligent tool path planning and FEA simulation, the cost and lead time can be significantly reduced and the sustainability can be significantly increased.
  14:30 15:00 13.5.2 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN HIGH PRESSURE HEAT TREATMENT OF AEROSPACE COMPONENTS
J.M Shipley, Quintus Technologies, Sweden
in-process heat treatment directly after the densification of materials (High Pressure Heat Treatment) has shown further improvements to material properties such as strength and fatigue resistance, facilitating weight savings and optimal performance. Further improving thermal treatments is a key focus area for aviation and space applications.

  15:00 15:30 13.5.3 VIKA-CONCEPT OF A DIGITAL PLATFORM FOR IMPLICIT KNOWLEDGE AND VIRTUAL ASSISTANCE FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURED PARTS
J. Steffen, HAW Hamburg, Germany
The subject of the work is the conceptual elaboration of a virtual application that enables users in aircraft construction in the context of additive manufacturing to make important decisions for the component design process interactively and intuitively. The user can interact with a developed and integrated CMS-system and a virtual AI assistant.
14.5Aerospace Education and Skill Development
Chair: I Staack
Track 14
14 - Education and Training
  14:00 14:30 14.5.1 INTEGRATE ONLINE QUERY&DEFENSE INTO PROJECT BASED LEARNING TO PROMPT ENGINEERING AUTHENTIC EXPERIENCES
S. Sun, Civil Aviation University of China, China; R. Gong, University of Waterloo, Canada
Presenter: shuguang SUN, Civil Aviation University of China

As an effective student-centered pedagogical approach in improving students’ academic knowledge, teamwork skills, communication skills and leadership, Project Based Learning (PBL) has been widely adopted in engineering courses delivering during the last decades. However, there is a challenge for both the teachers and the students during the PBL: Most project results are fragile to their operation environment because of the students’ poor understanding of the engineering authentic problems and integrity requirements or even neglect these, while engineering complexity and functional integrity is essential characteristic in aviation and other safety related fields, engineering authenticity and integrity analyzation ability and habit are basic requirements for future aviation engineers. Taking navigation principles and systems course PBL as a case, use online query & defense challenge competition to promote the students to conduct in-depth discussion and analysis on the engineering authenticity and integrity requirements in the early stage of project implementation, so as to improve the students’ project participation and outcomes. Project outcomes are assessed and compared with no query & defense activities integrated ones, data are collected and analyzed, the test results show that the online query & defense pedagogical form can effectively help the students to improve their engineering authenticity and integrity thinking.
  14:30 15:00 14.5.2 A FRAMEWORK FOR INNOVATION WITHIN AEROSPACE SEGMENT
C. Jochims Lau, AEL Sistemas, Brazil
This work presents an innovation framework that was developed in AEL Sistemas in order to motivate and incentivize research groups in the Aerospace and Defense field. The work was developed at AEL Sistemas, an Aerospace and Defense Brazilian company that designs, develops and manufactures products, providing maintenance and logistics supports for its clients.
Reserve Paper 14.5.R PROJECT-BASED CLASSES IN AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING DEGREE PROGRAMMES AS A MEANS TO ACHIEVE HIGH-LEVEL LEARNING OUTCOMES
J. Abulawi, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany
1.6Development of a Framework for Validation of Computational Tools (NATO AVT-297) (invited)
Chair: E. Walker
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  16:00 16:30 1.6.1 NATO AVT-297 DEVELOPMENT OF A FRAMEWORK FOR VALIDATION OF COMPUTATIONAL TOOLS FOR ANALYSIS OF AIR VEHICLES
J. Morrison¹, M. Nikbay, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey; E. Walker¹; ¹NASA Langley Research Center, United States
Joseph Morrison

NASA Langley Research Center, USA



M. Nikbay

Istanbul Technical University, TUR



E. Walker

NASA Langley Research Center, USA
  16:30 17:00 1.6.2 A MODEL VALIDATION HIERARCHY FOR CONNECTING SYSTEM DESIGN TO MODELING AND SIMULATION CAPABILITIES
J.M. Luckring, NASA Langley Research Center, United States; S. Shaw, MBDA UK Ltd., United Kingdom; W.L. Oberkampf, WLO Consulting, Inc., United States; R. Graves, Air Force Research Laboratory, United States
James M. Luckring

NASA Langley Research Center, USA



Scott Shaw

MBDA UK Ltd., GBR



William L. Oberkampf

WLO Consulting, Inc., USA



Rick Graves

Air Force Research Laboratory, USA
  17:00 17:30 1.6.3 SYSTEM LEVEL IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL UNCERTAINTIES TO ENABLE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS
D. Mavris¹, E.Y. Yarbasi¹, B. Bagdatli¹; ¹Georgia Institute of Technology, United States
Dimitri Mavris

Georgia Institute of Technology, USA



Efe Y. Yarbasi & Burak Bagdatli

Georgia Institute of Technology, TUR
  17:30 18:00 1.6.4 OPEN PANEL DISCUSSION
op panel, United States
open panel discussion
2.6Digital Collaboration
Chair: B. Nagel
Track 2
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  16:00 16:30 2.6.1 BOEING/SAAB CO-DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME OF T-7A TRAINER - A JOINT DIGITAL JOURNEY
Donn C. Yates, Boeing, United States
Presenter: Tomas Karlsson, Saab

The T-7A program employs digital engineering that went from firm concept to first flight within 36 months while utilizing an advanced and digitized production line.
The collaboration between Boeing and Saab has resulted in the design and development of two production representative jets. Contract award from the USAF has led to the ongoing engineering and manufacturing development phase. Series production of the T-7A Red Hawk advanced trainer aircraft system for USAF is next.
  16:30 17:00 2.6.2 TOWARDS A SEAMLESS SIMULATION OF THE AIR TRANSPORT SYSTEM
E. Moerland, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
This work presents a framework for the systematic integration of all disciplines within air vehicle design, allowing for the seamless connection of disciplinary knowledge in a highly-scalable distributed multidisciplinary collaboration setting. Based on experiences gained, a roadmap towards simulating the entire design lifecycle of revolutionary air transport systems is provided.
  17:00 17:30 2.6.3 DIGITAL COLLABORATIVE DESIGN: AN INNOVATIVE FRAMEWORK IN AERONAUTICAL EDUCATION
Z. Cui, China
A digital collaborative design framework is proposed to integrate design resources based on an enduring and evolutionary Authoritative Source of Truth. The framework can support aeronautical education in three modes. The application of the framework to single-course and multidisciplinary education has shown its effectiveness in providing innovative design practice in aeronautical education.
3.6Urban Air Mobility
Chair: P. Schmollgruber
Track 3
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  16:00 16:30 3.6.1 INNOVATIVE URBAN AIR MOBILITY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE HAMBURG METROPOLITAN REGION
D. Kloock-Schreiber, TUHH, Institute of Air Transportation Systems, Germany
Several projects bundle a multitude of competences to develop UAM scenarios which are evaluated in terms of time, cost, noise, energy consumption, acceptance and the ease of integration. It considers societal interactions, legal frameworks, demand modeling, concept development, ground-based infrastructure, airspace organization and operation, as well as overall system modeling.
  16:30 17:00 3.6.2 ESTIMATION OF EVTOL FLIGHT PERFORMANCE USING ROTORCRAFT THEORY
Y Fukumine, Suwa University of Science, Japan
The purpose of this study is to investigate performance of the multicopter, and provide technical information for operational feasibility. The theory of helicopter was modified for the multicopter type eVTOL aircraft. Two representatives of the eVTOL aircraft were analyzed by the theory of rotorcraft aerodynamics based on the information available.
  17:00 17:30 3.6.3 COMPUTATIONAL INVESTIGATION ON AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF COAXIAL ROTORS FOR EVTOL AIRCRAFT
Z.X. Xu, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Coaxial rotors system has complex aerodynamic interaction between two rotors which will cause a giant loss of thrust efficiency, if not design properly, so its application in eVTOL is limitted. This study is aim to offer a guidance, how design variable influence the thrust efficiency of rotor, for shcolar in coaxial rotors design to help them complete their missions more efficiently.
  17:30 18:00 3.6.4 MIXED INTEGER NONLINEAR PROGRAMMING FOR EVTOL AIRCRAFT DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION
Y. Liu, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, China
Due to the advantages in speed, efficiency and carbon emissions as compared to helicopters or ground vehicles, electric vertical take-off and landing (eVTOL) aircraft has great potentials in both military and civil applications. The goal of this paper is to design a four-seat tilt-duct eVTOL aircraft with possibly high energy efficiency. To enhance the overall aircraft level performance of the baseline configuration that is obtained via conceptual design and comprehensive sizing methods, we apply the Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) to include both continuous design variables such as wing planform parameters and discrete design variables such as the number of ducted fans, the choice of energy system (lithium batteries, fuel cells, etc.), and the choice of tail configuration. In the full-length paper, the detailed design and optimization methods and results will be presented.
Reserve Paper 3.6.R RESEARCH ON THE DESIGN OF UNMANNED AERIAL VERICLE FOR MINE INSPECTION
Z.-K. Li, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
4.6Scale Resolving Simulations
Chair: D. Henningson
Track 4
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  16:00 16:30 4.6.1 EFFECT OF LES LENGTH SCALE AND NUMERICAL SCHEME IN HYBRID RANS-LES OF FREE SHEAR LAYERSFLOWS
S. Arvidson, Saab Aeronautics, Sweden
The effect of LES length scale and numerical scheme in hybrid RANS-LES of free shear layer flows is investigated using an unstructured compressible ?ow solver. It is concluded that the choice of LES length scale is vital for accurate predictions and that the RANS-to-LES grey-area can be much reduced which is very valuable in industrial aeronautical applications.
  16:30 17:00 4.6.2 VORTEX-VORTEX AND VORTEX-SHOCK INTERACTION ON A TRIPLE-DELTA-WING CONFIGURATION USING SCALE-RESOLVING SIMULATIONS
T. Di Fabbio, Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany
Delta wings are used in variety of aerospace vehicles, such as highly swept wings of fighter aircraft and supersonic civil transport. The paper will focus in particular on the prediction of aerodynamic coefficients and on the analysis
of the vortex-vortex and shock-vortex interaction to provide an advancement in the understanding of delta wing flow using scale-resolving simulation.

  17:00 17:30 4.6.3 NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF HYPERSONIC TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS WITH HIGH-TEMPERATURE EFFECTS
D. Passiatore, Politecnico di Bari, Italy
In this work, we investigate the influence of high-temperature effects on compressible wall-bounded turbulence, by carrying out a DNS and LESs of a hypersonic turbulent flat-plate boundary layer, thermally and chemically out-of-equilibrium. The analysis aims at assessing the effects of thermochemical activity on turbulence, by means of a detailed investigation of turbulent statistics.
  17:30 18:00 4.6.4 HYBRID RANS-LES MODELLING: SOME RECENT DEVELOPMENT AND AERODYNAMIC APPLICATIONS
S.-H. Peng, Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Sweden
Hybrid RANS-LES methods exploit the merits of RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) and LES (Large Eddy Simulation) modelling approaches, enabling turbulence-resolving simulations with computing resources less demanding than full LES. Based on a set of involved research activities on hybrid RANS-LES modelling approaches, a comprehensive overview about recent development and applications are reported in this work, with primary focus on aerodynamic analysis industry relevance serving aeronautical applications. Along with a progressive maturation in engineering practice of using existing hybrid RANS-LES modelling approaches, new development has been driven by further enhancement of CFD simulation accuracy and improved modelling feasibility. Among others, the RANS-LES interface, which is regarded as a so-called “grey area”, has attracted particular attention in current studies for Grey-Area Mitigation (GAM) in order to enable reasonable LES-resolving capabilities over the interface in the LES region. Some recent effort made to develop the GAM method will be reported. Aerodynamic applications of hybrid RANS-LES method are exampled with unsteady aerodynamic flow simulations, severing aerodynamic analysis, flow control, aero-optic analysis and aero-acoustic analysis. By means of these demonstrated applications, the advantage and current limitations of hybrid RANS-LES methods in relation to further development are discussed.
Reserve Paper 4.6.R HEAT TRANSFER MODULATION BY SUSPENDED PARTICLES IN A SHEARLESS MIXING LAYER
HR Zandipour, Politecnico di Torino, DIMEAS, Italy
5.6Fluid Dynamics Phenomena
Chair: S. Prince
Track 5
03.3 - Basic Fluid Dynamics and Flow Control
  16:00 16:30 5.6.1 RESEARCH ON PRESSURE LOAD OF AN EMBEDDED JET NOZZLE
H.Y. Li, Shenyang Aircraft Design and Research Institute, China
An embedded nozzle was taken as the research object to study the steady-state and dynamic pressure load at the jet infiltration area. The CFD results show good agreement with the wind tunnel test data. The flow filed information release that the mixing of jet and external flow plays a key role on the dynamic load level.
  16:30 17:00 5.6.2 ANALYSIS OF THE STABILITY OF MULTIPLE HELICAL VORTICES USING COMPLEX-STEP LINEARIZATION
V. G. Kleine, KTH, Sweden
A system of external and internal vortices is created by some blade devices proposed to destabilize the tip vortices of helicopters. The stability of such systems of multiple helical vortices is studied in this work using a complex-step technique to linearize the equations. This investigation elucidate some of the mechanisms of stability of vortices created by rotors.
  17:00 17:30 5.6.3 EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A PASSIVE FLOW-CONTROL DEVICE FOR A TILT-ROTOR AIRCRAFT
A Prince, Cranfield University, United Kingdom
This paper presents an experimental investigation into tilt-rotor propeller/nacelle/wing flows, and the flow breakdowns that can lead to the phenomenon of whirl flutter. Preliminary results suggest that leading edge modified blades have the potential to provide a significant increase in performance for the baseline blade design. The final campaign is ongoing.
  17:30 18:00 5.6.4 STUDY ON FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPERCRITICAL RP-3 KEROSENE IN AN INCLINED RECTANGULAR CHANNEL
J.-J. Yu, Chonqqing University, China
Flow and heat transfer of supercritical RP-3 in inclined rectangualar regenerative cooling channel was studied. Secondary flow pattern evolves along the main flow direction, while different evolution laws appear with variations of inclination angle and aspect ratio. When the aspect ratio is large, the fluid hardly involes in the cooling process. Average local heat transfer coefficient increases with inclination angle, while first decreases and then increases with aspect ratio.
6.6High Lift Devices
Chair:
Track 6
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  16:00 16:30 6.6.1 MULTI-OBJECTIVE AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION OF 2D HIGH-LIFT DEVICE BASED ON DISTRIBUTED DEEP REINFORCEMENT LEARNING
J.-H. Dai¹, P.-Q. Liu¹, L. Li¹; ¹Beihang University, China
We propose a method based on distributed reinforcement learning to solve the multi-objective optimization problem of high-lift devices. The new method draws lessons from Pareto ranking rather than merging multiple objectives into a single objective, so that a more uniform Pareto leading edge can be obtained. Combined with transfer learning, this method can improve the optimization efficiency.
  16:30 17:00 6.6.2 WIND TUNNEL TESTS RESULTS AND PERFORMANCE OF THE MOTHIF BLOWN FLAP
P. D'Alesio¹, G. Travostino¹, P. Planquart², G. Glabeke²; ¹Piaggio Aerospace, Italy ;²von Karman Institute, Belgium
Piaggio Aerospace, in collaboration with Von Karman Institute and SONACA, thanks to the funding received from the Clean Sky 2 Joint Undertaking (JU), designed and tested an innovative blowing flap high lift device within the frame of the MOTHIF project, in order to increase STOL aircraft capability to take off from runaway shorter than 800m. This paper aims to present comprehensively the results of the blowing high lift device wind tunnel test campaign conducted at VKI during Summer 2021, in comparison with CFD-based design data: the blowing jet and its influencing parameters effects on aerodynamic coefficients is exposed, especially regarding lift augmentation.
  17:00 17:30 6.6.3 A STUDY OF HIGH-LIFT DEVICES FOR LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER APPLICATIONS
Y Leng, ISAE-Supaéro, France
This study was inspired by take-off and landing performance improvement of small unmanned aerial vehicles (sUAV). It focused on little researched low Reynolds nomber range and on simple actuation mechanism. Existing semi-empirical method was used to design a single- and double-slotted flap for a DAE 31 airfoil. Results from low-speed windtunnel test and URANS simulations are presented.
  17:30 18:00 6.6.4 COMPLETION OF AN EXISTING FAST TURN-AROUND SLAT NOISE PREDICTION MODEL BASED ON STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
J.-M Rendon-Arredondo, Universidad EAFIT/University of Twente, Colombia
The prediction of the slat far—field noise is not trivial and can be predicted by computational simulations or complex semi—empirical models. The model proposed by Guo is the mostly use nowadays. This work aims to complete it by finding simple equations that relate each numerical parameter proposed by Guo with near—field flow conditions and geometrical parameters to improve the model.
7.6Aerospace Grade Composites
Chair:
Track 7
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  16:00 16:30 7.6.1 WING STATIC STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A COMPOSITE 1:8 S55-X REPLICA
L. Santoro, Team S55, Italy
This work presents the designing process and the results of a Wing Static Test carried out on a scale replica of the seaplane S55-X mostly realized by twill carbon fiber. The aim is to test the aircraft structure strength to a 4G pull-up maneuver and validate the FE model.
  16:30 17:00 7.6.2 ASSESSMENT OF FAILURE UNDER LONGITUDINAL COMPRESSION OF UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES WITH IN-PLANE FIBER MISALIGNMENT
A.R. de Faria, ITA, Brazil
Presenter: Alfredo Rocha de Faria, ITA

This work employs a micromechanical theory, kinematic relationships and an incremental approach to describe the displacement field in individual unidirectional composite plies. The Ramberg-Osgood relations are used to correct degraded mechanical properties of the resin in the nonlinear regime. The Hashin-Rotem failure criterion and experimental data previously obtained validate the technique.
  17:00 17:30 7.6.3 EPOXY/PEI BLENDS FILLED WITH FUNCTIONALIZED GRAPHENE OXIDE FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES
D.J. Carastan, Federal University of ABC, Brazil
Polymer nanocomposites based on blends of epoxy and the high-performance thermoplastic polyetherimide with the addition of chemically modified graphene oxide are materials that have low density, superior mechanical properties, and high thermal resistance. They are excellent options for application as structural materials in aeronautical applications
  17:30 18:00 7.6.4 DAMAGE QUANTIFICATION ON COMPOSITE STRUCTURES UTILIZING NEURAL NETWORKS AND HYBRID DATA
L. P. S. Ferreira, UFMG, Brazil
This work aims to develop a damage classification model that can be trained with numerical and experimental data. A finite element model is adjusted to experimental data with Bayesian inference and used to simulate damaged conditions. A hybrid approach using experimental and numerical data is proposed to train a neural network and the remaining experimental data is used in the test phase.
Reserve Paper 7.6.R TRIBOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL EVALUATION OF 3D EPOXY RESINS
George Catalin: Cristea, I.N.C.A.S, Romania
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 7.6.R STUDY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON FIBER RESIN MATRIX COMPOSITE BOLTED JOINT STRUCTURE AT HIGH TEMPERATURE
W.D. Wang, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
8.6Design of Aircraft Structures 1
Chair:
Track 8
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  16:00 16:30 8.6.1 AEROELASTIC MODELING, LOADS ANALYSIS AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF A FIGHTER AIRCRAFT
A. Voß, DLR Institute of Aeroelasticity, Germany
The DLR Future Fighter Demonstrator is a highly agile, supersonic aircraft. Based on a given conceptual design, this work focuses on the aeroelastic modeling, incl. structures, masses and aerodynamics. With these models, a comprehensive loads analysis is performed. To confirm the results, the aerodynamic panel methods (VLM and Zona51) are compared with higher fidelity results obtained from CFD.
  16:30 17:00 8.6.2 LOADS ANALYSIS AND STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION OF A LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION WITH HYBRID LAMINAR FLOW CONTROL
V. Handojo¹, T. Klimmek¹, T. Streit, DLR - Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Germany; ¹DLR - Institute of Aeroelasticity, Germany
One approach to reduce aerodynamic drag is hybrid laminar flow control. Such designs require different wing geometries compared to its turbulent counterpart, so that the different flight loads and the geometry itself might have an effect on the structural mass. This work focuses on the impact of a HLFC wing design on the flight loads and structural mass of a long-range transport configuration.
  17:00 17:30 8.6.3 TRANSIENT RELEASE AND LATERAL GUST BEHAVIOUR OF AIRCRAFT INCORPORATING THE SEMI AEROELASTIC HINGE
J E Cooper, University of Bristoo, United Kingdom
The Semi-Aeroelastic Hinge (SAH) concept enables higher aspect ratio wings without any increase in loads, resulting in more fuel efficient aircraft. This paper will consider two aspects of the SAH: i. transient response of the aircraft following release of the SAH and ii. response to lateral gusts. Numerical studies will investigate these aspects and their effect on aircraft performance.
  17:30 18:00 8.6.4 SET-BASED DESIGN COORDINATION BETWEEN COUPLE SYSTEMS: A WING AERO-STRUCTURAL DESIGN PERSPECTIVE
X. Chen, Cranfield University, United Kingdom
Presented in this paper is a novel, set-based method for design coordination between coupled systems. The research is motivated by the limitations of current point-based and set-based coordination approaches with regard to enabling collaborative and interactive design. The proposed method employs design space explorations and surrogate models to process each sub-system in parallel. A global design of experiment is then performed in the space of design variables except the coupled ones. For each design point, an optimization process is employed to guarantee system consistency. The result is a set of consistent and feasible solutions which contains the potential global optima. The proposed approach will be evaluated with a realistic wing aero-structural design problem. The result (a feasible set) is expected to be similar to the one produced by the benchmark studies using the traditional all-in-one setup. Compared with the all-in-one approach, the proposed method enables distributed and parallel computation of different disciplines. Compared with the point-based approach, the proposed method promises to be more interactive and flexible by providing multiple promising design solutions.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 8.6.R DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR TIME DOMAIN AEROELASTIC ANALYSIS OF HIGH ASPECT RATIO WING USING UNSTEADY IND
Zia Ur Rehman Rehman, Pakistan
9.6Nacelle 1
Chair: P. Mogilka
Track 9
05 - Propulsion
  16:00 16:30 9.6.1 LATTICE BOLTZMANN METHOD FOR BROADBAND NOISE PREDICTIONS ON A TURBULENCE-CASCADE TEST RIG INCLUDING SERRATED VANES
M.B. Buszyk, ONERA, France
In order to reduce rotor-stator interaction noise on future high-bypass engines, silent OGVs have to be designed. This study will focus on noise predictions by means of weakly compressible and compressible lattice Boltzmann simulations, along with aerodynamic assessment. Computations will be performed on a full test rig including a grid generated turbulence interacting with a 7-vanes cascade.
  16:30 17:00 9.6.2 OPTIMIZATION OF INSTALLED COMPACT AND ROBUST NACELLES USING SURROGATE MODELS
F. Sánchez-Moreno¹, D. MacManus¹, J. Hueso-Rebassa¹, F. Tejero¹, C. Sheaf, Rolls Royce, United Kingdom; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
A method for aero-engine compact nacelle optimization in installed configuration is proposed using a single fidelity surrogate modelling approach based on Euler CFD data. Artificial neural networks and Kriging interpolation have been used as machine learning methods to model the design space and guide the optimization. The methodology accounts for design robustness at off-design operating points.
  17:00 17:30 9.6.3 AEROACOUSTIC PERFORMANCES OF A LOW-NOISE AIRFOIL CASCADE WITH SERRATED LEADING EDGES: PREDICTIONS AND MEASUREMENTS
C. Polacsek, ONERA, France
This paper presents a collaborative work realized in H2020 InnoSTAT project devoted to the study of innovative stators for the reduction of turbofan noise. Leading edge serrations designed by Onera are implemented on the airfoils of rectilinear cascades tested in the KCA rig of ECL. PWL reductions of about 4-5 dB obtained by Onera's prediction methods are compared to the acoustic measurements.
  17:30 18:00 9.6.4 EFFECT OF HEAT EXCHANGER INTEGRATION IN AERODYNAMIC OPTIMISATION OF AN AGGRESSIVE S-DUCT
I. Jonsson, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Sweden
This work investigates the integration of compact heat exchangers for intercooling of a hydrogen-fuelled midsized commercial aviation engine. Preliminary results from an ongoing aerodynamic optimisation indicate that common penalties of intercooling, such as weight and ducting issues, can largely be avoided when utilising hydrogen as a heat sink.
Reserve Paper 9.6.R EFFECT OF TAILCONE SHAPE ON HOT STREAK PHENOMENA AND INFRARED SIGNATURE OF SERPENTINE NOZZLE WITH AFT DECK
J. Fan, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 9.6.R UNSTEADY FLOW PHENOMENA IN A HIGHLY BEND ENGINE INTAKE WITH PASSIVE AND ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL
- Max, Germany
10.6Flight Controller Design 1
Chair: S. Suzuki
Track 10
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  16:00 16:30 10.6.1 AUTOMATIC TAKE-OFF AND LANDING OF A VERY LIGHT ALL ELECTRIC OPTIONALLY PILOTED AIRCRAFT
S. P. Scherer, Lehrstuhl für Flugsystemdynamik - Technische Universität München, Germany
The proposed paper describes the development, testing and demonstration of an automatic take-off and landing (ATOL) system for a very light all-electric optionally-piloted aircraft. The system allows to control the aircraft during during approach, flare, ground run and take-off. Simulation results as well as real flight test data is presented.
  16:30 17:00 10.6.2 LPV/LFR CONTROL FOR ACTIVE FLUTTER SUPPRESSION OF A SMART AIRFOIL MODEL
R.P Pereira, Brazil
This paper focuses on a novel gain-scheduling state-feedback control strategy to cope with the active flutter
suppression of a smart airfoil model. Unlike other gain-scheduled control approaches in the literature, this one
allows combining the polytopic and linear fractional representations into a particular framework to increase the
degrees of freedom of a control design. Finally, a smart airfoil model is used to show the effec-
tiveness of the proposed control method.
  17:00 17:30 10.6.3 LQR BASED DIGITAL AUTOPILOT FOR LIGHT SPORT AIRCRAFT
J. Vlk, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
The core of this work is aimed at flight control laws synthesis built around the optimal control theory. The researched flight control laws originating from the proposed design process were integrated into an experimental digital Flight Control System.The paper introduces the evaluation of the designed automatic Flight Control System in the real flight experiments.
  17:30 18:00 10.6.4 EXTENSION OF THE CAPABILITIES OF AN AUTOMATIC LANDING SYSTEM WITH PROCEDURES MOTIVATED BY VISUAL-FLIGHT-RULES
S. P. Scherer, Technical University of Munich, Germany
The automatic flight capabilities of a CS-23 aircraft are enhanced by automating maneuvers, based on Visual-Flight-Rules (VFR), currently adhered by manned flight. The system presented is capable of guiding the aircraft to a predefined landing trajectory. The system was tested in SiL and HiL. Afterwards, the capabilities were demonstrated on an optionally piloted Diamond DA42 aircraft.
11.6UAV Control 2
Chair:
Track 11
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  16:00 16:30 11.6.1 FAULT DIAGNOSIS FOR SENSOR AND ACTUATOR OF HEXACOPTER UAV USING DUAL EXTENDED KALMAN FILTER
Y.J, Kim, Chungnam National University, South Korea
This paper performs the fault diagnosis for the hexacopter attitude control system using a dual EKF. Fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) is conducted by using the analytical redundancy of angular rates. Two EKFs are designed for dynamics and kinematics, respectively. FDD of the IMU sensor and actuator is conducted using these EKFs. The performance of the FDD for several scenarios is verified.
  16:30 17:00 11.6.2 CONTROL AUGMENTATION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE QUAD TILT-WING UAV VIA H-INFINITY STRUCTURE WITH GWO
K Deveerasetty, KOCHI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, Japan
In this paper, we analyzed the stability and control of a Quad-Tilt-Wing (QTW) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, especially on the McART3 developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and it can hover and high-speed cruise performance. Our main aim is to design a robust controller to the Control Augmentation System (CAS) for the QTW Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. To guarantee the stability of the CAS, a feedback controller is introduced based on the sensitivity function in the frequency domain using grey wolf optimization (GWO). The advantage of the controller is that robust and straightforward to design. The applied controller performance is validated using the MATLAB SIMULINK. The results suppress the oscillations compared with the existing control techniques.
QTW-UAVs have both capabilities to perform like a helicopter or fixed-wing UAV. The advantage of using QTW-UAV is that it can vertical-take-off -landing (VTOL), high speed at cruise, and can carry large payloads. Like fixed-wing aircraft, it does not require long runways for landing and take-off. The propellers will not interrupt the slipstream during the hovering mode, accordingly producing the required lift. There is no restriction related to the placement of the propellers at the end of the wings. The propellers can be placed at the center of the wings or in suitable positions. However, the aerodynamic characteristics vary significantly by changing the angle of the tilt wing, and it causes difficulty in designing a robust flight controller.
The designed flight controller has a conventional structure composed of a stability augmentation system (SAS) that feeds back attitude rates with only proportional and integral gains and a turn coordinator (TC) that produces filtered feedforward rudder deflection in response to input roll attitude commands. In the longitudinal motions, the SAS has two control gains, whereas, in the lateral motions, SAS consists of five gains. Aerodynamic coupling derivatives are smal
  17:00 17:30 11.6.3 OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN THE TRANSITION STATE OF A QUAD-PLANE
T. Goetzendorf-Grabowski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
The paper presents the problem of minimizing energy consumption by a UAV designed in the quad-plane configuration. The phase, which consumes a big amount of electric energy is the transition from the vertical to the horizontal flight. Therefore, the optimization of the profile of this phase is crucial to improve the performance characteristics.
  17:30 18:00 11.6.4 FLIGHT VERIFICATION OF AUTOMATIC TRANSITION FOR QUAD TILT WING SMALL UAV
K. Muraoka, JAXA, Japan
This paper deals with the automatic transition methodologies for a QTW(Quad Tilt Wing) small VTOL UAV.
Flight test was carried out and stable automatic full transition has been accomplished by the proposed algorithm which changed wing tilt angles and maintained the aircraft within the safe flight envelope coordinating existing auto-flight system.
12.6Electric Components
Chair:
Track 12
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  16:00 16:30 12.6.1 HYBRID ELECTRIC PROPULSION DEVELOPMENT FOR COMMERCIAL AVIATION
C.A. Andrews, GE Aviation, United States
Presenter: Alexander Simpson, GE

