Session List
Interactive Presentations
Reserve Papers
Monday, 09. September 2024
RaumTrack 1Track 2Track 3Track 4Track 5Track 6Track 7Track 8Track 9Track 10Track 11Track 12Track 13Track 14Track 15Track 16Track 17
07:00
08:00
Registration
08:00
09:00
Opening Ceremony
09:00
10:00
ICAS DANIEL & FLORENCE GUGGENHEIM MEMORIAL LECTURE: Roberto Cingolani
10:00
10:30
BREAK
10:30
12:10
1.1
Global Sustainable Aviation - Setting the Scene
2.1
Hydrogen Aircraft 1
3.1
Aircraft Design
4.1
Systems Engineering
5.1
Applied CFD 1
6.1
AI-assisted Flow Analysis
7.1
IFAR Civil Aviation and AAM initiatives
8.1
Complex Flow Phenomena
9.1
Micro - nano Structures
10.1
Wings / Postbuckling
11.1
Dynamic loads 1
12.1
Computational aeroelasticity 1
13.1
Combustion Heat Transfer 1
14.1
Human Factors 1
15.1
Education and Training Enablers
16.1
Aircraft Handling Qualities (including Flexible Aircraft)
17.1
Actuator Systems
12:00
13:00
LUNCH
13:00
14:00
GENERAL LECTURE 1. Jim Hileman : Sustainability and Future Mobility
14:00
15:40
1.2
GSA - Aircraft Concepts & Demonstrations 1
2.2
Hydrogen Aircraft 2
3.2
Design Methods
4.2
System of Systems 1
5.2
Applied CFD 2
6.2
Lift and flow separation control
7.2
IFAR Wildfire / disaster response
8.2
AI-assisted Airfoil and Wing Performance Predictions
9.2
AAM 1 -Air Mobility Scenarios and Optimization
10.2
Fatigue
11.2
Dynamic loads 2
12.2
Computational aeroelasticity 2
13.2
Combustion Heat Transfer 2
14.2
Human Factors 2
15.2
Flight Controller Design 1
16.2
UAV Control Systems 2
17.2
Energy Supply and Management
15:30
16:00
BREAK
16:00
18:00
1.3
GSA - Aircraft Concepts & Demonstrations 2
2.3
Hydrogen Aircraft 3
3.3
Novel Design and Analysis 1
4.3
System of Systems 2
5.3
Applied CFD 3
6.3
Hypersonic Aerodynamics 1
7.3
Multiphase flows
8.3
High Lift Device Applications
9.3
AAM 2 -Airspace Integration
10.3
Impact 1
11.3
Experimental aeroelasticity 1
12.3
Structural Design and Optimization 1
13.3
Combustion Heat Transfer 3
14.3
Hybrid Electric Concepts: H2 Architectures
15.3
Flight Controller Design 2
16.3
UAV Navigation and Path Planning
17.3
Sensors and Testrig Design
Tuesday, 10. September 2024
RaumTrack 1Track 2Track 3Track 4Track 5Track 6Track 7Track 8Track 9Track 10Track 11Track 12Track 13Track 14Track 15Track 16Track 17
08:00
09:00
ICAS IFAR LECTURE Air Traffic Management as a key for sustainable aviation Speakers: Bruno Sainjon, ONERA France, Antonio Blandini, CIRA Italy, Markus Fisher, DLR Germany, Robert A. Pearce, NASA USA, Reginald Tan, A*STAR Singapore, Michel Peters, NLR Ne
09:00
09:30
BREAK
09:30
12:00
1.4
GSA - Electric and Hydrogen Technology
2.4
Progress toward BWB Concept Test and Development
3.4
MDAO
4.4
MBSE
5.4
Supersonic and Hypersonic Aircraft 1
6.4
Transition Modeling
7.4
Regional fuel-flexible and hybrid Flight Demos Lessons Learned
8.4
Airframe Aerodynamics 1
9.4
ERC
10.4
Impact 2
11.4
Vibrations and Damping
12.4
Structural Modelling
13.4
Propellers, Fans, Compressors 1
14.4
Hybrid Electric Regional Aircraft Concepts
15.4
Flight Control 1
16.4
Future Maintenance Practices
17.4
Systems Safety Aspects
12:00
13:00
LUNCH
13:00
14:00
GENERAL LECTURE 3: Marco Ferrogalini: Airbus DDMS - the digital transformation program enabling Airbus to pioneer sustainable aerospace for a safe and united world
14:00
15:40
1.5
GSA - Aerodynamic Technology
2.5
X-57 (Mavris)
3.5
Novel Design and Analysis 2
4.5
Hybrid Aircraft Power System
5.5
Sustainable aviation 1
6.5
Hypersonic Aerodynamics 2