GE Aviation is committed to a more sustainable future of flight through the development of new, breakthrough technologies that improve aircraft engine fuel efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions. Hybrid electric-powered propulsion systems are key to this strategy. To that end, GE Aviation announced in 2021 a series of technology demonstration programs with hybrid electric capability, including research plans with NASA and through CFM International, a 50-50 joint company between GE and Safran Aircraft Engines.

With the announcement that NASA selected GE Aviation for its Electrified Powertrain Flight Demonstration (EPFD) project, GE is systematically maturing a megawatt (MW) class integrated hybrid electric powertrain to demonstrate flight readiness. Plans are to conduct ground and flight tests by the mid-2020s using a Saab 340B testbed, as well as GE’s CT7-9B turboprop engines.

The partnership with NASA further advances GE Aviation’s efforts to develop hybrid electric jet engine applications for single-aisle commercial aircraft. Including research studies beginning in 2009, GE Aviation has been deliberately maturing and testing components of a hybrid electric system for more than a decade –the motor/generator, converters and more. For example, GE engineers tested a motor-driven propeller in 2016 and an electric machine in altitude conditions in 2019. Eventually, the NASA demonstrator will lay the foundation for new GE Aviation engine designs and products with hybrid electric capability, with learnings to be incorporated in future technology demonstrations.

Also in 2021, GE Aviation and Safran Aircraft Engines announced the CFM RISE Program to demonstrate and mature a range of new, disruptive technologies for future engines that could enter service by the mid-2030s. Goals include reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by more than 20 percent compared to today’s most efficient engines, as well as ensuring 100 percent compatibility with alternativ
  16:30 17:00 12.6.2 AN INTEGRATED CONTROL SCHEME FOR STARTER/GENERATOR SYSTEM IN MORE ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT
/ Li, China
The concept of the starter/generator systemas a promising approach has been widely accepted in aircraft. An integrated control scheme is proposed to regulate the engine and output voltage of aircraft when starter/generator operates in different modes. Extensive simulation results are provided to confirm the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme for in more electric aircraft.
  17:00 17:30 12.6.3 THE INFLUENCE OF THE MODEL PARAMETERS OF LIION BATTERIES ON THE WIRING HARNESS PERFORMANCE OF EVTOL AIRCRAFT
S. Oberschwendtner, Chair of Aircraft Design, Technical University Munich, Germany
The influence of battery discharge characteristics on the performance of an
eVTOL wiring harness are investigated. Based on the simulation framework provided by previous work, the performance of different aircraft configurations are calculated by applying different battery models. An optimal wiring harness is optimized for each case and the influencing parameters are identified and discussed.
  17:30 18:00 12.6.4 ELECTRICALLY POWERED LANDING GEAR SYSTEM FOR TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT TAXIING
Ilan Berlowitz, IBAero Engineering, Israel
The ACARE 2050 has set forth targets for the aircraft entering service in 2050 to reduce ground emissions, reduce noise pollution and save fuel costs. Aircraft taxiing today is performed through the use of engine thrust. The aviation industry is looking for an onboard e-solution for autonomous taxiing.
Reserve Paper 12.6.R ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED LOW-PRESSURE SHAFT GENERATOR
A. Reinap, Lund University, Sweden
13.6Manufacturing Management
Chair: D. Gu
Track 13
08 - Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management
  16:00 16:30 13.6.1 DOMAIN MODEL CONSTRUCTION METHOD OF AVIATION EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING OPERATION MANAGEMENT
none Huang, China
This paper constructed a domain model of aviation equipment manufacturing operation management, and proposed a reference application architecture of manufacturing operation management platform for aviation equipment manufacturing. Combined with the actual application requirements, the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed model and application architecture ware verified.
  16:30 17:00 13.6.2 STUDY OF THE COST EFFICIENCY AND LAMINATE QUALITY USING DIFFERENT MOULD-MAKING TECHNOLOGIES
L. Loiodice, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
The aim of this paper is to compare the different laminate qualities, studying the various mould-making technologies, exploring their building process, efficency and time-cost relationship. The intent is to issue the numerous qualities of those material for a small-medium number production. In particular, we will focus on MDF-milled moulds, AM (using FDM technology) and gelcoat and fiberglass.
  17:00 17:30 13.6.3 A VALUE-DRIVEN QUANTITATIVE FRAMEWORK CONCURRENTLY COUPLING AIRCRAFT DESING, MANUFACTURING AND SUPPLY CHAIN
G. Donelli, Germany
The research activity proposed in this paper is framed within the context of the concurrent engineering applied
to the complex aeronautical system development. The main objective of the paper is the simultaneous coupling of
multiple domains, from the manufacturing to the production through the aeronautical
supply chain, to achieve more competitive, sustainable and circular aeronautical systems:
  17:30 18:00 13.6.4 CONTRASTING YOLOV5 AND A CNN MODEL IN IDENTIFYING USER ACTION IN COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING IN REAL-TIME
J Birberg, Saab AB, Sweden
Within IntDemo-Flygplan we aim at improving the efficiency of CAM programming. In bigger aircraft projects with thousands of parts, the programming process can be a bottleneck. We introduces the groundwork for an expert agent to improve the knowledge transfer of experienced to new programmers. The envisioned expert agent guides the user through the CAM process by observing and cataloging user interactions with the CAM programming environment, and deriving in-situ suggestions to comply with established CAM workflows.
Reserve Paper 13.6.R RESEARCH ON COMMUNICATION AND DATA ACQUISITION TECHNOLOGY OF AVIATION SPECIAL EQUIPMENT
LH.-Z. Zhong, Chengdu Aircraft Company, China
14.6John J. Green / DLR Design Challenge / AIAA student award lecture (invited)
Chair: J. Szodruch
Track 14
14 - Education and Training
  16:00 16:30 14.6.1 INTEGRATED INTEGRATED SUAS TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION FOR DISASTER RESPONSE RECONNAISSANCE MISSIONS
A. Andreeva-Mori, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan
JAXA and NASA have been collaborating on the integration of manned and unmanned aircraft in support of disaster response operations. This work details a UAS trajectory optimization algorithm and joint simulations applied to immediate disaster reconnaissance and their contributions to strategic mission planning, and discusses future applications in broader contexts of Advanced Air Mobility (AAM).
  16:30 17:00 14.6.2 OVERVIEW OF JAXA AND NASA COLLABORATION ON MANNED AND UNMANNED AIRCRAFT OPERATION INTEGRATION IN DISASTER RESPONSE
A. Andreeva-Mori, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan
Since 2016, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have partnered to investigate and address the challenges related to the safe and efficient integration of UAS in disaster relief operations. The collaborative inter-agency work has focused on the integration of JAXA’s Disaster Relief Aircraft Information Sharing Network (D-NET) and NASA’s UAS Traffic Management (UTM) systems through simulation and testing with results and lessons learned that highlight an example solution with benefits to disaster response and more broadly to civil operations as well.
  17:00 17:30 14.6.3 DLR DESIGN CHALLENGE 2022 ON ADVANCED AERIAL FIREFIGHTING SYSTEMS OF SYSTEMS
T. Dietl¹, P. Ratei¹, P. Shiva Prakasha¹, T. Zill¹, B. Nagel¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
The DLR Design Challenge is an annual competition offered to German university students in aeronautical sciences. Facing the increasing threats of wildfires across the globe, this year’s request for proposals asks students to come up with future-oriented air vehicle, fleet and operations concepts for aerial firefighting. In this contribution, the winning team presents their innovative concept.
  17:30 18:00 14.6.4 DESIGNING FOR SECURITY: A CYBERSECURITY INTRODUCTION FOR AEROSPACE EDUCATION
K. Roush, United States
The Aerospace industry is only just now seeing a push to translate and implement existing cybersecurity standards/practices. Many students have little/no exposure to aerospace cybersecurity concepts. This paper serves as a cursory introduction of topics with the purpose of exposing the next generation of aerospace engineers to key areas where cybersecurity concepts will prove essential.
1.7Progress toward sustainable Aviation (invited)
Chair: F. Collier
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  10:30 11:00 1.7.1 PROGRESS TOWARD SUSTAINABLE AVIATION
F. S. Collier, NASA, United States
Will describe U.S. efforts toward sustainable aviation. Several invited papers/presentations will be used to highlight significant progress.
  11:00 11:30 1.7.2 THE JETZERO BLENDED WING BODY - BUILDING THE PATH TO ZERO CARBON AVIATION
A Page, JetZero, United States
JetZero was formed in 2016 to develop a commercial BWB Airliner. This airplane will enter service in 2030-2035 with a family that will span the 737/A320 Single-Aisle market to the 787/A330 twin-aisle market. Current projections show 30% lower fuel-burn than future tube-and-wing airliners with the same engine technology. In addition, the BWB offers a cumulative noise benefit of 30dB compared to the same benchmark, and 40dB to the latest Chapter-14/Stage-V standard.
Perhaps the most exciting opportunity afforded by the JetZero BWB is transition to Hydrogen. BWB’s offer the volume needed for LH2 at a much lower cost than today’s Tube-and-Wing technology. The JetZero family is being designed simultaneously to provide aircraft that span 190 to 300 passengers with provisions for full LH2 adoption, plus Freighter and Tanker options.
This presentation will describe the present baseline design, NASA initiatives directed to advancing BWB readiness, the technologies that increased the BWB energy advantage to 30%, and the path to LH2 integration.
2.7HMI & Cabin Design
Chair: K. Rinoie
Track 2
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  10:30 11:00 2.7.1 ZONAL MODEL BASED AIRCRAFT PASSENGER THERMAL COMFORT COMPARATIVE STUDY
S. Tarroc Gil, Linköping University, Sweden
A Fractional Step Zonal Model solver is proposed, as an alternative to conventional CFD strategies, for carrying out aircraft cabin climatization coarse fluid simulations, capable of performing extensive comparative studies assessing the thermal comfort of passengers and crew during early stages of aircraft design.
  11:00 11:30 2.7.2 AURALIZATION OF NOISE IN A VIRTUAL REALITY AIRCRAFT CABIN FOR PASSENGER WELL-BEING USING HUMAN-CENTRED APPROACH.
S.S Santhosh, University of Bologna, Italy
The noise contour in a commercial aircraft cabin plays an important role in the comfort of passengers. The aim of this paper is to integrate vibro-acoustic simulation results in the virtual aircraft cabin mock-up developed by importing the pressure and displacements map in the virtual model to visualize the results in a more effective way and auralize the sound as a part of the virtual cabin.
  11:30 12:00 2.7.3 METHODOLOGY FOR VALIDATING THE HUMAN INTERACTION WITH AIRCRAFT LAVATORY COMPONENTS USING MIXED REALITY
S.S Santhosh, University of Bologna, Italy
The study develops a unique tool for visualization and ergonomic design validation of aircraft lavatory (with baby table open and close configurations) in terms of visual and living space comfort analysis inside the lavatory. This Mixed Reality study proposes new approaches for future design review solutions bringing substantial benefits to the product development process.
Reserve Paper 2.7.R AIRCRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM AIR QUALITY ENHANCEMENT
I. Berlowitz, IBAero Engineering, Israel
3.7Hybrid-Electric Aircraft & LH2 1
Chair: R. Gerhards
Track 3
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  10:30 11:00 3.7.1 COMPARING SERIES AND PARALLEL HYBRID-ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS ON AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
A. B. Batra, Institute of Aerospace Technologies, University of Malta, Malta
Aviation is expanding at a fast pace and is a major source of greenhouse gases. Flightpath 2050 strategy sets aggressive targets to reduce in flight CO2. Hybrid-Electric Propulsion (HEP) could be effective to reduce emissions in sensitive areas such as takeoff and landing. This paper compares effect that series and parallel HEP have on aircraft design and performance, energy demands and emissions.
  11:00 11:30 3.7.2 FUNCTION-BASED DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID ELECTRIC PROPULSION ARCHITECTURES
J.H. Bussemaker, DLR, Germany
Hybrid-electric propulsion systems are optimized using a modular evaluation framework. Different architecture candidates are automatically generated using a function-based design space model. Architectures are evaluated and compared based on aircraft-level performance metrics using OpenConcept and OpenAD.
  11:30 12:00 3.7.3 DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROGEN-POWERED FUSELAGE-MOUNTED BLI PROPULSOR ADD-ON FOR PASSENGER AIRCRAFT
A. Heidebrecht, TU Delft, Netherlands
The concept of a "Auxiliary Power and Propulsion Unit" (APPU) consists of a BLI propulsor
with a turbo engine mounted at the rear tip of an passenger aircraft fuselage, replacing the APU and producing
around 10% of total thrust and auxiliary power. We find that this is can lower the barrier to implementing both hydrogen and BLI propulsion in the near term and reduce CO2 emissions.
Reserve Paper 3.7.R TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP AND CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF HYBRID AND ELECTRIC CONFIGURATIONS IN THE COMMUTER CLASS
F. Nicolosi, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
4.7IFAR (invited)
Chair:
Track 4
15 - Guest lectures
5.7Aircraft Aerodynamics
Chair:
Track 5
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  10:30 11:00 5.7.1 USING ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL TO IMPROVE THE AERODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY OF THE NEXT GENERATION CIVIL TILT ROTOR AIRCRAFT
J.B. Vos, CFS Engineering, Switzerland
This paper discusses the use of so called Zero Net Mass Flux (ZNMF) actuators for active flow control on the Next Generation Civil Tilt Rotor Technical Demonstrator (NGCTR-TD) aircraft.
The Next Generation Civil Tilt Rotor (NGCTR-TD) is a a novel concept that
combines the benefits of a helicopter with the speed and the
capabilities of a fixed wing aircraft.
The European Funded CleanSky2 project AFC4TR will investigate the use of ZNMF devices
to increase the aerodynamic efficiency. In the first phase of the
project unsteady CFD simulations were
made for the flow over the NGCTR-TD aircraft to identify critical flow regions
that could benefit from ZNMF devices. In the second phase
of the project unsteady CFD simulations were made for the flow
over the NGCTR-TD aircraft using ZNMF devices.
  11:00 11:30 5.7.2 ON THE AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A MODERN ALL-ELECTRIC POWERED CE-LINER AIRCRAFT
T Wan, Dept. of Aerospace Eng., Tamkang Univ., Taiwan, China
In this work the Ce-Liner aircraft developed by Bauhaus Luftfahrt is selected as our research target, and the aircraft has a C-wing design. This C-wing assembly is based on a non-planar three-surface configuration: main wing, side wing and top wing. This work implement software to simulate whether Ce-Liner can reduce the generation and strength of wingtip vortices during cruise, and whether it can improve the efficiency of the aircraft with better economic benefits. Our findings revealed this Ce-Liner configuration can increase the lift-to-drag efficiency by about 20 percent during cruise. Also since it’s an all-electric aircraft, it can greatly reduce the weights of the turbofan engine and fuel, thus the high-lift devices can be eliminated. Furthermore, this Ce-Liner will not need to stock fuel in the main wing, hence the thickness and weight of the wing could be further reduced. In addition, it is found that this aircraft configuration has a stronger crosswind resistance capability due to our gust crosswind simulation.
  11:30 12:00 5.7.3 AERODYNAMIC DEVELOPMENT OF SAAB FCAS UNMANNED SUPERSONIC COMBAT AIRCRAFT
B Hackström, Saab AB, Sweden
The aerodynamic development in early stages of design of a supersonic design is performed. Various levels of Computational Fluid Dynamics tools and wind tunnel testing using extensive additive manufacturing techniques, is used. Benchmarking between methodologies is done.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.7.R NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MISSILE AIR-LAUNCHED DYNAMIC PROCESS UNDER DOWNWASH FLOW OF HELICOPTER ROTOR
Wang-Yi Zhou¹, Guo-Qiang Yang¹, Xiang Gao¹, Xue-Yao Zhu¹, Bo-Xiao Zhou¹; ¹AVIC Xi’an Flight Automatic Control Research Institute, China
6.7Advanced Measurement Techniques
Chair:
Track 6
03.2 - Experimental Aerodynamics
  10:30 11:00 6.7.1 FLOW TOPOLOGY ON AHMED BODY WITH A DEFLECTOR BY A SUB-GRID GLOBAL SKIN-FRICTION MEASUREMENT METHOD
The Tran, Kyushu University, Japan
Skin-friction fields on the slant surface of Ahmed body was studied by a global luminescent oil-film skin-friction measurement method. A deflector with 0.09 length of the slant surface and with angle up horizontal axis of 5° was added to leading edge of slant surface. A sub-grid algorithm was applied for data processing. The experiment showed that the technique can indicate a clear flow structure on the slant surface. The technique is currently applied for Ahmed body with a deflector. The results of flow fields with deflector will be shown and compared with the flow fields of the standard case.
  11:00 11:30 6.7.2 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF AXISYMMETRIC SUPERSONIC MICROJETS BY RSD
K Sumi, The University of Kitakyushu, Japan
Supersonic microjets have an important role in many industrial applications for micro machines. However, the shock structure inside microjets is still known only qualitatively in current literature because of technical difficulties in precise measurements. Therefore, in the present study we research the quantitative flow features of underexpanded microjets by the rainbow schlieren deflectometry.
  11:30 12:00 6.7.3 A NUMERICAL MODEL OF THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF THE PRESSURE-SENSITIVE PAINTS
S.-J. Song, China
This work provides a high-accuracy numerical model for the performance analysis of PSPs in aerodynamic surface pressure measurement, and also provides theoretical guidance for the preparation of fast-response PSPs for hypersonic wind tunnel testing.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 6.7.R EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON JET IMPINGEMENT HEAT TRANSFER WITH CROSS FLOW FOR AERO-ENGINE INLET CONE
X.W. Jiang, China
7.7Numerical Modeling of Materials
Chair:
Track 7
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  10:30 11:00 7.7.1 A GLOBAL/LOCAL ELEMENT-WISE APPROACH FOR THE BUCKLING AND POST-BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF THIN MULTILAYERED STRUCTURES
R. Augello¹, E. Carrera¹, A. Pagani¹, M. Petrolo¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This paper presents a global/local approach for the nonlinear analysis of thin-walled composite structures. While the global model is built in NASTRAN, the local model is based on refined structural theories with superior computational efficiency and accuracy. The results prove the convenience of using higher-order models for the local domain to reduce computational overheads.
  11:00 11:30 7.7.2 OPTIMAL DESIGN OF STIFFENED PANELS: CAD BASED PARAMETERIZATION WITH SIMULTANEOUS LAYOUT AND SIZING OPTIMIZATION
H. Rahman, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Stiffened panel is widely used in aerospace and marine applications owing to its higher stiffness and strength-to-weight ratio. Since these panels are thin walled structures, therefore they are more susceptible to fail under buckling loads. Optimization techniques have been employed to design stiffened panels with minimum weight whilst ensuring their enough resistance against buckling failure. The key factors which influence the optimal weight of a stiffened panel include the choice of material, panel and stiffeners sizing, stiffeners layout and the type of the stiffener. The layout parameters describe the arrangement of the stiffeners on the panel including their location and orientation. There exist various research studies in which the optimal stiffened panel design was achieved through layout optimization. The common trend in all these studies was the use of non-gradient based optimization techniques which are computationally expansive and therefore can allow only a very limited number of design variables. This shrinks the design space which ultimately limits the performance improvement. The probable reasons for using non-gradient based techniques are their easy implementation and to avoid the challenging task of calculating the shape gradients which are required because a change in the stiffener layout will change the shape of the stiffened panel. The motivation of the current research is to use gradient based methods for simultaneous layout and sizing optimization of stiffened panels under buckling constraints. Another challenge which is addressed here is the use of CAD-based geometry parameterization for the stiffened panels. An innovative design strategy for simultaneous layout and sizing optimization has been developed and employed on stiffened panels. The use of gradient based method opens up the design space which is currently restricted because of the use of non-gradient based methods and therefore great improvement in the structural performance of the s
  11:30 12:00 7.7.3 INVESTIGATION OF BUCKLING RESPONSE OF CYLINDRICAL SHELLS USING 3D-PRINTING TECHNOLOGY
C. Bisagni, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
The 3D-printing techniques open broad possibilities for the design of aerospace structures. In this paper the buckling behavior of different configurations of 3D-printed cylindrical shells under axial compressive loads is studied, obtaining higher buckling loads and less sensitivity towards geometric imperfections compared to conventional cylindrical shells with the same weight.
Reserve Paper 7.7.R ADHESIVELY- BONDED SINGLE LAP JOINTS SUBJECTED TO PROJECTILES WITH HIGH VELOCITIES
F Kadioglu, Ankara Y?ld?r?m Beyaz?t Üniversitesi, Turkey
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 7.7.R DESIGN OF SANDWICH STRUCTURES FOR HIGH VIBRATION AND NOISE CONDITIONS
M.Z Polat, Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University, Turkey
8.7Testing and Measurements
Chair:
Track 8
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  10:30 11:00 8.7.1 LINEAR AND GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR STRUCTURAL SHAPE SENSING FROM STRAIN DATA USING BASIS FUNCTION METHOD
C.-G. Pak, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, United States
An aircraft shape must be measured during flights to implement an active dihedral control for a flexible high aspect ratio wing and an active sonic boom control for a supersonic transport aircraft. A basis function method for the linear as well as geometrically nonlinear structural shape sensing is proposed. The proposed basis function method gives the excellent match with target deformations.
  11:00 11:30 8.7.2 PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION BY UPDATING THE STRUCTURAL MODEL OF A UAV WITH FLEXIBLE WING
T. R. de Paula, Aeronautics Institute of Technology, Brazil
In order to improve the flight mechanics model of a flexible aircraft, the objective of this work is to update the structural for the UAV, identifying properties for orthotropic materials, elastic axis and moment of inertia for each beam using MAC to assess whether the estimated parameters have been improved.
  11:30 12:00 8.7.3 NUMERICAL VALIDATION OF CURVED DISPLACEMENT TRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR LARGE DEFORMATION STRUCTURE SHAPE PREDICTIONS
S.-F. Lung, Peerless Technologies, United States; W.-L. Ko¹, V.-T. Fleischer¹; ¹NASA AFRC, United States
All the earlier Shifted Displacement Transfer Functions were formulated based on the straight deflections perpendicular to the un-deformed neutral axis. For structure under geometric nonlinear large deformations, the deflection is no longer straight, but curved. Therefore, based on the curved deflection, the Curved Displacement Transfer Functions were formulated for large deformation structure shape predictions.
Reserve Paper 8.7.R RESEARCH ON THE EFFECT OF SHOT PEENING AND STRENGTHENING PROCESS ON FATIGUE STRENGTH OF HIGH STRENGTH ALUMINUM ALLOY
L-G Li, School of Civil Aviation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 8.7.R BENDING-TORSION FLUTTER OF TAPERED COMPOSITE FINS: ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENT
B. Rasuo, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Serbia
9.7Nacelle 2
Chair: P. Mogilka
Track 9
05 - Propulsion
  10:30 11:00 9.7.1 FEASIBILITY STUDY OF SHORT SUBSONIC DIFFUSR CONCEPT FOR SUPERSONIC INLET
H. Miki, JAXA, Japan
One of a direction of technology development of supersonic inlet is shortening a subsonic diffuser for reducing nacelle weight. Design concept for preventing flow separation was applied to inlet models, and its feasibility was discussed from results of CFD analysis and wind tunnel test in this study.
  11:00 11:30 9.7.2 A STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FLOW DISTORTION DOWNSTREAM OF AN S-DUCT INTAKE
M. Migliorini¹, P. K. Zachos¹, D. G. MacManus¹, V. Monnier¹; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
This work quantifies the decay of the unsteady peak distortion levels downstream of the S-duct inlet planes. It highlights how the development of the flow distortion downstream of the S-duct intake cannot be ruled out independently from the conditions at the inlet of the intake since these can alter the inherent distortion. This is a step forward for the integration of the intake and aero-engine.
  11:30 12:00 9.7.3 IMPACT OF AZIMUTHAL FLOW DISTORTION ON THE ACOUSTICPROPAGATION IN A 3D WAVEGUIDE
B.-M.-B. Mangin, ONERA, France
The evolution of aero-engines towards UHBR architectures goes with a shortening of the nacelle length that is responsible for an important circumferential inhomogeneity of the flow. Such a distortion have a significant impact on the acoustic propagation inside the nacelle. This paper presents a fast and accurate multimodal method applicable to the computation of the acoustic field in such cases.
Reserve Paper 9.7.R EFFECT OF COWL LIP ANGLE ON STARTING PERFORMANCE OF A HYPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL AXISYMMETRIC INLET
S.C Xu, National University of Defense Technology, China
Presenter: Yi Wang, National University of Defense Technology
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 9.7.R NUMERICAL SIMULATION ANALYSIS OF INFRARED RADIATION AND ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT MIXERS
R. W. Wang, School of power and energy/Northwest Polytechnical University, China
10.7Flight Controller Design 2
Chair: Y. Kim
Track 10
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  10:30 11:00 10.7.1 META-REINFORCEMENT LEARNING-BASED FAULT TOLERANT CONTROL FOR A QUADROTOR WITH A SEVERE LOSS OF ROTOR
S-h. Kim, Seoul National University, South Korea
This study proposes a design scheme to obtain an optimal fault-tolerant controller to deal with a severe actuator fault by leveraging a meta-reinforcement learning (meta-RL) technique. The meta-RL trains an outer-loop network to infer the faulty situation and help an inner-loop RL process to optimize the controller quickly.
  11:00 11:30 10.7.2 CONDITIONS OF FLIGHT OF WINGMAN AIRCRAFT IN TIGHT FORMATION FLIGHT FOR FUEL SAVING
K.H. Kienitz, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brazil
Using data obtained from the simulation of two similar medium size cargo aircraft in cruise and tight formation flight for fuel saving, the paper presents results about the flight conditions inside the vortex in order to contribute both to the definition of control strategies and to the specification of criteria of acceptance for regular flights.
  11:30 12:00 10.7.3 DESIGN OF STABILITY AUGMENTATION SYSTEMS FOR A FLEXIBLE AIRCRAFT USING LQ OUTPUT-FEEDBACK CONTROL VIA LMI
R.P Pereira, ITA, Brazil
This paper presents novel linear quadratic (LQ) output-feedback synthesis conditions for stability augmentation
systems in a flexible aircraft. The proposed conditions have been formulated using the linear matrix inequalities
(LMIs) theory to provide two different approaches: centralized and decentralized LQ with output-feedback
framework.
11.7Systems of Systems Analysis
Chair: C. Jouannet
Track 11
02 - Systems Engineering and Integration
  10:30 11:00 11.7.1 THE SIMULATION FOR PASSENGERS’ DIGITAL DOOR- TO-DOOR AIR TRAVEL IN THE LONG-DISTANCE TRIP
J. La, RMIT University, Australia
Presenter: Cees Bil, RMIT University

A digital door-to-door air travel model will be developed for a long-distance trip, which is supported by digital technologies and digital tools. Specifically, this trip will cover a journey from Australia to Sweden. After the digital model development, real data and resources will be obtained to examine the functionality and efficiency of the door-to-door model in the simulation.
  11:00 11:30 11.7.2 ENVIRONMENTAL AGENT-BASED MODELLING FOR A FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS
J.L. Lovaco, Linköpings universitet, Sweden
The presented work describes the approach to wildfire spread simulations using an Agent-Based Model (ABM) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) to simulate scenarios at specific locations. This ABM will be used for simulation and study of firefighting SoS: design and optimization of tactics, aircraft constituent systems and their subsystems.
  11:30 12:00 11.7.3 REQUIREMENTS-BASED GENERATION OF OPTIMAL VERTICAL TAKEOFF AND LANDING TRAJECTORIES FOR ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT
C. Krammer, Technical University of Munich, Germany
We present an automated process for generating trajectories considering regulatory requirements and associated operational procedures while optimizing for energy efficiency. The corresponding optimal control problems are derived automatically from a flexible trajectory definition database expressing the constraints and operational requirements for vertical takeoff and landing trajectories.
12.7Universities - part of the Innovation chain (invited)
Chair:
Track 12
15 - Guest lectures
  10:30 11:00 12.7.1 UK-AEROSPACE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM - EXPANDING THE VALUE OF UK ACADEMIC RESEARCH
R M Gardner, UK-Aerospace Research Consortium, United Kingdom
The UK-Aerospace Research Consortium was set up in 2020 to coordinate and expand the UK academic research community. Its aim is to strategically support the initiation of excellent collaborative aerospace research that aligns with industry needs. The growing UK consortium is working to leverage international academic relationships for mutual benefit.
  11:00 11:30 12.7.2 THE BENEFIT OF BILATERAL RESEARCH NETWORKS - SARC AND BARINET AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEDISH COLLABORATION IN AERONAUTICS
E Villani, ITA, Brazil
In this paper the creation and maintenance of a bilateral network is presented. Sweden and Brazil have a long standing relation stretching far beyond aeronautics. However, it was intensified with the acquisition of the Swedish Saab Gripen combat aircraft for the Brazilian Air force. This led to an intense build-up of industrial collaboration and in the wake of this, also a bilateral academic network was formed to both take advantage of this, as well as support the process and encourage spin-off effects to other parts of society. To be sustainable it is argued that a network needs the right support and encouragement to be able to grow organically in a sustainable way, based on personal relations. Once this is in place, an academic bilateral network can be formed that can be maintained effectively over time at a low cost.
  11:30 12:00 12.7.3 MAXIMISING VALUE FROM UK ACADEMIC RESEARCH - THE UK-AEROSPACE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM THEME APPROACH
R M Gardner, UK-Aerospace Research Consortium, United Kingdom
This paper explains how the UK-ARC is analysing the state of lower TRL aerospace research in the UK. Six academic theme groups have been set up to look at the state-of-the-art in technology and operational research as well as capabilities required for the future. Resulting research narratives will be worked through with industry and international experts to determine optimal research pathways.
13.7Advanced Manufacturing
Chair: D. Gu
Track 13
08 - Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management
  10:30 11:00 13.7.1 OPTIMIZATION OF THE INDUCTION WELDING PROCESS THROUGH THE INTEGRATION OF A THERMAL CAMERA
G. B. Buccoliero, CETMA, Italy
In this work an induction welding system was combined with a jointed-arm robot to perform welding for thermoplastics composites. The quality control system was upgraded through the implementation of a new control system, based on the use of a thermal camera on the welding head instead of a pyrometer. The development of this new equipment allowed the production of defects-free joined components.
  11:00 11:30 13.7.2 ANALYSIS OF COUPLING FOCUSING EFFECT OF AIRCRAFT ASSEMBLY VARIATION AND PREDICTION OF OUT-OF-TOLERANCE PROBABILITY
Z.X.R Zhang, AVIC Manufacturing Technology Institute, China
The effect of variation coupling-focusing caused out-of-tolerance (EVCFCO) was analyzed in this paper. Firstly, multi-type variations coupling model was established. Then, the large deviation principle and Gartner-Ellis was used to analyze EVCFCO, and the probability of EVCFCO was gained with an example. Finally, several instructions were given to the assembly process based on the probability.
  11:30 12:00 13.7.3 TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION OF ASSEMBLY TOOLING OF LARGE AIRCRAFT BASED OPTIMIZED BP NEURAL NETWORK
R.-L. Liu, China
The nonlinear behavior of temperature of assembly tooling of large aircraft is described and predicted by an optimized BP neural network. Based on the temperature distribution and prediction, the displacement induced by temperature change and the nonlinear temperature compensation model of large-scale assembly tooling is preminarily anayzed.
Reserve Paper 13.7.R RIVETING-INDUCED DEFORMATIONS ON AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES UNDER MATERIAL ANISOTROPY EFFECT
J. A. N. Figueira, ITA -Aeronautics Institute of Technology, Brazil
14.7System Condition & Emergency Systems
Chair:
Track 14
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  10:30 11:00 14.7.1 EVALUATION OF CONVENTIONAL CONDITION-MONITORING-METHODS FOR ELECTRIC PROPULSION UNDER ATMOSPHERIC- AND MANEUVERING-LOADS
Ph. Schildt, RMIT University, Germany
The work evaluates the performance of vibration based state-of-the-art condition monitoring methods applied to electric propulsion systems in a recorded and simulated airborne environment to detect upcoming faults in a very early stage to enable condition-based maintenance and calculate remaining useful life (RUL) against a steady environments and highlights opportunities and limitations.
  11:00 11:30 14.7.2 NON-INTRUSIVE AEROTHERMAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SURFACE HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR TURBOFAN AEROENGINES
A. Broatch¹, J. García-Tíscar¹, A. Felgueroso¹, M. Gelain², A. Couilleaux²; ¹Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain ;²Safran Aircraft Engines, France
Non-intrusive measurement techniques (PIV, LDA, LDV, IR thermography) have been successfully applied to determine the aerothermal performance of a turbofan surface heat exchanger in a new reduced-scale facility, which reproduces the flow conditions of the actual bypass duct. This will facilitate the development and validation of this key thermal management technology for future aeroengines.
  11:30 12:00 14.7.3 ZONAL MODEL VALIDATION FOR AN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY AIRCRAFT CARGO FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM WITH CONTAINERIZED LOAD
A. Pathak¹, M. Pschirer¹, M. Kienberger¹, V. Norrefeldt¹; ¹Fraunhofer IBP, Germany
Due to the high ozone depletion potential of this chemical, alternative solution to Halon as cargo fire suppression agent are researched. The cargo bay in the Flight Test Facility has been equipped with a nitrogen fire suppression system. Test data for containized load is used to validate a zonal model predicting the local distribution of agents in the cargo hold.
Reserve Paper 14.7.R ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY PREDICATION METHOD BASED ON THE HARDWARE IN THE LOOP SIMULATION FOR AIRCRAFT RF UNITS
Y.-L. Long, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 14.7.R STUDY ON OIL-GAS TWO-PHASE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS IN AIR-OIL HEAT EXCHANGER
P.-X. Pang, AECC Shenyang Engine Research Institute, China
1.8ICAS Digital Pioneering Initiative (invited)
Chair: B. Nagel
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  13:55 14:25 1.8.1 ICAS DIGITAL PIONEERING INITIATIVE
B Nagel, DLR, Germany
In this invited session of four presentations, the ICAS Digital Pioneering Subcommittee will present the results from the Digital Pioneering Workshop 2022.
2.8Design Methods
Chair: B. Nagel
Track 2
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  13:55 14:25 2.8.1 INSTALLATION PENALTY OF AERO-ENGINES ON NARROW BODY AIRCRAFT
T.E. Boogaart¹, M.F.M. Hoogreef¹, A. Gangoli Rao¹; ¹Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
A major factor for improving engine fuel consumption has been the increase of bypass ratio. However, this has significant impact on engine dimensions and weight, and installation of the engine on the airframe. This article investigates the performance impact of installation penalties from an increase in bypass ratio on narrow body aircraft, specifically the fuel consumption, weight and stability.
  14:25 14:55 2.8.2 A MAINTAINABILITY PREDICTION AND OPTIMIZATION FRAMEWORK FOR MULTI COMPONENT SYSTEMS IN PRELIMINARY AIRCRAFT DESIGN STAGE
P. Hansmann, Institute of Aerospace Systems, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
Maintenance cost make up a significant part of aircraft operating cost. As the aircraft design strongly impacts its future maintainability it is advisable to consider maintenance aspects already during early design stages. This paper presents a framework that enables the evaluations of aircraft maintainability and therefore enables a design for maintainability for on-board systems at early design stages.
  14:55 15:25 2.8.3 A CREDIBILITY-BASED CRITERION FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF FUTURISTIC AIRCRAFT CONCEPTS
N.F.M. Wahler, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany
Novel (hybrid-)electric aircraft designs often use assumptions for future performance of crucial design parameters. These estimations can vary widely between studies, making a judgment of the design feasibility and comparisons between designs difficult. This study proposes a criterion to assess the credibility of main component performance estimations and a proposed futuristic aircraft concept.
  15:25 15:55 2.8.4 FAST-OAD-GA: AN OPEN-SOURCE EXTENSION FOR OVERALL AIRCRAFT DESIGN OF GENERAL AVIATION AIRCRAFT
F Lutz, ISAE-SUPAERO, Université de Toulouse, France
This paper presents FAST-OAD-GA, an open-source extension of FAST-OAD that completes its aircraft design techniques with general aviation (GA) specific models to enable the preliminary sizing of aircraft regulated by the EASA CS-23. The FAST-OAD framework is introduced along with the models added by FAST-OAD-GA for GA aircraft sizing and the upcoming changes to model innovative architectures.
Reserve Paper 2.8.R CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF FUTURE MILITARY AIR SYSTEMS - AN EDUCATIONAL APPROACH
P.W. Gollnick, Hamburg University of Technology, Germany
3.8Hybrid-Electric Aircraft & LH2 2
Chair: R. Gerhards
Track 3
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  13:55 14:25 3.8.1 A SCALABLE HYDROGEN PROPULSION SYSTEM FOR CIVIL TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT
A.S.J. van Heerden, Cranfield University, United Kingdom
The aim of this paper is to introduce a concept for a ‘scalable’ hydrogen propulsion system for future civil transport aircraft. This system could potentially aide in managing some of the risk associated with the major uncertainty involved in hydrogen technology development for aviation. This paper covers the conceptual design of the aircraft as well as selected transient system analyses.
  14:25 14:55 3.8.2 MODULARIZED HYBRID ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE MODELING AND EVALUATION
J.H. Bussemaker, DLR, Germany
A framework for aircraft-level evaluation of hybrid-electric propulsion system architectures is presented. Architectures are defined modularly and flexibly to enable dynamic generation of architectures in an optimization loop. Evaluation includes mission simulation using OpenConcept and overall aircraft sizing using OpenAD, and is demonstrated using a regional tuboprop aircraft.
  14:55 15:25 3.8.3 DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF LIQUID HYDROGEN FUELLED AIRCRAFT FOR YEAR 2050 EIS
C. M. Xisto, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
In the present paper we investigate year 2050 low-risk tube and wing aircraft with LH2 tanks mounted
above the fuselage. The paper aims at providing a reasonable estimate of the upper efficiency levels set
by low-weight rigid cell foam insulated tank technology when integrated in a conventionally shaped
airframes.
  15:25 15:55 3.8.4 DISTRIBUTED HYBRID-ELECTRIC PROPULSION BENEFITS FOR SPAN-LIMITED AIRCRAFT
V.O. Bonnin, TU Delft / Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Netherlands
A large fraction of aviation emissions originates from transport aircraft that are exposed to infrastructure-related
limitations on their wingspan. This study aims at investigating the benefits of using Distributed Hybrid-Electric
Propulsion (DHEP) for span-limited aircraft. The higher wing loading permitted by DHEP offers a flexibility
regarding the selection of the wing area. The present paper would outline whether aircraft-level improvements
associated with this design flexibility overcome penalties related to the implementation of DHEP.
Reserve Paper 3.8.R NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON THE AERO-PROPULSION EFFECT OF DISTRIBUTED PROPULSION FOR S/VTOL APPLICATION
S.C. SONG, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
4.8High Order Methods
Chair: K. Fidkowski
Track 4
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  13:55 14:25 4.8.1 DATA-DRIVEN ADAPTATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF HIGH-ORDER TURBULENT FLOW SIMULATIONS
K. Fidkowski, United States
We present a data-driven approach for calculating adjoint sensitivities in high-order simulations of unsteady turbulent flows, with application to shape optimization and output-based adaptation. The approach relies on using unsteady data to train a corrected turbulence model, which then yields adjoint solutions for calculating gradients and driving mesh and order adaptation. It is non-intrusive and inexpensive, requiring only a small number of unsteady forward simulations, but sufficiently powerful to capture unsteady effects in the sensitivities.
  14:25 14:55 4.8.2 ASSESSMENT OF HIGH-ORDER SHOCK-CAPTURING SCHEMES FOR IMPLICIT LARGE EDDY SIMULATION
H.J. Kook, South Korea
The performance of ILES varies greatly depending on the characteristics of the spatial discretization scheme. In this study, representative shock capturing schemes are assessed in terms of spectral property and local error. Several numerical tests are conducted. Suitable numerical characteristics of shock-capturing scheme for ILES are presented.
  14:55 15:25 4.8.3 HIGHLY ACCURATE NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR VORTEX FLOW OVER SLENDER MISSILE AT HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK
C.-H. Gao, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Accurate simulation of asymmetrical vortex flow over slender missile at high angle of attack is crucial for predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of the missile. A novel high-order scheme (we call it WENO-K) proposed by our research group is employed to simulate the unsteady supersonic viscous flows dominated by asymmetrical vortices over a Sparrow III type missile model with IDDES method.

  15:25 15:55 4.8.4 HIGH-ORDER ACCURATE EMBEDDED-BOUNDARY DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS FOR INVISCID GAS DYNAMICS
V Gulizzi, University of Palermo, Italy
This work presents a computational framework for solving the equations of inviscid gas dynamics over embedded geometries based on the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method. The novelty of the proposed scheme is the ability to control the spurious oscillations that are typical of high-order schemes for non-linear hyperbolic PDEs by the use of suitably-defined damping terms.
Reserve Paper 4.8.R A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY ON BLADE-VORTEX INTERACTION FOR COAXIAL ROTORS IN HOVER USING A NOVEL HIGH-ORDER SCHEME
Shao-Qiang Han, Sichuan University, China; Wen-Ping Song¹, Zhong-Hua Han¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Presenter: Shao-Qiang Han, Sichuan University
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 4.8.R VISCOUS CORRECTION FOR HIGH ORDER IMMERSED INTERFACE INTERFACE METHOD FOR COMPRESSIBLE TRANSONIC FLOW
L.-V. Velandia, Brazil
5.8Airframe Characterization
Chair:
Track 5
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  13:55 14:25 5.8.1 PREDICTING STEADY LIFT AND DRAG COEFFICIENT OF TANDEM AIRCRAFT USING PRANDTL’S EXTENDED LIFTING-LINE THEORY
R Jan, ISAE-SUPAERO, France
The Steady form of ASWING’s extended non-linear LLT is recalled and benchmarked using both experimental
and CFD data. A tandem configuration is used as a strong vortices interaction example with a low aspect ratio
to present the benefit of such software to predict lift and drag coefficients of multiple lifting surfaces
  14:25 14:55 5.8.2 ROTOR / ROTOR AERODYNAMIC INTERACTIONS - A GARTEUR ACTION GROUP
R. Boisard, ONERA, France
The paper presents the objectives of the GARTEUR Action Group HC/AG-25 project on Rotor – Rotor wakes interactions. The outcome of this study will be the experimental databases, and a better understanding of the physics of rotor / rotor interactional aerodynamics.
  14:55 15:25 5.8.3 COMPARING POTENTIAL FLOW SOLVERS FOR AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ESTIMATION OF FLEXOP UAV
. Yu, Technical University of Munich, Germany
The FliPASED project aims to design an actively-controlled wing with a MDO toolchain to achieve drag reduction, and test the new design on the T-FLEX demonstrator. Accurate and fast predictions of aerodynamic characteristics is vital in this process. This paper discusses the applicability of low order aerodynamic tools to such aircraft while comparing them with a CFD tool and flight test data.
  15:25 15:55 5.8.4 INVESTIGATION AERODYNAMICS FLAPPING FLIGHT ROBOTIC BIRD
H.W.M. Hoeijmakers, University of Twente, Netherlands
The paper describes the analysis of the flow in the wake of the flapping wing of an ornithopter-type of robotic bird mimicking the Peregrine falcon. The aim of the experimental and computational analysis is to determine thrust and lift performance as function of dimensionless (scaling) parameters governing flapping flight.
6.8Aeroacustic Measurements
Chair:
Track 6
03.2 - Experimental Aerodynamics
  13:55 14:25 6.8.1 AERODYNAMIC AND AEROACOUSTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A NACA 0008 AIRFOIL
F.L. dos Santos, University of Twente, Netherlands
This paper discusses the near- and far-field of leading- and trailing-edge noise generated by a NACA0008. Wall-pressure fluctuations are the highest close to the leading edge, suggesting that the leading-edge noise is the dominant noise source for turbulent inflows. This is confirmed by far-field noise measurements. Trailing-edge noise is comparable to the leading-edge noise for high frequencies.
  14:25 14:55 6.8.2 AN OVERVIEW OF AERO-ACOUSTIC EXPERIMENTAL TECHNOLOGY IN AVIC FL-10 WIND TUNNEL
ZHOU G.C Guocheng, AVIC Aerodynamics Research Institute, China
This paper introduces the general information and acoustic test environment of FL-10 wind tunnel, and the aero-acoustic experiment and measurement system. The tests of airframe noise, landing gear noise, high-speed railway noise and rotor noise was carried out in FL-10 wind tunnel, and the test results was analyzed in this paper as well.
  14:55 15:25 6.8.3 EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN PROPELLERS AND WING
G.P.G. Silva, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
The aerodynamic and aeroacoustic interaction effects between propellers and between propellers and wing are being investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. The results will bring a better understanding of these interactions, which will allow the elaboration of good practices for distributed electric propulsion conceptual designs, and provide a database for validating computational tools.
  15:25 15:55 6.8.4 IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL ACOUSTIC MODES FOR AN OPEN BOX CAVITY WITH ADJUSTABLE DEPTH
S Hammer, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Identification of critical operating points in regards to acoustic modes in compressor bleed systems. A clear identification of acoustic resonance and mode shifting in regards to geometric quantities and flow conditions. This will allow for better prediction models in the design chain of low pressure compressors in aero engines.
7.8UAV Path Planning
Chair:
Track 7
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  13:55 14:25 7.8.1 ADAPTIVE PATH PLANNING FOR SPRAYING UAS IN VINEYARD UNDER VARIABLE WIND CONDITION
N. Bloise, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Precision agriculture is considered as a great challenge for improving agricultural productivity.
The main aim is the design of an adaptive path planning, in which variable wind condition for a sprayer Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) is considered. The scenario includes precision spraying operations in vineyards and variable mass properties.
  14:25 14:55 7.8.2 DESIGN OF AN EFFICIENT CLIMBING FLIGHT TRAJECTORY FOR A FLAPPING-WING MICRO AIR VEHICLE
S.-G. Lee, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, South Korea
In this study, a flight dynamics model of a hawkmoth-like flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is established. The climbing trajectory is designed with energy consumption per unit altitude as the cost function. Finally, the designed 2-dimensional trajectory is converted to the spiral trajectory in 3-dimensional space.
  14:55 15:25 7.8.3 THREE DIMENSIONAL PATH FOLLOWING CONTROL FOR A FIXED-WING UAV ON SO(3) WITH INPUT SATURATION
B. Zhang, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
A three-dimensional path following controller on SO(3) is proposed for a fixed-wing UAV. It has a faster convergent rate and proper damping with the aid of an adaptive auxiliary frame. It suppresses disturbances by tuning the control gain dynamically, and is capable of coping with input saturation by using hyperbolic tangent functions.
  15:25 15:55 7.8.4 COOPERATIVE PATH PLANNING AND ADJUSTING STRATEGY FOR UAVS WITH STRICT TIME CONSTRAINS
Y. Lu¹, Q. Chen¹, Y. Wang¹; ¹National University of Defense technology, China
Presenter: Yafei LU, National University of Defense Technology