7.5
Aerodynamics of Rotary wing and VTOL
8.5
Airframe Aerodynamics 2
9.5
UAVs
10.5
Damage
11.5
Experimental aeroelasticity 2
12.5
Structural Design and Optimization 2
13.5
Propellers, Fans, Compressors 2
14.5
Pedagogy in Education
15.5
Flight Control 2
16.5
Collaborative and Other UAV Operations
17.5
Displays and Assistance Systems
15:30
16:00
BREAK
16:00
18:00
1.6
GSA - Structures and Manufacturing
2.6
AFC Demonstrators
3.6
Design of Sustainable Aircraft 1
4.6
LH 2 Aircraft System
5.6
Sustainable aviation 2
6.6
Numerical Methods in Aerodynamics
7.6
High speed flows
8.6
Aerodynamics of Propulsion System Integrations
9.6
AAM 3 - Vertiports
10.6
NDT / Optimization
11.6
Adaptive and Morphing Aircraft
12.6
Structural Design and Optimization 3
13.6
Propellers, Fans, Compressors 3
14.6
Attainability of Hybrid Electric Vehicles
15.6
Flight Modeling and Simulation
16.6
Advanced Manufacturing Technology 1
17.6
Thermal Management
18:00
19:30
SPEED MENTORING
Wednesday, 11. September 2024
RaumTrack 1Track 2Track 3Track 4Track 5Track 6Track 7Track 8Track 9Track 10Track 11Track 12Track 13Track 14Track 15Track 16Track 17
08:00
09:00
ICAS LECTURE FOR INNOVATION IN AERONAUTICS: Helen Webber: title tbd
09:00
10:30
INTERACTIVE PRESENTATIONS
10:30
12:10
1.7
GSA - Propulsion & Energy 1
2.7
High Lift Common Research Model Ecosystem (CRM-HL) 1
3.7
Design of Sustainable Aircraft 2 (Climate Impact)
4.7
LH 2 Aircraft Tank System
5.7
Sustainable Aviation 3
6.7
Shock interactions
7.7
EVTOL Concepts
8.7
Airframe Aeroacoustics
9.7
Trajectory Management
10.7
Structural Measurement Techniques
11.7
Aeroelastic Tailoring 1
12.7
Structural Design and Optimization 4
13.7
Hybrid Electric Concepts: H2 Fuel Cell Architectures
14.7
Accident prevention, survivability 1
15.7
Innovative UAV Technologies
16.7
Advanced Manufacturing Technology 2
17.7
Digital Processes for Non-Destructive Evaluation
12:00
13:00
LUNCH
13:00
14:00
GENERAL LECTURE 2 ISABE: Frank Haselbach: ISABE and the runway towards sustainable aviation
14:00
15:40
1.8
GSA - Propulsion & Energy 2
2.8
High Lift Common Research Model Ecosystem (CRM-HL) 2
3.8
AI in Systems Design
4.8
Unmanned Aerial Systems and Advanced Aerial Mobility 1
5.8
Aerolastic Applications of CFD
6.8
Lift and wake characteristics
7.8
Aerodynamic Instrumentation and Measurement
8.8
Propeller Aeroacoustics
9.8
Climate Impact of Air Transport System
10.8
Structures at Extreme Temperatures
11.8
Aeroelastic Tailoring 2
12.8
Composites 1
13.8
Supersonic / Hypersonic propulsion 1
14.8
Accident prevention, survivability 2
15.8
UAV Control Applications
16.8
Additive Manufacturing 1
17.8
Environmental Impact of Aircraft Operations
15:30
16:00
BREAK
16:00
18:00
1.9
GSA - Propulsion & Energy 3
2.9
Japanese R&D on GX and DX in Aviation
3.9
Design of Unconventional Configurations
4.9
Unmanned Aerial Systems and Advanced Aerial Mobility 2
5.9
CFD and Sustainable Aviation
6.9
Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamics
7.9
Fan and nozzle flow control
8.9
Applications of Aerodynamic Optimisation
9.9
Airspace Management
10.9
SHM
11.9
Aeroelastic Tailoring 3
12.9
Composites 2
13.9
Supersonic / Hypersonic propulsion 2
14.9
Monitoring
15.9
UAV Design and Performance
16.9
Additive Manufacturing 2
17.9
Advanced Air Mobility Operations
Thursday, 12. September 2024
RaumTrack 1Track 2Track 3Track 4Track 5Track 6Track 7Track 8Track 9Track 10Track 11Track 12Track 13Track 14Track 15Track 16Track 17
08:00
09:00
GENERAL LECTURE 4: Bob Pearce: Aviation Transformations: Research for the Future of Flight
09:00
09:30
BREAK
09:30
12:00
1.10
GSA - Airliner OEM Strategy Overview
2.10
Integrated CFD Validation Experiments for Low-Speed Aerodynamics
3.10
Wing Design
4.10
Supersonic and Hypersonic Aircraft 2
5.10
Aerodynamic Optimization
6.10
Boundary layer transition and control
7.10
EAP Regulation and Standards Opportunities and Challenges
8.10
Airfoil and Wing Performance
9.10
Airport and ATC Operations
10.10
Challenge of High AR Wings 1: Aeroelastic Issues
11.10
Loads and Aeroelasticity of Rotorcraft and Propellers
12.10
Air Taxis
13.10
System-Wide Benefits of MW Class Hybrid Electric Aircraft
14.10
Morealis
15.10
UAV Control Systems 1
16.10
Student Final
17.10
Advanced Maintenance Data Management
12:00
13:00
LUNCH
13:00
15:00
1.11
GSA - Airspace & Operational Efficiency
2.11
Challenge of High AR Wings 2: Design, Aerodynamic and Control Aspects
3.11
Unmanned Aerial Systems and Advanced Aerial Mobility 3
4.11
Unconventional Aircraft
5.11
Aeroacoustic Analysis
6.11
Turbulence Modeling
7.11
ICAS Digital Pioneering Initiative
8.11
Aerodynamics of Unconventional Configurations
9.11
Trajectory Planning and Wheather
10.11
Bonding / Mechanical Behaviour
11.11
AI in Structural Analysis
12.11
Composites 3
13.11
Propellers, Fans, Compressors 4
14.11
Navigation, Comms, Radar
15.11
Flight Test and Equipment
16.11
Manufacturing Management and Supply Chain Managment
17.11
Flight Systems Dynamics
15:00
15:30
BREAK
15:30
16:30
VON KARMAN LECTURE: Pedro Cabral: Aeroelastic Tailoring Project
16:30
17:15
CLOSING CEREMONY
1.1Global Sustainable Aviation - Setting the Scene
Chair(s):
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  10:30 10:55 1.1.1 SUSTAINABLE AVIATION TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMMES IN EUROPE
AH Krein, Clean Aviation, Belgium
invited speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track
  10:55 11:20 1.1.2 UNITED STATES\' AIRCRAFT SUSTAINABILITY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS
Arthur Orton, Federal Aviation Administration, United States; Roberto Guerrero, United States Air Force, United States; Dr. Richard Wahls, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, United States
Invited speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track
  11:20 11:45 1.1.3 A VIEW LOOKING IN - AVIATION WEEK\'S ASSESSMENT OF SUSTAINABLE AVIATION R&D IN CHINA AND THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION
A. G Warwick, Aviation Week, United States
Invited speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track
  11:45 12:10 1.1.4 Q&A - MINI PANEL
Q&A A,
Q&A - MINI PANEL
2.1Hydrogen Aircraft 1
Chair(s): P. Schmollgruber
Track 2
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  10:30 10:55 2.1.1 GLOBAL SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF LIQUID HYDROGEN STORAGE DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR OVERALL AIRCRAFT DESIGN
T. Burschyk¹, B. Fröhler¹, M. Alder¹, T. Zill¹; ¹DLR, Institute for System Architectures in Aeronautics, Germany
To systematically address the uncertainties and assumptions for hydrogen-powered aircraft concepts, a global sensitivity analysis is carried out. Recognizing the interdependencies between the overall aircraft design and liquid hydrogen storage through an integrated process, this study aims for the identification of key factors influencing the liquid hydrogen system design.