Multi-UAVs cooperative operations with strict time constraint have become a common form for future application. The methods of time-constrained path planning based on ant colony algorithm is proposed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness. Three strategies for multi-UAVs time adjustment are demonstrated, including takeoff time adjustment, discrete speed adjustment, and hovering for waiting.
8.8Design of Aircraft Structures 2
Chair:
Track 8
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  13:55 14:25 8.8.1 A STRUCTURE PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF A FLEXIBLE FLYING DEMONSTRATOR
P. J. Gonzalez, Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, Germany
This paper shows the preliminary structural design of the flexible aircraft demonstrator TU-Flex. This vehicle can gather coupled flight and structural dynamics data to validate flexible aircraft models. Due to its unconventional requirements, novel numerical procedures were used during conceptual and preliminary structural design. The full structural FEM and maneuver load envelope are presented.
  14:25 14:55 8.8.2 DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF A VIRTUAL HYBRID PLATFORM FOR MULTISCALE ANALYSIS OF ADVANCED STRUCTURES OF AIRCRAFT
E. Carrera, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This paper outlines the main findings of the project “DEvelopment and applications of a VIrtual hybrid platform for multiscale analysis of advanced StructUres of aircraft” (DEVISU), which deals with failure of composite structures and noise/vibration reduction, along with investigation of new materials for aerospace applications.
  14:55 15:25 8.8.3 SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR STRUCTURAL MASS ESTIMATIONS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED FIXED WING UAVS FOR PRELIMINARY DESIGN
T Seren, Chair of Aircraft Design - Technical University of Munich, Germany
During the conceptual and preliminary design phase, an easy to apply method for mass estimation is needed. This paper presents a surrogate model, based on a highly detailed model. The surrogate model will enable an efficient structural mass estimation for small and medium-sized UAVs.
  15:25 15:55 8.8.4 VIBRO-ACOUSTIC ANALYSIS OF MULTI-LAYER CYLINDRICAL SHELL-CAVITY SYSTEMS VIA CUF FINITE ELEMENTS
M.C. Moruzzi, Università di Bologna, Italy
The noise footprint of a commercial passenger aircraft depends on several parameters. The sound travels through vibrations, which are displacements in a rigid body. These variables are described by the structural models depending on the structures itself and on other parameters. In this paper we apply an innovative shell model, based on Carrera's Unified Formulation, on a cylindrical structure.
Reserve Paper 8.8.R WING LOADING PROCESS IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED AIRCRAFT DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION FRAMEWORK
S. Hosseini, Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran
9.8Propulsion System & Aircraft Performance 1
Chair: C. Mari
Track 9
05 - Propulsion
  13:55 14:25 9.8.1 A FEASIBLE MARKET ENTRY SCENARIO FOR HYDROGEN CIVIL AVIATION GAS TURBINES
J. Huete, Cranfield University, United Kingdom
Following several years of research into hydrogen propulsion system integration, this paper proposes an introduction based on successive waves of innovations and details a first generation of hydrogen airliners covering word-wide ranges. A scientific and comprehensive study at route level outlines a scenario for the first decades of hydrogen aviation.
  14:25 14:55 9.8.2 THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIAL OF TURBOFAN ENGINES WITH DIRECT COMBUSTION OF HYDROGEN
F. J. Goertz, German Aerospace Center, Germany
This work investigates the impact of direct hydrogen combustion on the thermodynamic cycle of aero engines. Besides the combustion process, the influence of the heat exchanger, for conditioning of liquid hydrogen, and its position within the gas turbine will be considered and evaluated based on a reference aircraft.
  14:55 15:25 9.8.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOW-COST AND LIMITED SPACE SEA-LEVEL RAM AIR TEST (RAT) MACH 0.8 SYSTEM
Nhu Van, Viettel Aerospace Institute, Viettel Group, Vietnam
The low-cost and limited space sea-level RAT Mach 0.8 system design process is proposed and presented for both small turbojet engines and flight vehicle system development. Overall steps from requirements to the final RAT system layouts are addressed and discussed briefly. The main plenum chamber design optimization section is presented with the extensively using CFD as the analysis solver. The special treatments are performed on the guide vane aero-dynamical design for turning corner to minimize the turbulence and loss in order to match for the limited space. The diffuser, honeycomb and screen for plenum chamber are thoroughly considered and design for the customized length of plenum while maintaining the stability, uniform of flow and Mach 0.8 of exit. The proposed methodology shows the feasibility and effectivity of the low-cost and limited space sea-level SAT Mach 0.8 system for the small turbojet engines and flight vehicle system development.
  15:25 15:55 9.8.4 METHODS OF SOLVING UNDERDETERMINED GAS PATH ANALYSIS PROBLEMS WITHOUT A PRIORI INFORMATION
M. S. Stenfelt, Mälardalen University, Sweden
When performing gas path analysis on a gas turbine, the number of health parameters is limited to the number of sensors available. For aero-engines, the number of sensors are in general fewer than the number of health parameters, creating an underdetermined problem. This paper present two new methods for estimating all health parameters for an unknown gradual degradation pattern.
Reserve Paper 9.8.R THE INFLUENCE OF THE VANE LEAN ON THE FLOW IN A TURBINE REAR STRUCTURE
V.V. Vikhorev, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 9.8.R EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE LASER PLASMA JET PROPULSION - PLASMA JET GENERATION AND THRUST MEASUREMENT -
M.H. Harada, Kanazawa institute of technology , Japan
10.8Flight Test and Equipment 1
Chair: S. Lee
Track 10
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  13:55 14:25 10.8.1 ESTIMATION OF STEPWISE VARYING WIND BASED ON DERIVATIVE ESTIMATION OF AIRCRAFT
H. S. Luu, National Defense Academy, Japan
In ICAS2021, we proposed a method for estimating constant wind without using the airspeed measurements and motion model’s parameters. This paper extends the method to estimate the wind changing stepwise using a sliding-window recursive least squares method.
  14:25 14:55 10.8.2 A GENERALISED MULTI-OBJECTIVE ISLAND MODEL FOR FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM CLEARANCES
P. Piprek¹, P. M. Dias¹, D. Schwalb¹; ¹Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Germany
In modern fly-by-wire aircraft, the Flight Control System plays a key role in the safety, performance, and reliability of the aircraft, and is assessed in a clearance process. This study proposes a global multi-objective optimisation algorithm as a means for automatizing this process and enhancing the chances of finding relevant problematic regions inside the flight envelope.
  14:55 15:25 10.8.3 EFFECTS OF DESIGN PARAMETERS ON SWASHPLATELESS ROTOR CONTROL
L.K. Tang, China
this paper conducts a series of modeling and analyses on related design parameters such as hinge eccentricity, hinge tilt angle and wingtip hammer location about the novel swashplateless rotor. According to the analyses, the influence of each parameter on swashplateless rotor are explained, and the basic laws of its design are obtained.
  15:25 15:55 10.8.4 RESEARCH ON SERVO CONTROL METHOD AND DAMPING CHARACTERISTICS OF ACTIVE CONTROL DEVICE
Y.-LY Yao, Shenyang Aircraft Design and Research Institute, China
In this paper, three control methods of the active stick are studied. After simulation analysis, the dynamic characteristics of the three control methods are compared. The PID algorithm is used to find out the key parameters affecting the dynamic characteristics of the system, so as to improve the rapidity and stability of the system effectively. At the same time, the influence of the damping characteristics is studied.
Reserve Paper 10.8.R STATISTICAL DATA SELECTION FOR BETTER FLIGHT CHARACTERISTIC MODELING
M. Naruoka, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan
11.8Simulation
Chair: P. Krus
Track 11
02 - Systems Engineering and Integration
  13:55 14:25 11.8.1 VIRTUAL RECONFIGURATION AND ASSESSMENT OF AIRCRAFT CABINS USING MODEL-BASED SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
M. Fuchs¹, F. Beckert¹, F. Rauscher¹, C. Goetz¹, J. Biedermann¹, B. Nagel¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
This paper presents a method to combine geometric data of physical cabin components with virtual models to enable the building of a digital aircraft cabin. As a result, a baseline architecture for the digital cabin has been created, which enables fast system reconfigurability, traceability of changes, identification of interdependencies, and investigation of new cabin variations (retrofit).
  14:25 14:55 11.8.2 MORE ELECTRIC AIRPLANE: CASE STUDY STOCKHOLM-COPENHAGEN
H. A. Johansson, Saab Aeronautics, Sweden
Electrification of non-propulsive aircraft subsystems such as the environmental control system and actuation promises fuel savings by lowering the outtake of non-propulsive power from the engines. Here the possible savings through electrification are investigated through a case study of a Stockholm-Copenhagen round-trip by a mid-size airliner.
  14:55 15:25 11.8.3 HMI-HUFLAB – A BRAZILIAN - SWEDISH INITIATIVE IN HUMAN FACTORS FOR AERONAUTICS
E Villani, ITA, Brazil
This paper presents the HMI-HUFLab Project, a joint Brazilian Swedish initiative in the area of human factors and design of human machine interface for future air systems. It gives a short introduction to Brazilian Swedish collaboration in Aeronautics and, particularly, the area of human factors. It describes the main challenges for setting up the bilateral HMI-HUFLab project and how these challenges were tackled. Finally, it presents the first projects results, which includes the definition of relevant context and scenarios for the future air domain, a review of literature and implementation of complementary simulation environments in both countries.
  15:25 15:55 11.8.4 CRITICALITY AND COMFORT ZONE SUPPORTING DESIGN CHOICES TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE REQUIREMENTS THE CASE OF ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT
LP Pereira, Federal University of ABC, Brazil
This paper proposes an analytical framework for estimating the domain in which a technology combination can be used in a system. To accomplish this goal, the concepts of technology critical zone and technological comfort zone were proposed in order to analyze the impact of a new technology during the design phases of a system.
In this paper it is demonstrated on electric aircraft technologies, i.e., battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell aircraft.


12.8Council Meeting
Chair:
Track 12
13.8Network
Chair:
Track 13
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  13:55 14:25 13.8.1 CLUSTER STRUCTURE AND GATEWAY AVAILABILITY OF AD-HOC COMMUNICATION NETWORKS IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC AIRSPACE
T. Marks, German Aerospace Center, Germany
The North Atlantic airspace is one of the busiest airspaces in the world, while at the same time lacking radar coverage and exhibiting limited data link capabilites. In our paper we analyze ad-hoc communication networks among airplanes in terms of cluster structure and gateway availability by time series and by per scenario analyses and show the dependencies to higher level scenario parameters.
  14:25 14:55 13.8.2 DEMAND PATTERN INFLUENCE ON RELATION OF TURNRAROUND DURATION AND GATE OCCUPATION DEPENDING ON AVAILABLE RESOURCES
L. Christoffels, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Germany
This case study based on traffic data of an European Airport presents an investigation of relation between the key resource passenger gate and the overall turnaround time depending on other available resources for some given demand list and its numerous variations.
  14:55 15:25 13.8.3 ASSESSMENT OF REAL-TIME DATA TRANSMISSION VIA AD-HOC COMMUNICATION NETWORKS IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC OCEANIC AIRSPACE
A. Hillebrecht, DLR Air Transportation Systems, Germany
Aeronautical data link communication plays an increasingly important role in the current air transport system, enabling efficient and safe operation of aircraft even in congested airspace. In our work we present an operational performance assessment of a novel data link technology enabling data link communication via ad-hoc aircraft networks in an oceanic airspace.
  15:25 15:55 13.8.4 AIR TRAFFIC SIMULATION ACROSS FIR IN JAPAN USING CELLULAR AUTOMATON
K.-S. Sekine, Japan
This study simulates every 4934-aircraft flying across FIR in Japan by using a cellular automaton-based model. Interestingly, spacing adjustments of arrival flights to hub-airports account for only 40% of the total amount. This indicates that identifying flight delay bottleneck not only on the airways to hub airports but also on other routes is also paramount for totally efficient ATM operation.
Reserve Paper 13.8.R OPTIMIZATION OF AIRCRAFT FLIGHT PATHS CONSIDERING THE CONFLICTING PARAMETERS OF ECONOMY AND SAFETY
T.N. Nagashima, Graduate School of Informatics, Nagoya University, Japan
14.8Cabin & Cargo
Chair:
Track 14
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  13:55 14:25 14.8.1 COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF AIRFLOW AND DISPERSION OF AIRBORNE PATHOGENS INSIDE AN AIRCRAFT CABIN
J.M.M. Sousa, IDMEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal
A computational study of airflow and dispersion of airborne pathogens inside an aircraft cabin is conducted with the aim of assessing the feasibility of installing bioaerosol sensors. Such sensors would gather information during flight about the dispersion of a pathogen within each row of seats in the cabin, thereby providing a warning about possible infected passengers.
  14:25 14:55 14.8.2 CABIN AIR QUALITY IN COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFTS WITH AN ADAPTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM STRATEGY
P Grasso, Collins Aerospace, Ireland
Current Environmental Control Systems rely on a prescribed fresh airflow per passenger to dilute contaminants. An adaptive ventilation strategy is proposed, leveraging air sensing and filtration technologies to ensure a high level of indoor air quality (IAQ). This paper investigates, through modeling and simulation, the IAQ level achieved in commercial cabin aircraft within various scenarios.
  14:55 15:25 14.8.3 MEASUREMENT OF NOISE AND INDOOR CLIMATE ON BOARD A TURBOPROP AIRPLANE FLIGHT
n/a Norrefeldt, Fraunhofer IBP, Germany
On Nov. 3rd 2021 we accompanied two subject test round flight on a turboprop airplane. The flight took off at Rotterdam, flew a round over the North Sea and landed in Rotterdam again. The measurements of noise and indoor climate conducted in this flight are reported in the paper.
  15:25 15:55 14.8.4 USE OF THE FLIGHT TEST FACILITY MOCK-UPS IN THE EUROPEAN CLEAN SKY 2 PROGRAM
n/a Norrefeldt, Fraunhofer IBP, Germany
This paper highlights the value the Fraunhofer Flight Test Facility brings to the Clean Sky 2 program. It gives an overview of projects that have been realized like passenger comfort related to air quality, environmentally friendly fire suppression systems for the cargo hold, hazard and comfort considerations in the business jet aircraft and a short look into Covid-risk reduction in the cabin.
Reserve Paper 14.8.R IMPACT OF MOTION-DEPENDENT ERRORS ON THE ACCURACY OF AN UNAIDED STRAPDOWN INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM
K. K. Borodacz, ?ukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation, Poland
1.9Progress toward sustainable aviation 2 (invited)
Chair: F. Collier
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  16:15 16:45 1.9.1 TRANSONIC TRUSS-BRACED WING VISION VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY MATURATION
N. A. Harrison, Boeing Research and Technology, United States
The maturation of technologies that can potentially enable a Transonic Truss-Braced Wing (TTBW) vision vehicle have continued under the latest phase of the Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) program. Ground testing in this phase has further reduced configuration unknowns, and provided valuable data for future potential design activities.
2.9Sustainable Aircraft 1
Chair: M. Padulo
Track 2
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  16:15 16:45 2.9.1 DESIGN AND ECO-EFFICIENCY ASSESSMENT OF A PEOPLE-MOVER AIRCRAFT IN COMPARISON TO STATE-OF-THE-ART NARROW BODY AIRCRAFT
S. Woehler, DLR, Germany
The focus of the is paper is the quiestion weather a People Mover aircraft can make its contribution towards the climate targets by replacing highly efficient narrow body aircraft where preliminary results indicate a significant disadvantage in terms of CO2 emissions per passenger seat. Therefore, the concept will be assessd on its economic performance and on its climate impact contribution.
  16:45 17:15 2.9.2 MINIMIZING THE CLIMATE IMPACT OF THE NEXT GENERATION AIRCRAFT USING NOVEL CLIMATE FUNCTIONS FOR AIRCRAFT DESIGN
K. Radhakrishnan, Institute of Air Transportation Systems, TUHH, Germany
The aircraft’s environmental performance on fleet level is so far completely decoupled from the design process. Complex climate models used to evaluate the non-CO2 emissions impact on climate is far too computationally demanding for a multidisciplinary design optimisation. In this paper, a computationally efficient approach to design climate-optimal aircraft using novel CFADs is presented.
  17:15 17:45 2.9.3 PROPELLER AIRCRAFT DESIGN OPTIMIZATION FOR CLIMATE IMPACT REDUCTION
P. Proesmans, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
This paper yields insight into the climate impact reduction of propeller-powered aircraft. CO2 and non-CO2 climate effects and operating costs are considered in a multidisciplinary design optimisation. A comparison with turbofan counterparts shows that climate-optimal, propeller aircraft can outperform turbofan aircraft in the medium-range category. This is relevant for future design studies.
  17:45 18:15 2.9.4 AIRCRAFT FLEET MODELS USING A BOTTOM-UP APPROACH FOR SIMULATING AVIATION TECHNOLOGICAL PROSPECTIVE SCENARIOS
T. Planès, ISAE-SUPAERO, France
This paper focuses on the use of a bottom-up approach to establish aircraft fleet models for simulating aviation prospective scenarios. These models allow representing the gradual replacement of current aircraft by future architectures obtained from overall aircraft design. Some case studies are performed using CAST, an open source platform for analyzing scenarios for sustainable aviation.
  18:15 18:45 2.9.5 SUSTAINABLE AVIATION FOR SWEDEN - TECHNOLOGY & CAPABILITY ASSESSMENT TARGETING 2045
C Jouannet, Saab Aeronautics, Sweden
The goal of the sustainable aviation for Sweden project is to analyze the possibilities offered by different technological solutions to achieve zero emission aviation. Firstly, the Swedish/Nordic network context is addressed and secondly the study is extended to the European context. The project will investigate the potential and feasibility of new or upgraded aircraft types based on the different technologies mapped from various published roadmaps and national expertise. This involves developing aircraft conceptual designs studies and trade analysis with regards to different fuel types, propulsion technologies, structure, operations, network and fleet management, and a range of relevant technologies. The project will, on a common technology basis, analyse a number of zero carbon fuels and associated technologies through operational studies and optimization to accelerate the introduction of fossil free aircraft technology and choosing optimal paths for making aviation sustainable.
Reserve Paper 2.9.R TECHNOLOGIES ENABLING EMISSIONS-REDUCING AIRCRAFT AND FUTURE EMISSIONS-FREE AIRCRAFT DESIGNS
C.-A. Hoover, Wright Electric, Inc., United States
3.9UAS 3
Chair: J. Melkert
Track 3
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  16:15 16:45 3.9.1 SORA-BASED RISK ASSESSMENT FOR CARGO UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES IN THE UAM FRAMEWORK
L. B. Babetto, RWTH Aachen, Germany
Increasing urbanization and e-commerce encourage Urban Air Mobility (UAM) for cargo transportation. Today, the integration of the UAM into the manned air traffic is challenging due to the risk to third parties. Thus, this paper deals with the application of the SORA approach to three different Cargo UAVs involved in a green airfreight logistics chain, reinforcing safety as a UAV design driver.
  16:45 17:15 3.9.2 MEDIUM SIZE UAV AS TEST PLATFORM FOR NEW TECHNOLOGIES
J. Mieloszyk, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
To introduce innovation in aerospace new technologies have to be developed and tested, which requires suitable test equipment. Efficient way to do this is UAV platform as a testbed. This paper describes manufacturing of such a platform. A variety of new technologies, that can be investigated are discussed, including alternative propulsion systems, new avionics and new aerodynamic devices.
  17:15 17:45 3.9.3 AN INVESTIGATION ON THE IMPROVEMENT FOR TANDEM WING PITCHING-MOMENT CHARACTERISTICS
W.-X. Wang, Beihang university, China
Our investigation concentrates on changing the flow interaction of tandem wing. The conclusion is the wingtip vortex of the front-wing and the spanwise flow of the rear-wing are the critical reasons causing the undesired pitching-moment of a tandem wing. Optimizing the front-wing wingtips improves the nonlinear pitching-moment, moreover, a better rear-wing aerodynamic performance is accompanied.
  17:45 18:15 3.9.4 TASK ALLOCATION METHOD FOR COMPLEX RECONNAISSANCE AREA BY MULTIPLE UAVS
Y Yue, School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reconnaissance task allocation is a hot spot in the research of multi-UAV cooperative operations. Geographical obstacles and electromagnetic interference jointly affect the reconnaissance of UAVs to the target area. Considering these limitations uniformly can more effectively analyze the reconnaissance benefit and range cost of a UAV swarm in a reconnaissance mission.
  18:15 18:45 3.9.5 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND SIZING FOR A FIXED WING UAV FOR EXPLORATION OVER MARS
N. U. Uddin, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India, India
The key aim of this paper is to design a lightweight compact UAV for high endurance-loiter in the Martian atmosphere. On the basis of the mission requirements, the design process will be initiated. A constraint analysis diagram will be plotted to identify the design variables, the further appropriate initial weight will be selected to initialize the iterative design calculations.
Reserve Paper 3.9.R COOPERATIVE THREAT ENGAGEMENT WITH HETEROGENEOUS DRONES SWARMS
F. B. Brancalion, EMBRAER, Brazil
4.9CFD Applications 1
Chair: S. Prince
Track 4
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  16:15 16:45 4.9.1 ENHANCING CFD PREDICTIONS FOR THE GRIPEN AIRCRAFT
P.E. Eliasson, Saab, Sweden
We demonstrate the advantages we obtain with a fully implicit solution technique of the Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids. We show comparative results for several test cases with focus on large scale on the Gripen calculations leading to more than a factor of three reduction in computing time. In many cases we also get improved steady state convergence leading to improved accuracy.
  16:45 17:15 4.9.2 STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF NUMERICAL MODEL ENHANCEMENTS FOR AEROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN TRANSONIC FLOWS
J A. A. Lyrio, ITA, Brazil
This work focuses on the impact of recent improvements in numerical models for aerostructural analysis using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) framework called BRU3D-FSI. Results using the NASA CRM and the HIRENASD geometries are analyzed in terms of wing pressure distribution, integrated aerodynamic coefficients and wing deflection, and compared with available experimental data.
  17:15 17:45 4.9.3 A STATIC STABILITY COMPARISON OF WIND TUNNEL AND COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC METHODS
K Fitzgerald, Ireland
The field of aircraft stability and control has traditionally relied on pertinent information from wind tunnel experiments, semi-empirical methods, and flight testing. The current study utilises the results from wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics to investigate the static longitudinal and lateral directional stability of the standard dynamics model.
  17:45 18:15 4.9.4 EXTERNAL-INTERNAL AERODYNAMIC COUPLING ON A TURBOPROP ENGINE USING THE BODY-FORCE METHOD
R. Moretti, ONERA - The French Aerospace Lab, France
This paper presents a numerical simulation of the aerodynamics around the Tech TP turboprop demonstrator, including internal parts such as the air inlet and the first stage of Ardiden3 centrifugal compressor simulated by Body-Force. The performance of the compressor has been analyzed on the isolated and installed configuration.
  18:15 18:45 4.9.5 DEVELOPMENT OF A CFD MODEL AND METHODOLOGY FOR THE INTERNAL FLOW SIMULATION IN A HYDROGEN-POWERED UAV
A Porcarelli, KTH (now at TU Delft), Netherlands
The onboard carrying of a hydrogen fuel cell leads to unexplored internal flow characteristics, including the introduction of water vapour. Given the strict environmental operational requirements of PEM fuel cells, a Runge-Kutta-based solver is developed and tested to effectively assess the evolution of the UAV internal bay flow temperature and humidity fields.
Reserve Paper 4.9.R CAD DEFORMATION FOR THE CONSIDERATION OF AEROELASTIC EFFECTS
Patrick Wegener¹, Stefan Keye¹; ¹DLR, Germany
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 4.9.R A FAST PREDICTION METHOD FOR DROPPING WATER OF FIRE FIGHTING AIRCRAFT BASED ON EXTERNAL BALLISTICS OF PARTICLES
H.-Y. Li, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
5.9Propulsion Systems
Chair:
Track 5
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  16:15 16:45 5.9.1 PARAMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF A DISTRIBUTED PROPULSION SYSTEM ON A REGIONAL AIRCRAF
D. de Rosa, CIRA - Italian Aerospace Research Centre, Italy
This paper proposes a study devoted to the investigation of the aerodynamic effects of distributed electric propulsion installation on a regional aircraft, computing the aerodynamic coefficients using high-fidelity CFD simulations via RANS approach.
Different propeller diameters and trust's levels were analysed, applying periodic boundary conditions on a finite span section of the wing, simulating an infinite rectangular wing.
The aim is to quantify the increase of aerodynamic coefficients with reference to power off condition and report data as function of propeller's characteristics in order to identify and propose a simplified analytical formulation to be implemented in low-fidelity tools, allowing a fast and reliable procedure for preliminary conceptual design.
  16:45 17:15 5.9.2 TRANSONIC NACELLE DESIGN FOR FUTURE MEDIUM RANGE AERO-ENGINES
B. D. J. Schreiner¹, D. G. MacManus¹, F. Tejero¹, F. Sanchez-Moreno¹, C. Sheaf, Rolls Royce, United Kingdom; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
Presenter: Fernando Tejero, Cranfield University

Aerodynamic design and optimisation of non-axisymmetric compact nacelles for medium range applications using CFD-in-the-loop to provide reduced cruise drag relative to conventional architectures. Evaluation of down selected geometries at on- and off-design conditions. Assessment of robustness and sensitivity to operating conditions using steady and unsteady 3D CFD.
  17:15 17:45 5.9.3 ENGINE/AIRFRAME INTEGRATION EFFECTS OF WING-MOUNTED UHBR NACELLES AT HIGH SPEED OFF DESIGN CONDITIONS
S. Spinner, DLR, Germany
The effects of installing a UHBR through flow nacelle on a transonic aircraft configuration are analyzed
by means of experimental data and supported by numerical simulations. The study focuses on
installation effects at high speed off design conditions. Distinct effects relevant for wing aerodynamics have been identified which in part cannot be explained by classical engine integration theory.
  17:45 18:15 5.9.4 STUDY OF EFFECTS ON THE WING\'S AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS DUE TO DISTRIBUTED PROPULSION OVER WINGSPAN
G.J. Resende, Aeronautics Institute of Technology, Brazil
Distributed propulsion (DP) is not a new concept, but recent advances in electric motors and batteries, along with the need for more environmentally friendly products, brought this concept back to the spotlight. This paper addresses two types of DP: wingtip-mounted propellers and distributed propellers along the wingspan. The benchmark of the analysis is the NASA's X-57 "Maxwell" demonstrator.
  18:15 18:45 5.9.5 A NOVEL EMBEDDED INLET BASED ON THE INTEGRATED DESIGN CONCEPT OF FUSELAGE AND INLET
Null Yan, Shenyang Aircraft Design and Research Institute, China
To improve the performance of submerged inlet, a novel submerged inlet is designed based on the integration design concept of fuselage and inlet. The performance is obtained by numerical simulation and the results indicate that changing the shape curvature of the fuselage can increase the performance of the inlet.
6.9Experimental Configuration Studies
Chair:
Track 6
03.2 - Experimental Aerodynamics
  16:15 16:45 6.9.1 WIND TUNNEL TEST OF A BLENDED WING BODY UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE
R. Mariani, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
A wind tunnel test campaign on a 37.5%-scale model on has been conducted to examine the aerodynamic characteristics of a blended wing body unmanned aerial vehicle. Boundary and support interference corrections have been pre-determined through numerical simulations of the model in the tunnel. Preliminary experimental and numerical results show good agreement validating the methodology.
  16:45 17:15 6.9.2 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON TRANSPORT AIRPLANE LONGITUDINAL STABILITY ENHANCEMENT IN CRITICAL ICING CONDITION
F.L.T Fan, CARDC, China
To improve the flight safety in icing conditions, a wing strake solution is proposed. Wing strake selection tests are performed in FL-11 wind tunnel using the 1:7 horizontal tail half model. A series of wing strakes are tested to be validated on the 1:15 full model in FL-12 wind tunnel.
The preliminary test results indicate that the wing strake can enhance the stability in landing condition.

  17:15 17:45 6.9.3 WIND TUNNEL EXPERIMENT OF TAXIDERMY BLACK-TAILED GULL(LARUS CRASSIROSTRIS) AND BLACK KITE (MILVUS MIGRANS)
N. Kishimoto, Setsunan University, Japan
We obtained basic aerodynamic characteristics through wind tunnel experiments using taxidermy black-tailed gull and black kite as a first step. Instead of commercially available taxidermy birds, we collaborated with ornithologist researchers to select accessible and useful birds and to create taxidermy birds in the most desirable shape. In this paper, we report on the details and results of the experiment conducted in the JAXA's low-speed large wind tunnel.
  17:45 18:15 6.9.4 INFLUENCE OF MANEUVERING PROCESS ON PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF BELLY INLET OF AIRCRAFT
B.-B. Xu, China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, China
In order to obtain the influence of maneuvering process on the aerodynamics characteristics of inlet, the dynamic inlet wind tunnel experiment was performed in ?3.2m wind tunnel of the CARDC. For the inlet located at the belly of aircraft, the pitching maneuver has small effect , while the sideslip maneuver has larger effect on aerodynamic characteristics of inlet.
  18:15 18:45 6.9.5 ANALYSIS OF LOW-SPEED AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BUSEMANN BIPLANE AIRFOIL INSTALLED HIGH LIFT DEVICES
T. Nguyen, Department of Aerospace Engineering, National Defense Academy, Japan
In this paper, the effects of leading-edge flaps and trailing-edge flaps on the low-speed performance of supersonic Busemann biplane are clarified by wind tunnel tests and CFD simulations. Also, the staggering wing incorporated flaps also investigated. The measured system measures consist of the three-component balance system and a turntable, designed in the test section's sidewall. The position of the hinges of flaps is 0.3 times of chord length away from the leading edge and trailing edges. The stagger is set of 0.25 and 0.5 times of chord length. The results of single configurations showed the increment of lift and drag when flaps are installed. The lift slopes are nearly constant in the case of upper elements with the deflection of trailing flap lower than 30°. In cases of the lower element, the lift slope decreases when the deflection of the trailing-edge flap increases. The leading-edge flap makes the lift slope increase in both upper and lower elements. The results of biplane configurations show the increment in lift and drag when flap installed, as results of conventional monoplane wing. The results of the Busemann biplane (baseline configuration) show a good agreement with references and CFD data. When a trailing-edge flap is installed, the lift slope decreases when the deflection of the trailing flap increases. Also, the proportion of lower element to total lift and drag decreases when deflection increases at the angle of attack larger than 0°. The leading-edge flap and the stagger make the lift slope increase. Both flaps and stagger also make the maximum lift increase and decrease the stall angle compared with the baseline model. The stagger also makes the proportion of lower wing to total lift and drag decrease at the angle of attack larger than 0°.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 6.9.R EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON NON-COMMAND MOTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SMALL ASPECT RATIO FLYING WING
YJ Shen, China
7.9Advances in Aerostructures
Chair:
Track 7
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  16:15 16:45 7.9.1 TOWARDS VIRTUAL FATIGUE TESTING: DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES FOR METALLIC AND COMPOSITES STRUCTURES
I. Rivero Arevalo, Airbus Defence and Space, Spain
An overview of the latest developments carried out at Airbus for Military Aircraft programs towards virtual fatigue testing will be presented emphasizing the most relevant specific needs in terms of virtual fatigue testing technology for both metallic and composite structures, and also an identification of the main developments to be addressed for virtual fatigue testing effective implementation.
  16:45 17:15 7.9.2 VARIATIONS IN STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF LATTICE STRUCTURES DEPENDING ON UNIT CELL SHAPE FOR MORPHING WINGS
Y. Nishijima, National Defense Academy of Japan, Japan
Lattice structures consisting of five different unit cell types were developed and subjected to tests. The results indicated that some lattices have isotropic characteristics and others have anisotropic characteristics depending on the unit cell. By applying the above anisotropic properties, it is possible to generate arbitrary deformations of the structure in response to inputs from actuators.
  17:15 17:45 7.9.3 PROPOSITION OF A NEW QUALIFICATION IMPACT TEST FOR AEROSPACE SMART STRUCTURES
G. Gastaldo, ISAE-SUPAERO, France
Piezoelectric materials are employed in several aerospace applications. It is thus necessary to ensure their correct functioning for critical events such as impacts. This paper proposes a novel test standard method to measure and qualify the damage resistance of smart PZT structures to a drop-weight impact event through the quantification of electromechanical characteristics.
  17:45 18:15 7.9.4 DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURAL BONDED REPAIRS FOR A350XWB CFRP AIRFRAME
R. Starikov, Airbus Operations GmbH / Airframe Competence Repair Methods , Germany
Starting from the first Airbus A300 during the last 50 years Airbus has continuously been introducing composite technology in airframe structures. With the latest A350XWB development, more than 50% weight of the airframe are made from composite materials. Indeed, the use of composites expanded far beyond fairings, ailerons, sharklets, vertical and horizontal tails, and wing box, to the entire fuselage airframe, featuring the first ever build pressurized CFRP fuselage barrels in the history of Airbus airframe development. Despite long experience dealing with composite structures and their reparability aspects, the development of A350XWB CFRP fuselage focused on enabling structural bonded repairs for in-production and in-service applications.

Comparing to an alternative repair method with bolted solutions, bonded repairs offer less penalizing impact on the baseline composite structure. In addition, they imply no footprint from the aesthetic point of view and ensure better aerodynamic performance of the repaired airframe comparing to external skin doubler bolted repairs.

This paper gives an overview of various steps towards the qualification of bonded structural repairs, including the execution of bonded repair test pyramid, the development of dedicated stress methods and repair design principles, and the selection of dedicated repair materials and processes. All these require the robustness demonstration of structural bonded repair technology on one side, and, on the other side, composite airframe with such type of repairs to be fulfilling aviation regulators’ requirements applicable for structural bonded repairs to primary composite airframe.”

  18:15 18:45 7.9.5 PERIDYNAMIC SIMULATION PLATTFORM TO DETERMINE VIRTUAL ALLOWABLES OF MANUFACTURING DEVIATIONS
C. Willberg, German Aerospace Center, Germany
Presenter: Christian Willberg, German Aerospace Center

In order to analyze complex and large scale structural mechanical problems, simulation on all levels of the aircraft design process efficient simulation frameworks are required. This can be reached by digitalization. Tools are not understood as one large software tool, but the interaction and communication of several tools. If properly design no additional wrapper are needed between interfaces. The advantages are that specialist could focus in their field and tools can be used more widely. In this talk we want to present Peridynamics based structural mechanics simulation plattform. The framework allows the analysis of fracture mechanical problems and can for example be used to determine simulation based allowables.
Reserve Paper 7.9.R X-BAND PASS FREQUENCY SELECTIVE SURFACE RASORBER APPLICATION IN RADOMES
X Huang, China
8.9Lift and Stall Control
Chair: C. Breitsamter
Track 8
03.3 - Basic Fluid Dynamics and Flow Control
  16:15 16:45 8.9.1 OPTIMIZATION STUDY ON THE FLOW SEPARATION CONTROL USING A SAWTOOTH PLASMA ACTUATOR
L. Wang, Beihang University, China; C.W. Wong¹, Y. Zhou¹; ¹Harbin Institute of Technology, China
With aim to improve the flow control performance and reduce the power consumption of Dielectric Barrier Discharge plasma actuator, an novel configuration of plasma actuator with sawtooth electrodes was developed. Under the optimum unsteady actuation modes, the power consumption reduced by 95% but the applicable Reynolds numbers is tripled. This flow control technique is good option to UAV and MAV.
  16:45 17:15 8.9.2 IMPROVING STALL CHARACTERISTICS OF UCAV WING WITH VORTEX GENERATORS
P.E. Eliasson, Saab, Sweden
We study a UCAV configuration by CFD and investigate how rows of small
VGs can improve its stalling characteristics. The VGs are imagined to
work similar to the stall fence for Saab J32. By optimizing the
placement and strength of the VGs we demonstrate how the vortical flow
patterns can be controlled.
  17:15 17:45 8.9.3 PRELIMINARY STUDY ON A FLUIDIC DEVICE SUPPORTING AIRCRAFT-FLIGHT CONTROL
WIENCZYSLAW STALEWSKI, Lukasiewicz Research Network- Institute of Aviation, Poland
A novel fluidic device concept designed to support aircraft control through the control of velocity circulation around an aircraft wing has been developed and pre-investigated based on a computational approach. The device operates based on simultaneous blowing and suction through the mini-nozzles located at the trailing edge of any lifting or control surface of aircraft.
  17:45 18:15 8.9.4 EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE LIFT PRODUCTION MECHANISMS ON AN OSCILLATING TRAILING-EDGE FLAP
M. J. Bremm, RWTH Aachen University , Germany
An oscillating trailing-edge flap of a rigid aerofoil is investigated, to gain a better understanding of the unsteady aerodynamic phenomena of lift increase due to trailing-edge flap oscillations. Therefore, the contribution of lift due to circulation and "added mass" effects are studied in an experimental approach. The unsteady aerodynamic forces and the unsteady flow fields are measured.
  18:15 18:45 8.9.5 INVESTIGATION ON CORNER STALL AND FLOW CONTROL IN LINEAR COMPRESSOR CASCADE BASED ON MODIFIED SPALART-ALLMARAS MODEL
H.L. Zhu Zhu, Beijing Institute of Technology, China
To accurately predict corner stall, the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model modified with helicity is recalibrated. Based on the recalibrated modified SA model, the investigation on corner stall control in a modified NACA65 blade by the blended blade and endwall (BBEW) technique is carried out. The results provide a reference for the selection of turbulence models and the design of the BBEW schemes.
9.9Combustion & Heat Transfer
Chair: S. Yun
Track 9
05 - Propulsion
  16:15 16:45 9.9.1 THE IMPACT OF REACTION MECHANISM COMPLEXITY IN LES MODELING OF LIQUID KEROSENE SPRAY COMBUSTION
A. Åkerblom, Lund University, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Div. of Heat Transfer, Sweden
Due to the high computational cost of LES and detailed chemistry models for aviation fuel, reaction mechanisms employed for finite-rate combustion in LES must be compact yet realistic. The influence of reaction mechanism complexity on LES results should therefore be measured, so that appropriate mechanisms can be chosen for future studies and new LES-optimized mechanisms can be developed.
  16:45 17:15 9.9.2 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF PROPAGATION OF DETONATION WAVE PLUNGING ENTRY THE FUEL JET TRAIN INSIDE RDC
F.-W. Wang, Tokai University, Japan
In this paper, to clarify the effect of detonation propagation by incomplete fuel mixing in RDC, construct a linear detonation channel that simulate the RDC flow field and carried out a numerical analysis of propagation of detonation wave plunging entry the combustible gas jet train with different mixing states.
  17:15 17:45 9.9.3 RESEARCH ON FLOW HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF HEAT EXCHANGER BASED ON BIONIC FRACTAL STRUCTURE
B-Y Yu, Shenyang Aeroengine Research Institute, Aero Engine Corporation , China
In this paper, based on the bionic fractal idea, a typical alveolar pores heat exchanger was designed, and the flow heat transfer in the heat exchanger was numerically simulated. The experimental parts were processed and experimented with 3D printing technology, and the numerical simulation results were verified. The results show that the typical alveolar pores heat exchanger has obvious advantages such as high heat transfer area, small pressure drop, and has good flow heat transfer characteristics.
  17:45 18:15 9.9.4 LES OF COMBUSTION DYNAMICS IN AN ETHYLENEHYDROGEN-AIR RAMJET
N. Z Zettervall, Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Sweden
A computational study using Large Eddy Simulations to investigate combustion dynamics in an ethylene-hydrogen-air ramjet test rig. The flame in the current set-up changes its anchoring point between a jet-wake stabilized and a cavity-stabilized position. The highly dynamic combustion behaviour is investigated numerically and compared against previously published experimental data.
  18:15 18:45 9.9.5 HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN OXYGEN COMBUSTION KINETIC ASSESSMENT FOR AIR-BREATHING PROPULSION SUPERSONIC GREEN AVIATION
S.-G. Saccone, CIRA - Italian Aerospace Research Centre , Italy
This work contributes to a more thorough understanding of the complex and nonlinear chemical kinetic behavior of hydrogen/oxygen combustion at intermediate and high pressure conditions up to about 33 atm that are usually encountered in supersonic, air-breathing green aviation.
Reserve Paper 9.9.R STUDY ON THE APPLICATION OF EMULSION FUEL IN SMALL JET ENGINES
A.S. Satou, Kanazawa institute of technology , Japan
10.9Flight Test and Equipment 2
Chair: L. Campos
Track 10
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  16:15 16:45 10.9.1 FREE FLIGHT TEST IN HORIZONTAL WIND TUNNEL WITH POWERED AIRCRAFT
Wang-Jian-Feng:W Wang, AVIC Aerodynamics Research Institute, China
Modern advanced layout aircraft is faced with multi-disciplinary coupling problems such as aerodynamic layout and flight control system design. In order to carry out aerodynamic/flight/control integration research at the early stage of design, shorten the development cycle and reduce the development cost, a model free flight test system was established in 8m×6m open wind tunnel based on similarity criterion.
  16:45 17:15 10.9.2 THE NEW DLR FLIGHT CONTROL TESTBED ISTAR - DEVELOPMENT OF THE EFCS
D. Niedermeier, DLR (German Aerospace Center), Germany
This paper describes the experimental flight control system design of DLR’s new flight control testbed Falcon 2000LX ISTAR. The integration of an experimental flight control system will enbale the aircraft to be used as Variable Stability System (VSS) and for rapid inflight testing of any Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) research software application.
  17:15 17:45 10.9.3 RAPID PROTOTYPING IN AIRCRAFT DESIGN USING CFD, WIND TUNNEL AND FLIGHT TESTING
R. Larsson, Saab Aeronautics, Sweden
This paper describes the process and methods used for rapid prototyping, sub-scale flight-testing and analysis
of an aircraft design. New wings have been designed for a radio controlled flying demonstrator. The results
can be used in education and research to further enhance and explore the field of Aeronautical engineering.
  17:45 18:15 10.9.4 SYNTHETIC AIR DATA A COMPARATIVE PRACTICAL STUDY
VLM Veras, Embraer, Brazil
Synthetic Air Data Systems are in its essence airspeed estimation algorithms. Commonly, estimation algorithms are built based on measurements from which airspeed can be calculated. This paper presents simulations using F16 model performing simple maneuvers using some proposed algorithms that use inertial sensors and GPS. The possibility to use an angle-of-attack and/or temperature probes is also discussed. We also discuss practical aspects regarding airspeed, altitude and temperature estimations.
  18:15 18:45 10.9.5 AUTOMATIC AIR TO AIR REFUELING FLIGHT CONTROL LAWS
M.J Martinez, Spain
All concepts and functionalities developed in this paper have been flown and tested in dedicated development flights during the last years with the A310-MRTT and A330-MRTT tankers. These flight tests have been fulfilled satisfactorily and the system is aimed to be certified during 2022, proving that this technology has a great future in the aerial refueling world.
11.9MBSE 1
Chair: K. Amadori
Track 11
02 - Systems Engineering and Integration
  16:15 16:45 11.9.1 THE AGILE 4.0 MBSE-MDAO DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK: OVERVIEW AND ASSESSMENT
L. Boggero, DLR, Germany
A new methodology and digital technologies in the context of MBSE and MDAO are developed in the project. The methodology and the technologies are part of the AGILE 4.0 MBSE-MDAO Development Framework. This paper aims at presenting an overview of this framework, and assess its efficacy, i.e. demonstrate that the proposed framework improves the current state-of-the-art.
  16:45 17:15 11.9.2 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL SLOSH IN A GENERIC FIGHTER WING TANK CONFIGURATION
L.S. Debschütz, Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Germany
Real-time modeling of dynamic fuel slosh effects in the Flight Control System design and clearance process of highly agile unstable aircraft configurations is gaining importance as fuel-to-weight ratios increase on modern fighter planes. A ground test to validate associated simulations in the context of typical fighter applications is outlined in the presented paper.
  17:15 17:45 11.9.3 COUPLING OF MODEL-BASED SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND SAFETY ANALYSIS IN CONCEPTUAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEM DESIGN
S. M. Lübbe, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
DLR conducted a design study for conceptual design of the Landing Gear System as part of their project MOBEFAS.
An approach to model ARP4761 and ARP454A methods in aircraft system design within an MBSE model has been applied.
It tracks safety related dependencies between systems and system levels. The adequacy and effectiveness of the method is examined.
  17:45 18:15 11.9.4 ONTOLOGY-ASSISTED AIRCRAFT CONCEPT GENERATION
L. Knöös Franzén, Linköping University, Sweden
This paper presents a method for generating an aircraft concept from an ontology represented design space, where relevant information subsequently can be extracted and expanded through different approaches. A case study is performed to illustrate how the method can be used to estimate the characteristics of an existing aircraft and to perform an initial geometrical sizing.
  18:15 18:45 11.9.5 HYBRID ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION FOR A COMMUTER AIRCRAFT
P Krus, Linköping university, Sweden
In this paper it is shown how simulation based optimization can be used to investigate the impact of development of different technologies on the feasibility of electrical aircraft. This work investigates the design of an electric/hydrogen-powered commuter aircraft (certified according to CS/FAR 23). Based on a dynamic holistic cyber-physical system model with a 6DOF flight dynamics model for mission simulation
12.9DLR/LuFo session on the green deal (invited)
Chair: tbd
Track 12
15 - Guest lectures
  16:15 16:45 12.9.1 FIT FOR CHANGE
A. Klöckner, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Germany
In future, aviation will continue to connect the world’s people, cultures and economic regions. However, a comprehensive transformation is necessary, because by the middle of the century, the economy and society are to be climate-neutral within the framework of the European Green Deal. To that end, DLR presents an aviation strategy that sets out a research path to achieve climate-neutral flight.
  16:45 17:15 12.9.2 NOVEL PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE AVIATION
C. Voigt, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Germany
The major share of aviation’s climate impact is driven by contrails and aircraft CO2 emissions. The German Aerospace Centre fosters projects with the goal to reduce the aviation’s climate impact by sustainable fuels, technological progress, and aircraft routing, in order to give guidance for future climate-friendly aviation.
  17:15 17:45 12.9.3 CITY-ATM – LIFE DRONE DEMONSTRATIONS OF NEW CONCEPT ELEMENTS ENABLING OPERATIONS IN URBAN AIRSPACE
A. Kuenz, DLR German Aerospace Center, Institute of Flight Guidance, Germany
This paper describes the work performed in the City-ATM project. Besides explaining the concept enabling UAS operations in urban areas, a focus is put on the description of three life flight trial demonstrations carried out in Hamburg City and at the National Experimental Test Center in Cochstedt.
  17:45 18:15 12.9.4 DESIGN,MANUFACTURING & CERTIFICATION STRATEGIES FOR INNOVATIVE HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS TO ENABLE ZERO EMISSION AVIATION
- Wiedemann, DLR, Germany
In the present contribution, relevant topics are discussed regarding the integration of liquid hydrogen storage systems made of CFRP into an aircraft. This includes the design, manufacturing and the certification of such LH2-tanks. In particular for the certification, specific requirements and methods to show compliance need to be established.
  18:15 18:45 12.9.5 ELIMINATING CLIMATE IMPACT FROM AVIATION – REVIEW OF PROMISING AIRCRAFT CONCEPTS AND ENABLING TECHNOLOGY BRICKS
J. Hartmann, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
While increasing the disciplines involved in the technology impact assessment for climate neutral flight the perimeter of the aircraft design methods of components and new technologies must be increased at the same time. One of the key results is that the materialization of envisaged improvements of new technologies is declining when more details are properly modelled and considered.
13.9Trajectory
Chair:
Track 13
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  16:15 16:45 13.9.1 ATCO STRATEGIES IN TACTICAL TBO: A SIMULATOR STUDY
M. Nylin¹, J. Nilsson¹, J. Lundberg², M. Bång²; ¹LiU/LFV, Sweden ;²LiU, Sweden
Trajectory based management is an important concept in future air traffic management. However, strategic optimization may conflict with tactical traffic solutions if trajectories are not kept intact. We conducted a real-time simulation study with air traffic controllers to explore how tactical trajectory management affects the controllers’ strategies for conflict resolution.
  16:45 17:15 13.9.2 TRAJECTORY-BASED OPERATIONS TO IMPROVE LONG-RANGE AIR TRAFFIC FLOW MANAGEMENT
G Enea, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, United States
Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO) is a new paradigm for managing air traffic by using controlled times along flight routes in order to create a schedule for orderly and efficient traffic flows. Currently used in the US and Australia to manage flights close to their arrival destination, in the future TBO is planned to be extended to control flights farther and farther away from their destination airport in order to increase the scope of potential benefits from this concept. However, in order to extend the TBO concept, the challenges of Long-Range Air Traffic Flow Management (LR-ATFM) need to be understood and mitigated given they are impacted by multiple sources of uncertainty affecting the creation of an accurate schedule of flights, several hours in advance. By characterizing the main sources of uncertainty affecting TBO and LR-ATFM, this paper will address the key areas to integrate these concepts: data exchange necessary, wind and weather data needs, type of control to apply (Ground Delays, Extended Metering, etc.)
  17:15 17:45 13.9.3 ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY-OPTIMAL APPROACHES WITH INCREASED GLIDESLOPE ANGLES
D. Vechtel¹, P. Pauly¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
A means to reduce noise during approach is to increase the glideslope angle. The steeper the glidepath, the worse aircraft can reduce their speed to landing speed. Pilots configure the aircraft earlier or even use spoilers with deteriorating effects on noise. The aim of this work is to analyse the most influencing factors on the ability of aircraft to fly steeper approaches.
  17:45 18:15 13.9.4 COMPETITIVITY, STRATEGY AND VALUE ON AIRPORTS A METHOD OF DIAGNOSIS, SUGGESTIONS AND ACTIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL AIRPORTS
A.H.O. Carvalho, PUC Minas - Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Brazil
The study identifies competitivity factors influencing airports, considering macroenvironment, market, corporate, and internal scenarios, estimating actions to minimize negative & maximize positive competitive factors identified from literature, secondary data, questionnaires answered by relevant professionals, and airports assessed in their fundamental characteristics in a comparative approach.
  18:15 18:45 13.9.5 AIRCRAFT MASS ESTIMATION USING CRUISE FLIGHT PROFILE
R. Mori, ENRI, Japan
This paper proposes a new mass estimation method using the data of cruise segment. A clustering technique is used to extract the flight segment where the aircraft appears to fly near the cost-optimal altitude, and the mean absolute error of 3.29 % is achieved.
Reserve Paper 13.9.R KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY FROM A LANDING AIRCRAFT: ENERGY ANALYSIS, ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC PROSPECTS
A. Batra, INSTITUTE OF AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGIES, UNIVERSITY OF MALTA, Malta
14.9System Design
Chair:
Track 14
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  16:15 16:45 14.9.1 ENERGY-BASED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE DESIGN - ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM
A. Joksimovic, ISAE-SUPAERO, France
First principles of physics and systems engineering are leveraged to yield a method for material aeroplane systems architecture design starting from basic abstract functional architectures. The focus is air conditioning system, but the method is generic. The flexibility of the method opens doors to identifying functional synergies with other systems for overall aeroplane energy efficiency gain.
  16:45 17:15 14.9.2 DEFINITION OF CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CERTIFICATION OF ON-BOARD SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURES
C Cabaleiro, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
The aim is to establish a list of rules and requirements to be used to define the connections among on-board systems during architecture design to find certifiable solutions. The connectivity requirements shall be used as a certification check while evaluating the impact of new innovative architectures and is the first step to achieve a virtual certification process during on-board systems design.
  17:15 17:45 14.9.3 A SYSTEM INTEGRATOR’S PERSPECTIVE ON VEHICLE SYSTEM EVALUATION AT THE AIRCRAFT CONCEPT STAGE
A.D Drego, SAAB AERONAUTICS, Sweden
Identification of unanticipated behavior can determine if a vehicle system architecture is feasible for an aircraft or not. This paper discusses this issue by mostly using the ECS for a manned fighter aircraft as a case study. The outcomes from this paper could also provide guidance on how other vehicle systems could be evaluated at the aircraft concept stage.
  17:45 18:15 14.9.4 EXTENSIBLE AIRCRAFT FUSELAGE MODEL GENERATION FOR A MULTIDISCIPLINARY, MULTI-FIDELITY CONTEXT
J.-N. Walther, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
In this paper, a knowledge-based approach to support analysis model generation based on a central product data format is proposed. It is implemented here for the fuselage and aims to improve consistency among the models used by different contributors in collaborative multi-disciplinary design optimization, while also being open novel product architectures such as fuselage-mounted hydrogen tanks.
  18:15 18:45 14.9.5 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF THERMAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR HYPERSONIC AIRCRAFT
SP Nambiar, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Recent high speed aircraft design studies, like STRATOFLY MR3, were done to increase the TRL of aircraft and optimizing its performance within the supersonic range. Also these studies indicated the importance of aircraft systems interface analysis, in increasing the TRL of the aircraft. This paper presents a mathematical model for the TEMS taking STRATOFLY MR3 aircraft as the baseline, based on Conceptual Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (CMDO).
Reserve Paper 14.9.R HYDRO ENVIRONMENTAL MAPPING TOOL USING SWARMS AND MACHINE LEARNING, UAV & USV
RKR Kuntz Rangel, BRVANT / BRV UAV& Flight Systems , Brazil
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 14.9.R DYNAMIC MODEL AND EXPERIMENT INVESTIGATION OF PIEZOELECTRIC-POWERED DRAGONFLY-SCALE WING FLAPPING
W.-L Wang, China
1.10Selected Highlights from Clean sky/Clean Aviation 1 (invited)
Chair: A. Krein
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  10:00 10:30 1.10.1 CS2 PROGRAMME OVERVIEW
S. Dubious, France
Clean Sky 2 is currently the largest European research programme developing innovative, cutting-edge technology aimed at reducing CO2, gas emissions and noise levels produced by aircraft. Funded by the EU’s Horizon 2020 programme with €1.8 billion over 10 years, Clean Sky contributes to strengthening European aero-industry collaboration, global leadership and competitiveness by delivering innovative solutions for the aviation sector. In this presentation, progress up to date will be highlighted, covering the latest technical achievements made.
  10:30 11:00 1.10.2 SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT OF TOMORROW - INTEGRATED MULTIFUNCTIONAL FUSELAGE DEMONSTRATOR
Y.C. Roth, Germany
Sustainability is a key element for future commercial aircraft and new technologies need to meet very challenging requirements. In the framework of Clean Sky 2 - Large Passenger Aircraft platform, a consortium led by Airbus consisting of universities, research centers and industrial partners across Europe has been established with the mission to mature a set of innovative technologies and integrate them into one flagship demonstrator: the Multifunctional Fuselage Demonstrator (MFFD). Technologies have been matured on a large scale for this 8-meter long demonstrator entirely made of thermoplastics and referring to a single aisle aircraft. Key enablers include the use of sustainable materials like thermoplastic composites enabling dustless assembly through welding, multifunctional integration of cabin systems and the use of pre-equipped modules to ease pax floor installation.
  11:00 11:30 1.10.3 OPEN FAN ENGINE ARCHITECTURE FOR NEXT GENERATION SMR
C. Diette, France
The Clean Sky 2 programme is supporting a Technology maturation plan through modules & rigs ground demonstrations to prepare the design of a scale 1 Engine Ground Test Demonstrator. Multiple maturation studies have been performed to identify and select an innovative engine architecture capable to achieve 20% of CO2 reduction. The key features of the GTD Engine will include a large open fan with a variable pitch, an integrated gearbox, a high speed booster and a high speed low pressure turbine. Clean Sky 2 is contributing to the preliminary design phase of the GTD Engine with the aim to validate the new engine architecture and the Low Pressure Modules.
  11:30 12:00 1.10.4 PROGRESS IN WING DESIGN, STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES
J. Lery, France
The presentation describes the activities performed on Wings by the Leaders Airbus, Saab, and Dassault Aviation, and the Core Partners ONERA and DLR (NACOR consortium) in the frame of Clean Sky 2 Airframe ITD. The activities are covering various Technology Streams from the Airframe ITD “High Performance & Energy Efficiency” Activity Line, with the objective to mature wing technologies spanning from Natural Laminar Flow, composite structure technologies, electrical wing ice protection systems, and active load and flutter control. Following ground testing that is being carried out under Clean Sky 2 Airframe ITD, technology maturation will continue under Clean Aviation to meet the 2030/35 EIS target for implementation in future products.
The presentation describes the activities performed on Wings by the Leaders Airbus, Saab, and Dassault Aviation, and the Core Partners ONERA and DLR (NACOR consortium) in the frame of Clean Sky 2 Airframe ITD. The activities are covering various Technology Streams from the Airframe ITD “High Performance & Energy Efficiency” Activity Line, with the objective to mature wing technologies spanning from Natural Laminar Flow, composite structure technologies, electrical wing ice protection systems, and active load and flutter control. Following ground testing that is being carried out under Clean Sky 2 Airframe ITD, technology maturation will continue under Clean Aviation to meet the 2030/35 EIS target for implementation in future products.

  12:00 12:30 1.10.5 THE CLEAN SKY 2 TECHNOLOGY EVALUATOR 1ST GLOBAL ASSESSMENT RESULTS
J.F. Brouckaert, Belgium
The 1st Global Assessment of the Technology Evaluator has been a milestone in the timeline of activities of Clean Sky 2 programme. Based on a set of 11 concept aircraft, designed on the basis of various advanced technologies developed under the CS2 programme (aerodynamics, engines, airframe, systems), the Technology Evaluator has performed a first assessment at three major levels: aircraft mission level, airport level and fleet level. The present paper/presentation will describe the various CS2 concepts (commuter, regional, short-medium range and long range) including their performance improvements based on the integration of new technologies, as well as their environmental impact (CO2, NOx and Noise) at airport and air transport system level when introduced into the fleet forecast performed by DLR up to 2050.
2.10Sustainable Aircraft 2
Chair: T. Gibson
Track 2
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  10:00 10:30 2.10.1 COMBINED APPLICATION OF HYBRID LAMINAR FLOW CONTROL AND VARIABLE CAMBER IN PRELIMINARY AIRCRAFT DESIGN
T. Effing, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
Within this work, an approach to integrate the combined application of hybrid laminar flow control and variable camber into the preliminary aircraft design suite MICADO is presented. The authors apply this methodology to a turbulent mid-range technology demonstrator. The goal is to demonstrate the potential of the combined application of the two technologies on overall aircraft design level.
  10:30 11:00 2.10.2 CLEAN-SKY 2 LARGE PASSENGER AIRCRAFT PLATFORM 1 ADVANCED ENGINE AND AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATIONS
D-K Kierbel, AIRBUS SAS, France
The Clean-Sky 2 Large Passenger Aircraft platform1 aims at integrating the most fuel efficient propulsion concepts into compatible airframe configurations, for the next generations of short and long range aircrafts and also studying laminarity as well as new radical aircraft configuration
concepts.

The task is done with different concepts, which use multiple demonstrators to evaluate them.
Platform 1 covers 16 different demonstrators. Airbus cooperates with many partners to achieve these ambitious objectives.
Overall Platform 1 gross Budget from 2014 to 2023: 600mEuros incl. all Partners

Main Partners involved: Rolls Royce, Safran, General Electrics, Avio Aero, Liebherr, Dassault Aviation, Aernnova, Sonaca, GKN, Fokker, DLR, CIRA, NLR, Fraunhofer, Onera, TU Delft, Akira, FIDAMC, Erneo
  11:00 11:30 2.10.3 AERODYNAMIC DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF HLFC WINGS WITHIN THE EUROPEAN PROJECT HLFC-WIN
Thomas Streit¹, Martin Kruse¹, Thomas Kilian¹, Ilias Petropoulos, ONERA, France; Judith v Geyr¹; ¹DLR, Germany
Results for the numerical aerodynamic design and analysis of a long range, large passenger aircraft equipped with a Hybrid Laminar Flow Control (HLFC) system are presented. In addition, extensions of the numerical methods used to predict the transition line position in the case of suction are described.
  11:30 12:00 2.10.4 ECONOMICS OF SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL AIR MOBILITY
PDF de Felipe , Imperial College London, United Kingdom
Study presents a novel simple sizing method for 4 different architectures of propulsion
systems which include parallel and series hybrids, hydrogen fuel cell and finally fully electric retrofits.
Performance is analysed on a typical regional mission and shows that parallel retrofits are able to
save up to 20% in fuel. The hydrogen retrofit has
the greatest improvement in operating costs.
  12:00 12:30 2.10.5 TOWARD A GREENER AIRCRAFT ARCHITECTURE
FVDSJ Vidal de Saint Jean, Dassault Aviation, France
Greener aircraft is no longer an ambition, but a necessity. It requires to work simultaneously on the aircraft itself, on everyday operations and on the type of fuel used (SAF). Focusing on the platform, the challenge is to build an aircraft using all the different studies in every disciplines around aircraft performances. Indeed, this presentation will show how new technologies studied by Dassault tends to be integrated in a future concept able to gain on carbon footprint while minimizing community noise.

In the field of aerodynamics, the specificities of business jets, size and altitude of flight, make it easier to obtain an extended laminarity by adapting the aerodynamic design and the manufacturing process. A laminar high aspect ratio wing is being studied.
In terms of structural conception, this wing should be in composite to reduce weight penalty and ensure feasibility of the shape. Flutter control and load alleviation are managed by fly-by-wire to optimize the wing conception.
From a system point of view, hot air ice protection system is no more feasible due to the coupling of high wing span with small core engine. An electrical wing ice protection system is then mandatory.
Moreover, to allow short root chords, main landing gears usually under wings, have to be moved under the fuselage. This architecture leads to specific constraints for business jet with smaller diameter than liners.
Going further in reducing the carbon footprint requires moving towards hybrid powerplant, and thus the use of green hydrogen as an alternate to Kerosene. It would bring full decarbonisation; the feasibility of the integration of large and heavy pressurized tanks is explored in that direction.

The greener aircraft concept, is a complex equilibrium dealing with the above technologies. Timely deployment of aircrafts integrating major innovations requires that certification of such aircrafts is prepared in parallel to technology development; a dedicated
Reserve Paper 2.10.R DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE AND ECO-FRIENDLY AIRFRAME TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE AIRCRAFT LIFE CYCLE ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT
L.A.S.A Prado¹, S. Coskun¹, T.S.G. Das¹, A. Kötter¹; ¹Capgemini Engineering / Altran Deutschland und SAS KG, Germany
Presenter: Luis Antonio Sanchez de Almeida Prado, Capgemini Engineering / Altran Deutschland und SAS KG
3.10Hybrid-Electric Aircraft & LH2 3
Chair: R. Gerhards
Track 3
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  10:00 10:30 3.10.1 SCALABILITY ANALYSIS OF RADICAL TECHNOLOGIES TO VARIOUS AIRCRAFT CLASS - PART I: INITIAL DESIGNS
M.F.M. Hoogreef, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Various research initiatives in hybrid-electric aviation typically address only a single vehicle or single vehicle class. However, novel propulsion and energy solutions can be differently applicable in different vehicle classes. The objective of is to identify areas suitable for scaling, as well as limitations/challenges for application of radical technologies on different aircraft classes.
  10:30 11:00 3.10.2 ICAS SUBSONIC SINGLE AFT ENGINE (SUSAN) TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT CONCEPT AND TRADE SPACE EXPLORATION OVERVIEW
R. H. Jansen, NASA Glenn Research Center, United States
A trade space exploration of a new NASA regional transport aircraft concept called the SUbsonic Single Aft eNgine (SUSAN) Electrofan is presented. The SUSAN concept uses a 20MW Electrified Aircraft Propulsion (EAP) system to enable advance Propulsion Airframe Integration (PAI) in transport category aircraft. This paper presents the status of the trade space exploration; however the concept definition is not finished.
  11:00 11:30 3.10.3 SCALABILITY ANALYSIS OF RADICAL TECHNOLOGIES TO VARIOUS AIRCRAFT CLASS - PART II: SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
V.O. Bonnin, TU Delft / Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Netherlands
This study aims at providing a landscape of opportunities and limitations for hybrid-electric aircraft (HEA) by
investigating several technological combinations applied to various aircraft classes. The preliminary sizing
of HEA using different hybrid-electric powertrain architectures, combined with various distributed propulsion
layouts is conducted. The relative benefit of resulting HEA, with respect to a conventional design, are then
compared on the basis of several performance metric.

  11:30 12:00 3.10.4 REGIONAL TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT DESIGN USING TURBO-ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTED PROPULSION SYSTEM
P. Raj, Virginia Tech, United States
The overall objective of the present research is to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of integrating a turbo-electric distributed propulsion (TEDiP) system for a 70-passenger ATR 72-500 aircraft with a nominal range of 1,500 km at a cruise speed of 510 km per hour. The goal is to significantly energy efficiency and reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere.
  12:00 12:30 3.10.5 RETROFITTING EXISTING AIRCRAFT WITH HYDROGEN PROPULSION
A.S.J. van Heerden, Cranfield University, United Kingdom
The aim of the research described in this paper is to assess different strategies for retrofitting existing regional aircraft with hydrogen propulsion. This could potentially lower development cost and accelerate the adoption of hydrogen as an aviation fuel. Performance and cost models were produced, and a commonality assessment was performed to identify the most promising retrofitting strategies.
Reserve Paper 3.10.R ARRIVING AT CERTIFIABLE NOVEL AIRLINER USING LIQUID HYDROGEN & EFFICIENCY METRICS
Raj (Dr) Nangia, Nangia, United Kingdom; Leslie (Mr) Hyde, Consulting, United Kingdom
4.10CFD Applications 2
Chair: L. Kiszkowiak
Track 4
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  10:00 10:30 4.10.1 STEADY-STATE AERODYNAMICS TIP GAP INFLUENCE IN A TRANSONIC LINEAR CASCADE AT NEAR STALL
CA Tavera Guerrero , KTH, Sweden
A steady-state aerodynamics for two tip gaps configurations in the KTH transonic linear cascade is presented. The experimental campaign is performed at two different tip clearances. The operational point is representative of a virtual compressor at near stall at part speed, producing a leading-edge separation bubble. Numerical results are compared to experimental data as a source of potential validation.
  10:30 11:00 4.10.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION OF A LYNX HELICOPTER LANDING IN THE BARROSO CORVETTE SHIP
G. A. L. da Silva, Aerothermal Solutions and Software Distributor LLC, United States
The present study objective is to simulate the helicopter landing on a ship under wind to verify the decrease in predictions errors at points near the landing deck.The present paper will compare the CFD LES results with previous CFD RANS results and experimental data. The conclusions of the present work will directly affect the SHOL definition by simulation mainly at landing deck proximities.
  11:00 11:30 4.10.3 NUMERICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF ROTORCRAFT PRESSURE ERROR CORRECTION BY UTILIZATION OF AIR DAMS
A.O. Sezer, Turkey
To achieve satisfying airspeed readings with pitot static systems during unsteady flight conditions, the static ports must be able to read free stream data. Installation of small barriers called air dams around static ports can help the system to achieve accurate airspeed readings. Different dam configurations are investigated utilizing computational fluid dynamics.
  11:30 12:00 4.10.4 PROGRESS ON CFD SIMULATIONS OF DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC PROPULSION CONCEPTS USING POWERFLOW
M V de Rosa Jacinto da Silva, TU Wien, Austria
The objective of this paper is to showcase the benefits and drawbacks of using the software PowerFLOW for
CFD simulations in Distributed Electric Propulsion. A discussion on the implications of the Lattice-Boltzmann
Method solver on mesh and physical setup is conducted by the authors and guidelines are suggested for future
works using this methodology.
  12:00 12:30 4.10.5 TRANSONIC FLOW OVER DELTA WING USING ENTROPIC LATTICE BOLTZMANN METHOD
M.-D. Dhake, SankhyaSutra Labs Limited, India
This work investigates the transonic flow (Ma=0.85) over a swept-back delta wing with a sharp leading edge at Re= $6times10^6$ . The behaviour of vortex breakdown in cross-flow shocks makes the problem setup highly complex in contrast to subsonic vortical flows. The simulation is carried out using a higher order Entropic Lattice Boltzmann Method (ELBM) transonic solver.

Reserve Paper 4.10.R EFFECTS OF TWO WINGLET TIP GEOMETRIES ON THE FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF A HYDRAULIC AXIAL TURBINE
D S da Silva Tonon, Brazil
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 4.10.R VALIDATING AIRSPACE CFD MODELS FOR DRONE OPERATION WITH FLIGHT TEST DATA
D. Standingford¹, C. Sequeira², M. Allan¹, G. Furse², J. Sharpe¹; ¹Zenotech, United Kingdom ;²Flare Bright, United Kingdom
5.10Turbulence Modelling
Chair: P. Eliasson
Track 5
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  10:00 10:30 5.10.1 AERONAUTICAL CFD AND TURBULENCE - PROGRESS AND CHALLENGES
D. S. Henningson, KTH, Sweden
This lecture addresses how CFD simulations have been used for predicting separated flows, and the associated aerodynamic performance, throughout the flight envelope, giving special focus to actual aircraft. It entails a summary of the physics of flow separation that is especially difficult to model numerically along with results from DNS studies that shed new light on the physics and that lay out a path for substantial progress. Among the cases reviewed are: turbulent separation from a smooth-surface including short laminar-turbulent bubbles, Incipient vortex separation including bursting and buffet onset and stalling characteristics.
  10:30 11:00 5.10.2 DEEP CAVITY SIMULATIONS UNDER SIDESLIP CONDITIONS
K. Rajkumar, University of the Bundeswehr Munich, Germany
Weapon bays resonate under certain flow and geometrical conditions. The effects of sideslip conditions on the resonance modes are explored, which have gained little attention so far. Used numerical methodologies are high fidelity DES (Reference data) and SAS approaches (Time-efficient simulation). Spectral and experimental validations for both approaches will be shown in the paper.
  11:00 11:30 5.10.3 APPLICATION OF GP AND ANN APPROACHES FOR RECONSTRUCTION OF TURBULENT JET FLOW FIELDS
V. Gryazev, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom
The high-speed jets considered in this research correspond to the NASA Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig (SHJAR) experiment at acoustic Mach numbers 0.5 and 0.9. The Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (SPOD) method is applied to compress the original LES data. The use of SPOD enabled separating spatial and temporal coherent structures which spread over a wide range of frequencies and can be considered as an extension of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method to time-resolved data. The resulting time-dependent coefficients of the SPOD modes are reconstructed using machine learning methods.
  11:30 12:00 5.10.4 UNSTEADY SIMULATIONS OF MASSIVELY SEPARATED FLOW AROUND NACA0021 AIRFOIL USING A TRANSITIONAL IDDES MODEL
Y. Wang, China
In this study, a blended IDDES model and a correlation-based transitional model were newly coupled in OpenFOAM for simulating flow involving massive flow separation and the layer transition. Validations have been taken on the massively separated flow around NACA0021 airfoil at AoAs from 20° to 90°. The force coefficients predicted by simulations have a good comparison with the experimental data.
  12:00 12:30 5.10.5 TURBULENCE MODELLING STUDIES OF SHOCK-WAVE/BOUNDARY-LAYER INTERACTIONS ON HIFIRE-1 AXISYMMETRIC CONE CYLINDER FLARE
R.O. Bura, Republic of Indonesia Defense University, Indonesia
In this present work, the turbulent Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions (SWBLIs) over a geometry model of HIFiRE-1 axisymmetric cone cylinder flare with a ramp angle of 7 and 33 degrees at Mach 7.16 were analyzed.Validation and analysis of turbulence modeling were compared to the experimental result for HIFiRE-1 ground test studies.
Reserve Paper 5.10.R INVESTIGATION ON THE INFLUENCES OF TURBULENCE MODEL AND OPERATING CONDITIONS ON THE CENTRIFUGAL NOZZLE PERFROMANCE
D M Mo, China
6.10Wind Tunnel Testing Technology 1
Chair:
Track 6
03.2 - Experimental Aerodynamics
  10:00 10:30 6.10.1 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF AN AEROELASTIC WIND TUNNEL MODEL FOR TAIL BUFFETING ANALYSIS
J. Stegmüller, Technical University of Munich, Germany
For the experimental analysis of buffeting effects, a flexible modular wind tunnel model was developed. Quasi-rigid aluminum lifting surfaces serve as a reference case. An internal six-component balance measures forces and moments. The signals of unsteady pressure transducers and accerelometers integrated in the lifting surfaces of the rigid and the flexible configurations will be analyzed.
  10:30 11:00 6.10.2 OPTIMIZATION OF AN ACTIVE DAMPING SYSTEM FOR USE WITH A SINGLE STRUT MOUNT
J. L. Pereira, National Research Council Canada, Canada
An active damping system is developed and optimized for use with a wind tunnel model mounted on a single strut. The effect of the pivot point on moment control is investigated through wind-on tests using an aircraft model. Single strut and three-strut mount results are compared and measurements acquired using continuous pitching motion are compared to those acquired with a pitch-pause motion.
  11:00 11:30 6.10.3 WIND-TUNNEL TEST ON LEADING-EDGE VORTEX OF LOW-ASPECT-RATIO FLAPPING PLATES
J.-S. Han¹, C. Breitsamter¹; ¹Technical University of Munich, Germany
We introduce the wind tunnel tests for low-aspect-ratio flapping plates. A three-rotational-axis robotic arm, a high sensitive 6-axis force/torque transducer machine shop-made, and model flat plates with several different aspect ratios, which should have an appropriate rigidity and a lightweight for the lowest inertia, are presented. Deformation tests for the model plates follow.
  11:30 12:00 6.10.4 POWERED WIND TUNNEL TESTING WITH HYDRAULIC MOTORS
D. Steiling, RUAG AG, Switzerland
The integration of propulsors in aircraft can be a challenge and often needs to be investigated in a wind tunnel test. The hydraulic technology in use at the RUAG wind tunnel for powered testing is described. Examples of actual test setups ranging from isolated propeller tests, both full-scale and model scale, to complex multi-engine aircraft models are given.
  12:00 12:30 6.10.5 EXPERIMENTING ROTORCRAFT FLIGHT IN COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS USING WIND TUNNEL: HELICOPTER SHIP LANDING CASE
N. Taymourtash, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
The present study will show how scaled wind tunnel tests can be implemented to simulate the aerodynamic response of a helicopter operating in the fully-coupled environment of Helicopter-Ship Dynamic Interface. The setup developed here is proven to be an effective instrument to measure both steady and unsteady aerodynamic responses of the rotor due to the interaction with the airwake of the ship.
Reserve Paper 6.10.R RESEARCH ON VIRTUAL FLIGHT TEST OF LARGE-SCALE LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL
W.-Y. Yanling, Aerodynamics Research Institute,Harbin, China
7.10Fatigue Analysis
Chair:
Track 7
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  10:00 10:30 7.10.1 INCREMENTAL FATIGUE DAMAGE MODEL: APPLICATION TO PLANE PROBLEMS WITH NON-PROPORTIONAL LOADING
Z Kapidzic¹, S. B. Lindström, Linköping University, Sweden; J Lundgren¹; ¹Saab AB, Sweden
The paper presents an efficient model for assessment of fatigue damage in plane problems with stress raisers and complex loading. The advantage of the proposed model over the conventional methods is that it includes the notch effect and alleviates the need for cycle counting. It is applicable to any plane problem.
  10:30 11:00 7.10.2 FATIGUE OF STANDARD SPECIMENS – THE INFLUENCE OF THE STRESS GRADIENT ON THE S-N CURVE IN DIFFERENT AL2024 KT=2.0 DESIGNS
S. Sieberer, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria
The fatigue life of three designs of notched aluminium specimens with nominally similar stress concentration factor is compared by experimental testing. It is shown to be dependent on the geometry of the notch, i.e. the stress gradient, and size of specimen. Usual correction factors do not account for this and new approaches may be necessary to utilise the full potential of the material.
  11:00 11:30 7.10.3 FATIGUE LIFE ENHANCEMENT OF TYPICAL AERONAUTICAL JOINTS BY MEANS OF ENGINEERED RESIDUAL STRESSES
D. Fanteria, University of Pisa, Italy
The fatigue behaviour of a typical joint configuration, available in two variants, has been investigated, assessing also the influence of various treatments. Different batches of specimens were evaluated: basic material, Tartaric Sulphuric Acid anodized and also coupons subjected to fatigue enhancement processes, such as Cold eXpansion and Laser Shock Peening.
  11:30 12:00 7.10.4 FATIGUE CHARACTERIZATION OF ADHESIVE JOINTS IN AEROPLANES-THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NEGATIVE LOAD RATIO (R<0) TESTING METHOD
J Jokinen, Tampere University, Finland
Adhesive joints are an efficient method to transfer high loads between structural components. High-performing adhesive joints require careful design and precise knowledge of the adhesive product used. Especially in aeroplanes, load spectra range from negative to positive load (factor) levels. It is well known that the trajectory of crack growth in adhesive joints is highly sensitive to local stress state and fracture toughness. However, up to date, there are no methods to accurately study fatigue of adhesive joints under varying load (positive-to-negative loading, i.e., load ratio R changing its sign). In this study, a testing system is developed to perform negative R fatigue testing of adhesive joints and mode II crack propagation.
  12:00 12:30 7.10.5 FATIGUE DAMAGE MODEL OF HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER COMPOSITES IN AERO-ENGINES
P Fernberg, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden
Results from development of a methodology for prediction of consequences of the damage accumulation occurring during fatigue loading of fiber reinforced polymer composites (FRPC) are presented. The methodology is developed with the intention of being applied to temperature resistant FRPC with potential use in e.g. aeroengine applications.
Reserve Paper 7.10.R FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION IN ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED POLYMER PARTS
HH El Fazani, Carleton University, Canada
8.10Vibration and Damping 1
Chair:
Track 8
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  10:00 10:30 8.10.1 DEVELOPMENT OF A PREDICTIVE DAMAGE METHODOLOGY FOR HYBRID WING BODY AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
H. Raza, CRASH Lab, Dept. of MAE, University at Buffalo, United States
The T-cap structure of Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is investigated using advanced finite element modeling techniques. The study focuses on developing a comprehensive methodology to capture the damage response of T-cap structures under loading conditions. Computational results are validated using benchmark experimental data.
  10:30 11:00 8.10.2 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON WITH RESULTS OF FRACTURE TESTS OF LUG MANUFACTURED IN COMPOSITE MATERIAL
G. C. Fonseca, Embraer S.A., Brazil
The results obtained in this work will contribute to a better understanding of the behavior of thick laminated components in composite material subjected to tensile stresses. A failure analysis methodology will be presented for thick laminated type aeronautical components, based on the results of the numerical models studied and validated in comparison to the experimental results in the fracture region of the component.
This study may contribute to new developments in structures of high structural responsibility with a high level of reliability with respect to the working limits of the component, avoiding unplanned failures in service and catastrophic damages.
  11:00 11:30 8.10.3 ENHANCEMENT OF FLEXIBLE STRATEGY FOR AUGMENTING DESIGN POINTS FOR COMPUTER EXPERIMENTS AND APPLICATION TO A MDO OF A FAN-BLISK
A. Tamkan, Technische Hochschule Brandenburg, Germany
Usually, the number of design points for DoEs is not known a priori or defined by heuristics. After DoE execution, it is often the case that models fitted to the data lack accuracy which leads to the need for additional design points or new DoE. The study proposes a highly efficient and universal method to augment an existing DoE and its application to an industrial Fan-Blisk design problem.


  11:30 12:00 8.10.4 DESIGN AND STUDY ON NOISE REDUCTION PROPERTIES OF A MULTISTAGE BIONIC MEMBRANE-TYPE ACOUSTIC METAMATERIAL
Xuanjia Zhang, School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
In order to solve the problem of low frequency noise, a multistage bionic spider web model was designed based on the structural characteristics of spider web.The results shows that the cobweb model can effectively control the noise propagation and the multistate antiresonance mode of thin films enables the acoustic metamaterials to have high noise reduction and wide noise reduction bandwidth.
  12:00 12:30 8.10.5 TRANSIENT AND FREE-VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF LAMINATED SHELLS THROUGH THE DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHOD
A. Milazzo, Department of Engineering - University of Palermo, Italy
A novel formulation for linear dynamic analysis of laminated shell structures is presented, based on Interior Penalty discontinuous Galerkin methods and variable-order through-the-thickness kinematics.
Shell geometry is described by a NURBS-based parametrization and the presence of cut-outs is accounted for implicitly by a level set function.
Numerical tests are provided to assess capabilities and accuracy of the proposed formulation.

Reserve Paper 8.10.R A NEW APPROACH TO SHAPING THE PUSHROD TUBE AS THE MAIN COMPONENT OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM, OPTIMIZATION, AND MANUFACTURING.
W. Grendysa, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
9.10Propellers, Fan Compressors
Chair: N. Piro
Track 9
05 - Propulsion
  10:00 10:30 9.10.1 AEROELASTIC TAILORING OF COMPRESSOR BLADES
Akshay-Prafulla: Chalke, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Paper explores the potential of using carbon-fibre reinforced composites for designing low-pressure compressor blades with improved aeroelastic performance. Comparison between the blades with different laminate stackups is made with respect to the modal behaviour and aerodynamic damping. It is found that if carefully designed, the composite blades can provide higher aeroelastic stability than the reference metallic blade. At the same time the results reveal that a laminate stackup with stabilizing behaviour in one mode could have a destabilizing effect for the other mode. The dependency on ply angle and arrangement of plies in laminates is observed to be complex and further investigations and experimental validation is therefore deemed necessary.
  10:30 11:00 9.10.2 RAPID AEROACOUSTIC PLANFORM DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF INSTALLED PROPELLERS
T. Sinnige, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
A rapid design method for aeroacoustic optimization of installed propellers is described. Comparisons are made between optimizations with and without installation effects taken into account, for a 5-deg angle of attack and a wake-encounter case. The results highlight the impact of the blade count on the aeroacoustic performance, and the impact of installation effects on the optimum design.
  11:00 11:30 9.10.3 STUDY ON THE OBJECTIVE FUNCTION OF THE PROFILED ENDWALL OPTIMIZATION OF AN EMBEDDED COMPRESSOR STATOR
J.W. Wang, (1. Shenyang Engine Research Institute of Aero Engine Corporatio, China
This paper studied the endwall profiling in the embedded stator of a multistage compressor, with the method of numerical optimization based on CFD and experimental test under multistage condition. Compared with the whole-blade-height parameter, the partial-blade-height parameter is more suitable as the objective function in improving the endwall flow and reducing the blade loss.
  11:30 12:00 9.10.4 PERFORMANCE BENEFITS OF A FAN ON BLADE – FLADE – FOR A VARIABLE CYCLE ENGINE
U T Grönstedt, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
The impact of the FLADE component on a variable cycle engine is studied. Firstly, the paper goes ahead and develops a new algorithm for the simulation of mode switching in generic performance tools by introducing dynamic equation systems. Secondly, the paper then studies the FLADE component and its potential performance benefits if added to a conventional turbofan architecture.
  12:00 12:30 9.10.5 STATUS OF GKN AEROSPACE\'S ENGINE MODULE DEMONSTRATORS IN THE CLEAN SKY-2 PROJECT
R. Lundberg, GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Sweden
GKN Aerospace Sweden AB in Trollhättan, Sweden, is a Core Partner in the Engines ITD (Integrated Technology Demonstrator) in Clean Sky-2, with responsibility for design, development and manufacturing of a number of complex engine structures and modules. The paper will give more detail on the design, development and TRL validation of these complex structures and modules.
Reserve Paper 9.10.R EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF INTERSTAGE BLEEDING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FULL-SCALE MULTISTAGE AXIAL COMPRESSOR
Z.-Z. Zhang, Shenyang Engine Research Institute, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 9.10.R SURGE CHARACTERISTICS IN FRONT OF EACH STAGE FOR A HIGH PRESSURE FIVE STAGE COMPRESSOR
B.-B. Jia, AECC Shenyang Engine Institute, China
10.10Flight Control
Chair: H. Bang
Track 10
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  10:00 10:30 10.10.1 INCREMENTAL NONLINEAR DYNAMIC CONTROL WITH SPARSE NON-PARAMETRIC BAYESIAN REGRESSION OF DAMAGED AIRCRAFT
N/A Kim, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, South Korea
It is important to control the fixed wing aircraft even when it is damaged for safe flight. For this problem, we proposed Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Control as baseline controller and used Sparse Gaussian Process Regression to estimate uncertainties with unknown basis functions due to incremental dynamics.
  10:30 11:00 10.10.2 LONGITUDINAL ROBUST CONTROL OF A FIGHTER AIRCRAFT IN A LARGE FLIGHT ENVELOPE BASED ON FLYING AND HANDLING QUALITIES
Z. Kacan, Turkish Aerospace, Turkey
As the Fly-by-Wire flight control system applications spreads quickly throughout the aerospace industry, a set of evaluation criteria and standards emerges as requirements. These requirements specify certain performance criteria based on the closed loop responses of the aircraft and named as “Flying and Handling Qualities”. Satisfying the Level 1 Flying and Handling Qualities (FHQ) criteria along the flight envelope is the goal for the designer. For this purpose, designer choses to perform gain scheduling for the different flight conditions to ensure the good performance throughout the flight envelope. However, loss of air data may cause inappropriate flying and handling qualities since the system gains may stuck for the incorrect flight condition. Therefore, a flight control algorithm for the longitudinal axis of the aircraft has been designed for a specific flight condition to ensure Level 1 FHQ along the determined flight envelope. H_? Loop Shaping algorithm is used due to robustness against uncertainties and the ease of specifying performance criteria.
  11:00 11:30 10.10.3 FAULT-TOLERANT CONTROL FOR AIRCRAFT WITH STRUCTURAL DAMAGE USING GAUSSIAN PROCESS REGRESSION
DW Lee, South Korea
This paper presents the design of fault-tolerant control using Gaussian Process regression to stabilize an
aircraft with left-wing damage. The structural damage causes the change of mass, moment of inertia, center of
gravity, and aerodynamic coefficient. These variation parameters and unmodeled dynamics make the system
unstable. Hence, we need the data-driven fault-tolerant control approach to compensate for the uncertainty
under unexpected situations. Unlike the parametric adaptive control approach, Gaussian Process regression
is a non-parametric method that does not need prior information about the uncertainty. Therefore, we suggest
the fault-tolerant control using Gaussian Process regression to estimate the structural fault uncertainty. The
numerical simulation results are compared with sliding mode control to analyze the tracking performance and
robustness.
  11:30 12:00 10.10.4 DESIGN AND VALIDATION OF DISTURBANCE OBSERVER FOR A UAV USING DOUBLET IN MOTION
H.J Jeaong, Chungnam National University, South Korea
The closed-loop characteristics may change depending on the Q-filter variables, and the position or attitude tracking performance may vary significantly. In this study, the control performance according to the change of Q-filter variables will be finally analyzed through the quadrotor modeling and flight test verification process.
  12:00 12:30 10.10.5 CONVEX PROGRAMMING-BASED OPTIMAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL MID-COURSE GUIDANCE WITH LOSSLESS CONVEXIFICATION
C.-G. Jung, South Korea
The problem of optimal mid-course guidance is studied. The final velocity is maximized with sequential convex programming. First, missiles flight phase is divided into boost and glide phases. Then, dynamics are converted to input-affine form and convexification is applied to input variables. An adaptive trust region method is developed to robustly find the solution despite the crude initial guess.
Reserve Paper 10.10.R ROBUST GUIDANCE AND CONTROL FOR LANDING OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE USING IIP GUIDANCE AND FUZZY PID CONTROL
J Cha, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden
11.10MBSE 2
Chair: O. Isaksson
Track 11
02 - Systems Engineering and Integration
  10:00 10:30 11.10.1 A COLLABORATIVE DESIGN METHOD FOR CIVIL AIRCRAFT BASED ON AN ENDURING AND EVOLUTIONARY AUTHORITATIVE SOURCE OF TRUTH
X. Sun, Beihang University, China
A human-software-hardware hybrid collaborative design method is proposed for civil aircraft based on an enduring authoritative source of truth and an aircraft conceptual schema. A future civil aircraft is designed conceptually in a collaborative environment based on the method. The results show that the collaborative design method can improve design efficiency and shorten the development cycle.
  10:30 11:00 11.10.2 HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEMS MODELLING IN SUPPORT OF INCREMENTAL DEVELOPMENT
E Herzog, Saab Aeronautics, Sweden
An integrated approach to development combining incremental development, MBSE and modeling and Simulation is presented. The proposed approach is exemplified and the application of FMI and the role of the novel SSP standard is presented.
  11:00 11:30 11.10.3 A MODEL BASED SYSTEMS ENGINEERING APPROACH TO STREAMLINED NOISE CERTIFICATION OF TRANSPORT-TYPE AIRCRAFT
D. Kim, Georgia Institute of Technology, United States
This paper presents an approach for a model-based system verification for the validation of system design:
applicable to the 14 CFR Part 36 Noise certification of transport aircraft. The goal is to present a streamlined
process for certification utilizing a model-based verification through integration of system design model and
current industry certification processes. The presented approach is demonstrated through a verification of a
system under test (SUT), a transport-type aircraft block model, and a system verification model for the Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) 14 CFR Part 36 Noise Standards as a component of aircraft Type Certification.
Both the aircraft and verification model are based on model-based systems engineering (MBSE) and utilizes
systems modeling language (SysML). In order to implement the model into current practice of transport-type
certification, the paper captures findings and inputs obtained by aircraft manufacturers, translates regulations
to requirements, constrains requirements through modeled current procedures, verifies the SUT based on
the constraints, and outputs the results as artifacts utilized in current certification process. The integrated
model enhances data integrity, communication between stakeholders, and assessment of current practices.
To conclude the paper, the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing a model-based verification approach
within an MBSE framework are discussed.
  11:30 12:00 11.10.4 A HOLISTIC AIRCRAFT CABIN METAMODEL AS AN APPROACH TOWARDS AN INTERCONNECTED DIGITISED CABIN LIFECYCLE
M. C. Berschik¹, M. Blecken¹, H. Kumawat¹, J.-E. Rath¹, D. Krause¹, R. God¹, T. Schüppstuhl¹; ¹Hamburg University of Technology, Germany
Advancing digitalisation, growing passenger needs and constantly changing requirements are leading to increased pressure on aircraft manufacturers. To address these challenges, the proposed holistic metamodel brings together all relevant product information in one central place to improve the product lifecycle and drive the coordination of all stakeholders.
  12:00 12:30 11.10.5 THE USE OF SYSML MODELS TO SUPPORT DECISION MAKERS IN VARIOUS LIFECYCLE STAGES OF COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT
J. Abulawi, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany
For digital models created with the systems modeling language (SysML), this paper discusses their applicability in various lifecycle stages of commercial aircraft, from design and manufacturing to service/upgrade and disposal. Scenario descriptions indicate how human decision makers might use these models. Requirements for future authoring and viewing software are outlined.
12.10Student Final
Chair: K. Rein Weston
Track 12
15 - Guest lectures
13.10Operation
Chair:
Track 13
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  10:00 10:30 13.10.1 DESIGN & VALIDATION OF A FLIGHT CENTRIC WORKLOAD MODEL INCLUDING ATC TASK CHANGE & CONSIDERING INFLUENCING FACTORS
T. Finck, DLR e.V., Germany
Airspace capacity is limited by the ATCOs' control resources, which depend on their workload. For a sectorized airspace, a variety of workload models for distributing air traffic equally among controllers exist, but approaches for a sectorless airspace are absent. This paper is the first to establish a workload model for Flight Centric ATC by adapting a workload model for sectorized airspace
  10:30 11:00 13.10.2 EFFECT OF CORRELATED WIND PREDICTION ERROR ON FLIGHT TIME UNCERTAINTY
Y Matsuno, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan
This study explores spatially and temporally correlated wind prediction error modeling and evaluates the effect of wind prediction errors on flight time uncertainty. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed wind prediction error modeling are evaluated and demonstrated thorough illustrative numerical simulations.
  11:00 11:30 13.10.3 REDUCED TRANSMISSION RISKS FOR PASSENGER OPERATIONS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC
M. Schultz, Dresden University of Technology, Germany
The current pandemic situation requires major changes to normal passenger handling procedures and passengers must maintain a certain distance when boarding and disembarking. Simulation results exhibit that an optimized passenger handling (seat allocation and boarding/ disembarkation sequences) can reduce the boarding/ disembarkation times significantly (40%) at a low level of transmission risk.
  11:30 12:00 13.10.4 VOICE PROJECT: REDUCED SEPARATIONS AND IMPROVED EFFICIENCY BASED ON VHF COMMUNICATIONS OVER LEO SATELLITES
E. Delgado Pinedo, Indra, Spain
VOICE project will demonstrate that, with the use of Satellite-based VHF systems providing voice and datalink, traffic in oceanic and remote airspace can be handled as in a continental one, and current separation could be reduced without compromising safety.
  12:00 12:30 13.10.5 V/A-R AIR GESTURES HMI INTERACTION IN AIRPORT CONTROL TOWERS
M. Corsi, University of Bologna, Italy
This paper presents the experimental campaign conducted to asses the introduction of V/A-R Air Gestures HMI interaction in airport control towers. The results of the validations performed at University of Bologna's real-time Humans-in-the-loop simulation platform, are analysed against success criteria in terms of human performance and safety.
14.10Sustainment Systems
Chair: M. Scott
Track 14
11 - Operations and Sustainment
  10:00 10:30 14.10.1 MODEL-BASED SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FOR FUTURE DIGITAL FLIGHT LINES
M.A. Kelly, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics, United States
Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and Model-Based Engineering (MBE) are being embraced globally to accelerate product development and modernization. How will these processes and tools impact the flight line? Who needs to act to ensure the benefits are maximized? What market trends should be leveraged to accelerate positive outcomes? This presentation will explore these questions.
  10:30 11:00 14.10.2 MACHINE LEARNING ENABLED MIXED REALITY SYSTEMS – FOR EVALUATION AND VALIDATION OF AUGMENTED EXPERIENCE IN AIRCRAFT MAINT
TG Gulrez, DSTG Melbourne, Australia
In this paper, a method to assess the ease of use of mixed-reality systems in terms of physical load is presented. The participants used mixed-reality system for aircraft maintenance task, while a computer vision enabled skeletal tracking system monitored their physical loads. An analysis of augmented experience has been presented, which will act as a driver for mixed-reality based adaptive graphical user interface development.
  11:00 11:30 14.10.3 GRAPH-BASED KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION AND ALGORITHMS FOR AIR AND MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS
E. E. Olsson, Saab AB, Sweden
This work presents a framework for information exchange between adjacent air operations domains by means by means of graph technologies.
  11:30 12:00 14.10.4 AUGMENTED REALITY FOR AIRCRAFT FATIGUE NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION
M. J. Scott, RMIT University, Australia
This paper presents a novel framework for proactive condition-based maintenance using augmented reality (AR) in non-destructive evaluation of aircraft fatigue. Developed using a PC-9/A aircraft and Digital Twin, it enables maintainers via AR compatible devices to visualise fatigue ‘hotspots’ of the airframe, helping to identify damage and enhance maintenance tasks.
  12:00 12:30 14.10.5 ATTENTION GUIDANCE AI-SYSTEM FOR REMOTE TOWER OPERATIONS
G.L Söderholm, Linköpings University, Sweden
This paper describes an attention guidance system for remote towers operators. We discuss the architecture and components of the system including machine learning and augmented reality approaches to superimpose images on real time video streams.
Reserve Paper 14.10.R REAL-TIME TRAJECTORY PLANNING SYSTEM USING HYBRID DATASET FOR ROBOTIC OPERATIONS
SY Yildirim, Cranfield University, United Kingdom
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 14.10.R ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE USING DATA-DRIVEN APPROACH
X. Zhao, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
1.11Selected Highlights from Clean sky/Clean Aviation 2 (invited)
Chair: A. Krein
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  13:30 14:00 1.11.1 CA PROGRAMME RATIONALE AND OVERVIEW
R. van Manen, Netherlands
The European Green Deal will enshrine climate-neutrality objective by 2050 in legislation. The task facing the aviation sector in the next decades is to develop and introduce safe, reliable, and affordable low- to zero emission air transport for citizens and to concurrently ensure Europe’s industrial leadership is maintained and strengthened throughout the transition to a climate-neutral Europe. The trajectory towards climate-neutral aviation is achievable but will be contingent on: [1] an exceptional research and technology effort to reduce energy needs and fuel consumption, while ensuring safety and competitiveness; [2] fast-tracked development and deployment of sustainable aviation fuels/energy; [3] climate-optimised air operations and networks and [4] a suitable global aviation regulatory framework creating the conditions for a successful transition.
Clean Aviation will develop and demonstrate by 2030 disruptive new aircraft technologies which will deliver greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions of no less than 30%, compared to 2020 state-of-the-art aircraft.
The technological and industrial readiness will allow the deployment of new aircraft with this performance no later than 2035, enabling 75% of the world’s civil aviation fleet to be replaced by 2050.
The aircraft developed will enable net CO2 reductions of up to 90% when combined with the effect of sustainable ‘drop-in’ fuels, or zero CO2 emissions in flight when using hydrogen as energy source.
  14:00 14:30 1.11.2 ULTRA-EFFICIENT AIRCRAFT AND PROPULSION ARCHITECTURES FOR LOW-EMISSION SHORT/MEDIUM RANGE [SMR] AIRCRAFT
M. Calvo Blanco, Spain
The SMR Thrust in Clean Aviation will develop ultra-efficient propulsion and aircraft architectures to address the short- and medium-range needs with innovative aircraft architectures making use of highly integrated, ultra-efficient thermal propulsion systems and providing disruptive improvements in fuel efficiency. This will be essential for the transition to low/zero emission energy sources (synthetic fuels, non-drop in fuels such as hydrogen), which will be more energy intensive to produce, more expensive, and only available in limited quantities.
An integrated approach to the overall aircraft and its design, development, certification, production, and operations and close alignment to aviation policy and infrastructure development will be essential to enable widespread, rapid deployment, and ensure a cost-competitive and ultra-low emissions aviation system by 2050.
  14:30 15:00 1.11.3 HYBRID-ELECTRIC AND FULL ELECTRIC ARCHITECTURES FOR LOW-EMISSION HYBRID-ELECTRIC REGIONAL [REG] AIRCRAFT
A. Marino, Italy
The HER Thrust will pursue hybrid electric and full electric architectures – driving research into novel (hybrid) electrical power architectures and their integration, and maturing technologies towards the demonstration of novel configurations, on-board energy concepts and flight control.
An integrated holistic approach with the integration of propulsion, energy storage and systems into the airframe and overall aircraft design, while safeguarding a highly competitive acquisition and operating cost for operators can power a renaissance in regional air travel. The overall value proposition and minimal environmental impact of such a re-invented regional aviation system will ensure air mobility remains competitive while being equally sustainable as alternative modes of transport.
  15:00 15:30 1.11.4 DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO ENABLE ZERO-CARBON HYDROGEN–POWERED [HPA] SHORT RANGE AIRCRAFT
P. Trinchieri, Italy
The HPA Thrust will develop disruptive technologies to enable aircraft and engines to exploit the compelling potential of hydrogen as a non-drop-in alternative zero carbon fuel and to spearhead the development of solutions that can enable the market entry of hydrogen powered commercial flight. The focus will be on the challenges related to the utilisation of liquid hydrogen and the impact on storage, distribution, cryogenics and thermal management and design changes needed at aircraft, systems and powerplant level.
Close cooperation with other EU and national programmes related to the production, distribution, storage, and liquefaction of Hydrogen, inter alia with the Clean Hydrogen Joint Undertaking will ensure the aircraft technology development and future deployment is synchronised with capabilities and infrastructure on ground.
2.11Wing Design
Chair: T. Gibson
Track 2
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  13:30 14:00 2.11.1 AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BOX WINGS FOR AN INNOVATIVE EVTOL CONFIGURATION
E. Shima, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan
The purpose of this study is to understand the aerodynamic characteristics of box wings using wind tunnel experiments and CFD to realize an innovative eVTOL that is lightweight and simple. It was found that box wings have characteristics suitable for a convertible VTOL, such as low drag near cruise compared to a normal cantilever , and low drag during transition flight.
  14:00 14:30 2.11.2 NON-ELLIPTIC LIFT DISTRIBUTIONS FOR CIVIL AIRCRAFT DESIGN
E Bragado-Aldana, Cranfield University, United Kingdom
The work presented here aims to facilitate the redefinition of the underlying principles of
conceptual wing design in the search for a step increase in aircraft efficiency. This is done through synthesis of wing aerodynamic and structural requirements under a single design theory, to improve vehicle performance and enlighten the relevant complexities and trade-offs of the design process.

  14:30 15:00 2.11.3 IMPACT OF NO. OF WING STATIONS ON TWIST OF BWB CONCEPTUAL DESIGN IN A MDAO ENVIRONMENT TO MATCH TARGET LIFT DISTRIBUTION
B. Fröhler, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
The design of BWBs, an optimized wing twist is important to achieve high aerodynamic performance, but on conceptual design level the number of wing stations is often limited to reduce complexity and impedes this optimization. Therefore, this paper presents the feasibility of flexible number of wing stations to achieve an aerodynamically optimized wing twist.
  15:00 15:30 2.11.4 CS2 – MANTA – MULTI-FUNCTIONAL FLAP MECHANISM OFFERING A SECOND DEGREE OF FREEDOM
M. Desmet, Asco Industries nv/sa, Belgium
The novel multi-functional flap mechanism saves weight by combining high-lift, load alleviation and roll control functionalities into one large control surface. The mechanism offers a second degree of freedom to the flap and this may lead to a performance increase and reduction on the fuel burn and emission of an aircraft.
Reserve Paper 2.11.R AIRFOIL DESIGN BY MULTI-ADDITIONAL SAMPLING MULTI-FIDELITY EFFICIENT GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION
Krittin K. Khankwa, Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand
3.11Supersonic and Hypersonic Aircraft 2
Chair: N. Viola
Track 3
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  13:30 14:00 3.11.1 COOLING SYSTEM OF STRATOFLY HYPERSONIC VEHICLE: CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, NUMERICAL ANALYSIS AND VERIFICATION
R. Scigliano, Italian Aerospace Research Center - CIRA scpa, Italy
This paper describes the thermal design processes of STRATOFLY hypersonic vehicle cooling system showing either the methodology and the supporting FEM numerical simulations. It focuses on two different regions that are both subjected to severe overheating: air-intake leading edges and the combustion chamber. Final remarks on structure survivability are presented.
  14:00 14:30 3.11.2 HYPERSONIC AIRCRAFT AND MISSION CONCEPT RE-DESIGN TO MOVE FROM MACH 8 TO MACH 5 OPERATIONS
D. Ferretto, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This paper discloses the design of a new Mach 5 civil passenger aircraft developed in the H2020 MORE&LESS Project, by exploiting the results of the previous H2020 STRATOFLY Project. To assure that the highest aerodynamic, propulsive, and operating performance are reached when approaching Mach 5 conditions, instead of the original Mach 8, a multidisciplinary methodology is developed and applied.
  14:30 15:00 3.11.3 LTO NOISE AND SONIC BOOM PREDICTIONS IN EARLY CONCEPTUAL DESIGN PHASES
G.-P. Piccirillo, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This paper discloses a workflow to integrate LTO noise and sonic boom predictions since the beginning of the design of future supersonic civil aircraft. The application of state-of-the-art models to future high-speed case study is discussed and solutions to overcome limitations are presented. The workflow is validated against Concorde literature data and then applied to the design of a future sustainable Mach 2 aircraft.
  15:00 15:30 3.11.4 SIMPLIFIED MODELS FOR THE PRELIMINARY AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH-SPEED VEHICLES TO SUPPORT MISSION ANALYSIS
O. Gori, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This paper reports the use of simplified models for the evaluation of aerodynamic performance of high-speed vehicles, to support mission analysis during the conceptual design phase. These methods are applied to two reference vehicles: the waverider STRATOFLY MR3 and a Concorde-like configuration. The accuracy of each method is evaluated, then empirical corrections are implemented.
Reserve Paper 3.11.R “CONCORDE-NEO”: A BIOFUEL PROPELLED SUPERSONIC COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT WITH CONCORDE CONFIGURATION
F. Fornaseri¹, M. Borghi¹, G. Clinca¹, F. A. D'Amico¹, E. Versino¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
4.11Transition and Flow Stability
Chair: J. Coder
Track 4
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  13:30 14:00 4.11.1 ACCURATE TWO-DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATES FOR THE SUPERSONIC FLOW OVER A COMPRESSION CORNER
S de B Alves, UFF, Brazil
The present paper describes the numerical issues that had to be overcome in order to generate of accurate steady-states for the supersonic flow over a compression corner. Low-order schemes generate steady-states contaminated by temporal content. Switching to high-order schemes, however, eventually leads to disturbance free steady-states.
  14:00 14:30 4.11.2 NUMERICAL MODELING OF LAMINAR-TURBULENT TRANSITION IN AN INTERCONNECTING COMPRESSOR DUCT
A Capitao Patrao, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
Cryogenic hydrogen is being considered as a future aviation fuel since it eliminates CO2, CO, soot, sulphur, and unburnt hydrocarbons emissions. The storage temperature and high cooling capacity of cryogenic hydrogen also makes it a suitable coolant. In this paper a integrated heat exchanger in an interconnecting compressor duct (ICD) is analyzed with respect to heat transfer and transition.
  14:30 15:00 4.11.3 ANALYSIS OF A LAMINAR SEPARATION BUBBLE ON A NACA0009 AIRFOIL AT DIFFERENT BACKGROUND NOISE LEVELS
J. S. Kern, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden
The laminar separation bubble forming on a NACA0009 airfoil at a steady pitch angle of 8 degrees and Reynolds number of 200 000 under the influence of free-stream disturbances is computed using high-fidelity large-eddy simulations. The extracted flow data is analysed using Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (SPOD) to extract the dominant structures in exhibiting spatio-temporal coherence.
  15:00 15:30 4.11.4 A STUDY ON THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW TRANSITION INCLUDING CROSSFLOW EFFECTS
A. R. S. Righi, ITA, Brazil
The laminar-turbulent transition triggered by crossflow vortices is important for aeronautical applications. The Langtry-Menter transition model, coupled to the SST model, is implemented and evaluated. This work is concerned with an assessment of different empirical correlations to address crossflow effects. The impact of different freestream turbulent properties is also addressed and discussed.
Reserve Paper 4.11.R WAVE-PACKETS WITH STEADY TRIPLE-DECK SOLUTIONS
DEB Exposito-Brioso, Australia
5.11Aeroacoustics and Sonic Boom Predictions
Chair: B. Zhou
Track 5
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  13:30 14:00 5.11.1 COMPUTATIONALLY ECONOMICAL METHODS FOR LANDING GEAR NOISE SIMULATIONS
R. A. Spencer, CFMS, United Kingdom
Landing gear generates lots of noise, but traditional aero-acoustic simulations are very expensive. In this paper, two cheaper simulation methods are applied to a landing gear acoustic test case and compared to the literature. First, an LES simulation using an Octree mesh and no grown boundary layer mesh is used. Secondly, a stochastic simulation using the Fast Random Particle Method is used.
  14:00 14:30 5.11.2 PROPELLER AEROACOUSTIC MODELS IN VARIABLE-FIDELITY DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
W. A. Klimczyk, Lukasiewicz Research Network - Institute of Aviation, Poland
Current work provides a summary of crucial aspects in defining the propeller aeroacoustic optimization framework. It is focused on: defining the design process framework and selection of suitable aeroacoustic models. The advantages and limitations of using various models are discussed. The potential of merging data from models of various fidelities to speed up the optimization process is assessed.
  14:30 15:00 5.11.3 NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF FOCUS BOOM GENERATED BY MANEUVERS
S. Han, Chinese Aeronautical Establishment, China
The acceleration from subsonic to supersonic performed by supersonic civil aircraft generates focus boom on the ground. The intensity of focus boom is several times higher than that of the cruising sonic boom, which greatly exceeds the low boom requirements for the commercial flight of supersonic civil aircraft. A numerical prediction method for sonic boom focusing based on the Lossy Nonlinear Tricomi Equation was studied and computational aeroacoustics techniques were applied to reduce the dispersion and dissipation caused by numerical method. The corresponding focus boom prediction code CBoom_NLTE, was developed. The numerical verification of the developed code was performed using SCAMP flight data, which indicates that the program has a high accuracy. The influence of the atmospheric loss mechanism and the accelerating rate of flight on the acoustic characteristics of the focus boom were investigated. The atmospheric loss mechanism can dissipate the acoustic energy in high frequency component and reduce the Perceived Loudness, which indicates that the atmospheric loss mechanism should be taken into consideration for sonic boom focusing prediction.
  15:00 15:30 5.11.4 INVERSE DESIGN METHOD OF LOW-BOOM SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT FROM NEARFIELD SONIC BOOM
J.-L. Qiao, Northwestern Polytechnical University , China
This paper uses surrogate-based optimization (SBO) approach to adjust the aerodynamic shape to directly match the target nearfield signature. A multi-stage and multi-region design strategy of inverse design is proposed. The AXIE model of the 2nd AIAA sonic boom prediction workshop is chosen to demonstrate the inverse design method.
Reserve Paper 5.11.R IN-FLIGHT MEASUREMENTS AND ESTIMATION OF SONIC BOOM SIGNATURE OF SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT
Q.-L. QU, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.11.R AERO PROPELLER NOISE SIMULATION BY CFD METHOD
H.-Y. Li, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
6.11Wind Tunnel Testing Technology 2
Chair:
Track 6
03.2 - Experimental Aerodynamics
  13:30 14:00 6.11.1 INVESTIGATION ON CORRECTION OF TUNNEL WALL INTERFERENCE FOR DYNAMIC AIRFOIL TEST IN LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL
Y.-Q. Jiao, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Three kinds of correction methods for the wall interference of the dynamic airfoil wind tunnel test are proposed: 1. Experimental method; 2. Numerical simulation correction method; 3. The correction method based on the principle of image system and wall pressure signature method. The first two methods are easy to implement and give correct results, but are not easy to use in usual experiments. The third method is easy to apply, the workload is small, and the results are correct, but it still needs further research and improvement.
  14:00 14:30 6.11.2 WALL INTERFERENCE CORRECTIONS USING NONLINEARLEAST-SQUARES OPTIMISATION
S. A. Noel, QinetiQ Ltd., United Kingdom
A novel approach to correcting the effects of wall interference has been developed for closed-wall wind tunnels using a nonlinear least squares optimisation process. The method is shown to apply blockage corrections to bluff bodies in line with the existing two-variable method, and achieves superior drag corrections through an improved representation of upwash interference for lifting bodies.
  14:30 15:00 6.11.3 A BLOWDOWN-INDUCTION FACILITY FOR HYPERSONIC FLOW SIMULATION DRIVEN BY A HIGH VELOCITY OXYGEN FUEL GUN
A Esposito, DEPT.OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING - UNIVERSITY OF NAPLES FEDERICO I, Italy
This paper reports on the development of a new Blowdown-Induction Facility driven by a High Velocity, Oxy Fueled Gun. The facility is conceived for Aerothermodynamic Applications, specifically to Test candidate materials for Thermal Protection Systems and simulate effectively Hypersonic Sustained Flows.
  15:00 15:30 6.11.4 RECENT ACTIVITIES ON FLOW QUALITY ASSESSMENT AT THE EUROPEAN TRANSONIC WINDTUNNEL
J. H. You, European Transonic Windtunnel GmbH, Germany
The present paper describes ETW’s recent activities on the flow quality assessment. Around 25 years after the primary flow quality assessment and several changes to the tunnel circuit, the new flow quality assessment confirms ETW’s ability to perform high-Reynolds-number laminar flow testing at low subsonic conditions as well as transonic Mach numbers.
Reserve Paper 6.11.R DEVELOPMENT AND VERIFICATION OF OSCILLATING BLADE GUST GENERATOR IN LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL
Chen BU¹, Zhanyuan MA¹, Ying ZHANG¹, Li LI¹; ¹AVIC Aerodynamics Research Institute, China
7.11Metallic Structures
Chair:
Track 7
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  13:30 14:00 7.11.1 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF ALUMINUM HONEYCOMB SANDWICH STRUCTURE WITH SINGLE-SIDED REPAIRING
Yan Bing¹, Zhang Guijia¹, Tong Mingbo ¹, Li Lei¹, Yu Dingchang¹, Zhu Shuhua¹, Wu Zhangyu², Wang Hao², Jin Tao, China Special Vehicle Research Institute, China; ¹Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, China ;²Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
Tensile properties of single-sided panel repair(SP) and panel/core repair(SPC) of aluminum alloy honeycomb sandwich structure(AAHSS) used in civil aircraft were researched by experiments and compared with that of AAHSS without repair. Firstly, a clamp suitable for testing the tensile properties of wide-wall panels with different thicknesses was designed. Then, the failure behavior, the strain and deformation characteristics of SP and SPC structures were firstly studied by digital image correlation (DIC) technology. The results showed that the debonding of the patch and the fracture near the root were the main failure modes of the SP structure, and the strength recovery rate was 101%. A summary was that the repairing method for this configuration could effectively improve the bearing capacity of the original structure, and the adhesive performance was more stable. For SPC structure, debonding of the patch was the primary failure mode with only a 94% strength recovery rate. Besides, the strain concentration of both repairing structures was located in the substrate near the upper and lower edges of the patch. It can be concluded that the repairing technology of SP structure is sufficient to be used in civil aircraft repair, while that of SPC structure needs to be further improved.
  14:00 14:30 7.11.2 FORMABILITY OF TITANIUM TI-6AL-4V SHEETS AT MODERATE TEMPERATURE COMBINED WITH HIGH-PRESSURE
S.M. Olsson, Quintus Technologies AB, Sweden
Formability of Titanium Ti-6Al-4V
A new sheet metal forming method for Titanium 6Al-4V has been evaluated, using 1400 bar pressure, combined with relatively low temperature, 270°C.
Forming limits, repeatability and process predictability is evaluated and also compared with forming simulation results.
The process has a capacity to form Ti sheets at high accuracy and with excellent repeatability.
  14:30 15:00 7.11.3 INFLUENCE OF KEYHOLE TIG WELDING PARAMETERS ON THE WELD GEOMETRY OF NEWLY-DEVELOPED SUPERALLOY VDM 780
Achmad Ariaseta, Sweden; Nima Sadeghinia, Sweden; Joel Andersson, Sweden
The effect of Force TIG welding process parameters on the weld geometry, porosity, and cracking susceptibility of new nickel-based superalloy VDM 780 will be investigated. The results obtained in this work will be used to optimize the Force TIG welding process parameters that produce the VDM 780 weld that meets tight industrial quality criteria and with the lowest cracking susceptibility
  15:00 15:30 7.11.4 USE OF FRICTION STIR WELDING ON PRIMARY STRUCTURES OF AIRCRAFTS INSTEAD OF RIVETED JUNCTION
D. Desgaches, Stelia Aerospace, France
Typical junction area of fuselage is riveted for common commercial aircraft. These junctions are sized by fatigue and damage tolerance criterion, due to pressurization loading, with single-shear or double-shear geometries, and potential overlap.
The use of Friction Stir Welding could be a solution to solve criticality of fuselage junctions due to the proof of its high mechanical properties.
Reserve Paper 7.11.R ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS OF THE THIN CNF/SICF COMPOSITE
Xiaojing JIA¹, Huan DU¹, Liguo ZHANG¹, Zhenquan ZHONG¹, Xinquan ZHANG¹; ¹AVIC The first Aircraft Institute, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 7.11.R HIGH IMPACT AND DAMAGE TOLERANT MULTICOMPONENT ALLOY FOR HIGH STRAIN RATE APPLICATIONS
M A Atif, NWPU, China
8.11Vibration and Damping 2
Chair:
Track 8
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  13:30 14:00 8.11.1 NUMERICAL NONLINEAR VIBRATION-BUCKLING INVESTIGATION OF STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO MECHANICAL AND THERMAL LOADINGS
R. Azzara¹, M. Filippi¹, A. Pagani¹, E. Carrera¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This work intends to present a novel numerical approach for carrying out virtual Vibration Correlation Technique (VCT) in unstiffened and stiffened structures subjected to mechanical and thermal loadings in order to predict the buckling load, to characterize the natural frequencies variation for progressively increasing loads, and to provide a verification of the experimental VCT results.
  14:00 14:30 8.11.2 GROUND VIBRATION TESTING OF A HIGH ASPECT RATIO WING WITH REVOLVING CLAMP
G. Dessena¹, D.I. Ignatyev¹, J.F. Whidborne¹, A. Pontillo, University of Bristol, United Kingdom; L. Zanotti Fragonara¹; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
A case study of a high aspect ratio wing is proposed to study the effect of operating conditions on its structural properties. A revolving clamp is designed to mount the specimen to a clamp-on shaker at different setting angles, allowing for ground vibration tests in different conditions. The objective is to detect a change in the wing’s modal properties in relation to the setting angle.
  14:30 15:00 8.11.3 UPDATING OF JET TRAINER AIRCRAFT DYNAMIC MODEL TO RESULTS OF GROUND VIBRATION TEST
J. Cecrdle, Czech Aerospace Research Centre (VZLU), Czech Republic
This paper discusses updating of a jet trainer aircraft dynamic model according to the results of ground vibration test (GVT). The paper outlines the process of flutter analysis with the special regard to the role of the GVT. Next, the Bayesian parameter estimation method is outlined. Finally, the application example is provided. The results of the symmetric model are shown and evaluated.
  15:00 15:30 8.11.4 DYNAMIC STRSS SIMULATION AND ASYMMETRY STATOR DESIGN FOR A FAN BLISK
Y.X. Liu Liu, China
A systematic investigation was performed to estimate the dynamic stress of fan blisk. Modal analysis was carried and the geometry nonlinearity was considered. The coupled Campbell diagram was obtained. The unsteady analysis was undertaken considering stators. The dynamic stress was obtained. The asymmetry stator design made dynamic stress dropped. The numerical results were validated by test.
Reserve Paper 8.11.R DECORATION OF CARBON NANOTUBE - GRAPHENE 3D NANOSTRUCTURES AND THEIR ENHANCEMENTS IN POLYMER MATRIX
C Chenxi, Civil Aviation University of China, China
9.11Propulsion System & Aircraft Performance 2
Chair: C. Mari
Track 9
05 - Propulsion
  13:30 14:00 9.11.1 CLEAN SKY 2 ENG ITD ENGINE GROUND TEST DEMONSTRATOR FOR SMR AIRCRAFT
CD Diette, Safran Aircraft Engines, France
Within Clean Sky 2 programme, the Ultra High Propulsive Efficiency (UHPE) demonstrator is tackling propulsion systems emissions for the Short & Medium Range market. Following engine architecture studies and multiple maturation studies, it has progressed towards an innovative architecture showing high potential on CO2 savings. It will target TRL5 on the LP modules technologies.
  14:00 14:30 9.11.2 NOVEL AIRCRAFT PROPULSION AND AVAILABILITY OF ALTERNATIVE, SUSTAINABLE AVIATION FUELS IN 2050
J. Kos, NLR, Netherlands
This paper investigates green hydrogen and bio-based sustainable aviation fuels, including their production technology and feedstock, in combination with Clean Sky 2 propulsion technologies and novel hydrogen-powered propulsion technologies. The impact that these alternative aviation fuels and propulsion technologies can have on greenhouse gas emissions is identified and the demand for alternative aviation fuels is compared with their expected availability, both until 2050.
  14:30 15:00 9.11.3 MULTIDISCIPLINARY ASSESSMENT OF A YEAR 2035 TURBOFAN PROPULSION SYSTEM
U T Grönstedt, Chalmers University, Sweden
A conceptual design of a geared year 2035 turbofan is developed evaluating its mission CO2, noise and NOx emissions. An electric generator and a fan integrated cooling system is described, and the booster, HPC and LPT are subject to more detailed aero and mechanical design. Top-level component data is re-introduced back into the system model to evaluate system benefits.


  15:00 15:30 9.11.4 PERFORMANCE OF LOW BYPASS RATIO MIXED FLOW TURBOFAN ENGINES WITH COMBINED SHAFT POWER EXTRACTION
D. H. Rosell, Saab Aeronautics, Sweden; U. T. Grönstedt, Chalmers Univerity of Technology, Sweden; P. D. Bravo-Mosquera¹, F. Martini Catalano¹; ¹University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
A performance analysis of power extraction from a low bypass ratio mixed flow turbofan engine has been performed. Power extraction from the high-pressure and low-pressure shaft was evaluated at key parts of a fighter aircraft mission. It is shown how the engine net thrust and thrust specific fuel consumption depend on the mission definition, engine control limiters and the use of the afterburner.
Reserve Paper 9.11.R ANALYSIS OF THE OPERATION OF THE PULSEJET ENGINE
J.K Tegner, FOI, Sweden
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 9.11.R COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL SEMI-EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR JET NOISE MODELLING
F. Petrosino, CIRA, Italy
10.11Flight Modelling
Chair: T. Rogalski
Track 10
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  13:30 14:00 10.11.1 ON LATERAL-LONGITUDINAL CONTROL COUPLING FOR SHORT- AND LONG-FUSELAGE BWB AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATIONS
L.M.B.C. Campos , Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
The coupling of the longitudinal and lateral stability modes of an aeroplane is considered in two cases: weak coupling & strong coupling. The method presented in this paper is applied to the two flying wing designs concerning all modes in a total of eighteen flight conditions and the conclusion compares them not only from the point of view of flight stability, but also from other viewpoints.
  14:00 14:30 10.11.2 OPEN-LOOP SUBSPACE IDENTIFICATION OF A FLEXIBLE UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEM
R C M Carvalho Machado, ITA, Brazil
This paper presents the identification of an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) with flexible wings from open-loop
data using subspace methods. For aerodynamic and flight control system, a reliable model is important to
comprehend the system behaviour and to design a feedback loop, that can be applied as well to minimize
the effects of structural flexibility.
  14:30 15:00 10.11.3 LATERAL-DIRECTIONAL FORCE AND MOMENTS MODELING OF NUMERICAL RESULTS USING NEURO-FUZZY HYBRIDZED WITH DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUT
V. T. Sant'Ana, Federal University of Uberlândia, Brazil
This work has the objective to present an alternative methodology to obtain an unsteady aerodynamic model of an aircraft. The methodology used to accomplish this objective is a computational intelligence technique known as Neuro-Fuzzy, which combines the interpretability of Fuzzy Inference Systems with the adaptability of Artificial Neural Networks. The artificial intelligence technique will be supplied with numerical data acquired in XPLANE flight simulator, using a reduced scale model of the Cessna 182 airplane. After accomplishing the model, validation graphs are built to ensure the reliability of the model.
  15:00 15:30 10.11.4 DECISION-MAKING MODELLING: APPLICATION TO AUTONOMOUS AIR TO AIR REFUELLING
I Romo, Spain
Design and apply decision-making model in the “approach to contact” phase within automatic air to air refuelling operation. Decision-making system must decide where and how to fly the boom with image processing information as a human operator would work. It is demonstrated that this model is applicable to model an ARBS operator in the decision-making task.
11.11Systems Architecting
Chair: A. Petersson
Track 11
02 - Systems Engineering and Integration
  13:30 14:00 11.11.1 TOWARDS CORRECT-BY-CONSTRUCTION DESIGN OF SAFETY-CRITICAL EMBEDDED AVIONICS SYSTEMS
I. Sander, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
The paper presents a novel correct-by-construction methodology aiming at the design of future high performance and safety-critical embedded aircraft systems. The paper focuses on the underlying foundations of the methodology, and demonstrates how they can be exploited in system modelling, design space exploration and code generation. The methodology is evaluated by an industrial case study.
  14:00 14:30 11.11.2 SYNTHESISING IMA-BASED NETWORKED PLATFORMS AT CONCEPT LEVEL
R. S. de Moraes, Linkoping University, Sweden
This paper presents an automated approach to generate candidate computation and communication platforms and support the development of integrated modular avionic systems at the concept level. Using graph grammars to describe possible platform topologies and application-based constraints to guide the search, we generate candidate platforms that meet the requirements of the targeted application.
  14:30 15:00 11.11.3 SYSTEMS ARCHITECTING ASSISTANT (SARA) - ENABLING A SEAMLESS PROCESS CHAIN FROM REQUIREMENTS TO OVERALL SYSTEMS DESIGN
N. Kuelper¹, J. Broehan¹, T. Bielsky¹, F. Thieleke¹; ¹Hamburg University of Technology, Germany
Novel aircraft concepts and disruptive technologies drive upcoming systems architectures. To ensure a seamless process chain from aircraft level to overall system design, the heuristic systems architecting assistant (SArA) methodology is proposed. Different architecture variants of electric power supply system architectures of a hydrogen-powered concept aircraft are elaborated by applying SArA.
12.11Icing
Chair:
Track 12
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  13:30 14:00 12.11.1 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF DIELECTRIC BARRIER DISCHARGE PLASMA ACTUATOR
A Hatamoto, Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo University o, Japan
The DBDPA is attracting attention as a device to prevent icing on airfoils because it induces airflow along the wall and generates heat through electrical discharge. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively clarify the heat transfer coefficient and temperature of the airflow of the DBDPA induced. For this purpose, the measured surface temperature is fitted to an analytical solution.
  14:00 14:30 12.11.2 THE SENS4ICE EU PROJECT – SAFER AVIATION IN ICING ENVIRONMENT – PROJECT OVERVIEW AND INITIAL RESULTS
C. W. Schwarz, DLR, Germany
The EU project SENS4ICE (GA no 824253) addresses reliable detection and discrimination of supercooled large droplets (SLD) icing conditions: technology development, icing wind tunnel and flight test. A hybrid approach combines direct sensing (atmospheric conditions / ice accretion) with indirect techniques based on changing aircraft characteristics.
  14:30 15:00 12.11.3 STRESS AND ENERGY RELEASE RATE INFLUENCE ON ICE SHEDDING WITH RESONANT ELECTROMECHANICAL DE-ICING SYSTEMS
V Palanque, ISAE-ONERA, France
Electromechanical ice protection systems (IPS) induce mechanical failure of ice layer. To design an efficient IPS, it is necessary to study the fracture mechanisms at play. This paper proposes an evaluation of the influence of stress and energy criteria on fracture propagation for different modes through numerical analyses and experiments.
  15:00 15:30 12.11.4 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF ICE ACCRETION ON PITOT TUBE
K. Szilder, National Research Council Canada, Canada
The objective of this contribution is to demonstrate that the developed numerical tools, which consist of CFD, drop trajectory, and ice accretion modules, are able to simulate ice accretion on pitot tubes and its dependency on anti-icing heating. Developed tools will help reduce the number of icing wind tunnel test cycles before probe certification.
Reserve Paper 12.11.R EFFECTS OF ANISOTROPIC THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF CFRP COMPOSITE ON ELECTROTHERMAL ANTI-ICING SYSTEM
- Guo, Shanghai Jiaotong University, China
13.11UTM / UAM
Chair:
Track 13
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  13:30 14:00 13.11.1 NEW ENTRANTS’ AIRSPACE INTEGRATION IN JAPAN: JAXA’S ONGOING CONTRIBUTION
N. Matayoshi, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan
Initial UAS and eVTOL use cases in Japan are expected to focus on disaster response applications. The JAXA has identified technical challenges, including surveillance, flight intent sharing and mission information sharing. To address these challenges, JAXA plans to leverage the existing technologies and expertise gained through Disaster Relief Aircraft Information Sharing Network development.
  14:00 14:30 13.11.2 ON KEY PARAMETERS FOR THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF ON-DEMAND INTER-CITY AIR MOBILITY
T. Ehlers¹, S. Hagemann², V. Gollnick², K. Lütjens¹; ¹German Aerospace Center, Germany ;²Hamburg University of Technology, Germany
We present a globally applicable approach for estimating the potential passenger demand for On-Demand Air Mobility on low-demand inter-city routes. It is used for estimating the impact of parameters like range, speed, transfer times and usable airports.
We conduct this investigation for four regions: The US, the EU, China and India, and analyze the differences between these regions.
  14:30 15:00 13.11.3 THE AUTOMATION EVOLVES: CONCEPT FOR A HIGHLY AUTOMATED CONTROLLER WORKING POSITION
I Gerdes¹, M Jameel¹, R Hunger¹, L Christoffels¹, H Gürlük¹; ¹German Aerospace Center DLR, Germany
This concept of an automated Controller Working Position is to enable Air Traffic Management, to deploy Single Controller Operations in a resilient and safe manner. To achieve this goal, a cooperating digital controller is proposed, which can autonomously assess traffic situations, make decisions and execute actions based on artificial intelligence
  15:00 15:30 13.11.4 AN OPERATIONAL CONCEPT FOR THE INTEGRATION OF URBAN AIR MOBILITY VEHICLES INTO THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL PROCESSES
I.C. Metz, German Aerospace Center DLR, Germany
A major use case for Urban Air Mobility is a shuttle service to and from airports. This paper proposes an operational concept for the safe and efficient integration into local air traffic control processes. The concept includes workflows and assistance systems to be validated in real-time human-in-the-loop simulations.


14.11UAV Design
Chair:
Track 14
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  13:30 14:00 14.11.1 DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-CANARD UAV FOR ACTIVE AEROELASTIC CONTROL TOWARD PSEUDO-SMALL SATELLITES
N.Morita Morita, the university of Tokyo, Japan
To demonstrate and research the technology of active aeroelastic control, an experimental aircraft equipped with multiple canards has been developed and flight-tested. In this paper, the design and development of aerodynamic, structural, and control systems and the results of flight tests of this experimental aircraft are presented, and its application to pseudo-small-satellite is discussed.
  14:00 14:30 14.11.2 OVERALL LAYOUT DESIGN OF NEW TYPE TILTROTOR VEHICLES
Y. -H. Huang, Kyushu University, Japan
Tiltrotor vehicles have both advantages of fixed-wing vehicles and rotor-wing vehicles. However, the decreasing stability in its transitional mode according to the tilt angles of rotors is a critical problem. This study proposes new type of tiltrotor vehicles keeping the stability in the transitional mode and shows the overall layout of them by using a particle swarm optimization.
  14:30 15:00 14.11.3 INFLUENCE OF OVERALL LAYOUT DESIGN OF COMPOUND MULTI-ROTOR VEHICLES ON FLIGHT PERFORMANCE
Y.-H Huang, Kyushu University, Japan
The overall layout design of multi-rotor vehicles has great influence on flight performance. Traditional multi-rotor vehicles are usually not capable of high-speed flight and long endurance. This study discusses compound multi-rotor vehicle configurations and analyze the influence of the overall layout of multi-rotors on flight performance by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).
  15:00 15:30 14.11.4 USE OF MULTIPLE LOW COST AUTONOMOUS DRONES FOR HIGH VOLTAGE LINE INSPECTION
L D Jesus¹, A J D Filho¹, M. A. Almeida¹, W. M. Martins¹, T. C. Pimenta¹, A. C. B. Ramos¹, P. Funk, Mälardalen University, Sweden; ¹Federal University of Itajubá, Brazil
Given that high-voltage online inspection is essential today, the proposal is to assemble three low-cost drones that can perform autonomous flights, with an artificial intelligence embedded in each, where the first inspects the wires, according to inspect the tower and third inspect the servitude range independently, issuing alert in cases of irregularity in the area.