  10:55 11:20 2.1.2 GEOMETRIC OPTIMIZATION OF HYDROGEN AIRCRAFT FUSELAGES IN PRELIMINARY DESIGN
M. Engelmann¹, M. Hornung¹; ¹Bauhaus Luftfahrt e.V., Germany
This paper introduces a methodology to assess hydrogen aircraft fuselages in preliminary design. Considering the overall tank arrangement, number of passengers, seat abreast and more, the tool derives a variety of fuselage geometries. These concepts are then evaluated on both fuselage and overall aircraft level using key parameters to identify the optimum configurations for the given input.
  11:20 11:45 2.1.3 RESULTS FROM THE APPU PROJECT: THE POTENTIAL OF LOW-THRESHOLD HYDROGEN-POWERED BLI PROPULSION
A Heidebrecht, TU Delft, Netherlands
We investigated replacing the conventional APU of a passenger aircraft with an auxiliary hydrogen-driven, boundary-layer-ingesting engine, as part of a aircraft model upgrade.
Although only about 15% of peak thrust are produced from H2, the climate impact can be reduced by over 20%. The concept is geared at very fast entry to market and includes contingencies, e.g. in case no H2 is available.
3.1Aircraft Design
Chair(s): K. Rinoie
Track 3
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  10:30 10:55 3.1.1 ANALYSIS AND TESTING OF WATER TAKEOFF FOR A TRANS-MEDIUM VEHICLE WITH EXPERIMENTAL FUSELAGE FEATURES
W Song, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Optimized a trans-medium aircraft's design, focusing on cruise state and removing irregular features. Used fast prototyping for efficient testing, resulting in an innovative airframe with a V-shaped tail, ventral and dorsal fins, stepless configuration, and wave-suppressing features. Initial experimental results of this new configuration show smooth water takeoff and satisfactory performance.
  10:55 11:20 3.1.2 AERODYNAMIC STUDY ON THE INTEGRATION OF HIGH BYPASS RATIO TURBOFAN ENGINES ON A BLENDED-WING-BODY CIVIL AIRCRAFT
None Guo, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Propulsion and Aircraft Integration (PAI) of Blended-Wing Body (BWB) aircraft is distinct from the conventional tube-and-wing configuration adopting under-wing mounted engines. The present work aims to perform an aerodynamic optimization for a short-inlet nacelle. A nonaxisymmetric nacelle design method is proposed for back-mounted engines on a Blended-Wing-Body aircraft.
  11:20 11:45 3.1.3 SET-BASED DESIGN TECHNIQUES FOR EVOLVABILITY EXPLORATION DURING CONCEPTUAL AIRCRAFT DESIGN
A.S.J. van Heerden, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom; S. Jimeno Altelarrea¹, A. Riaz¹, X. Chen¹, M.D. Guenov¹, A. Molina-Cristóbal, University of Glasgow Singapore, Singapore; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
Presenter: Sergio Jimeno Altelarrea, Cranfield University

This paper presents computational techniques for applying set-based design to aircraft evolvability studies during conceptual design. Specifically, it is shown how the set-based design criteria of ‘interval dominance,’ ‘maximality,’ and ‘E-admissibility’ can be extended to enable swift, systematic, and interactive reduction of the evolvability design space.
  11:45 12:10 3.1.4 FAST PARAMETRIC STRUCTURE MODELING FOR VARIETY OF COMPLETE AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATIONS
Yun-Long Yin¹, Ke-Shi Zhang¹, Hai-Long Qiao¹, Ai-Ling Che¹, Zhong-Hua Han¹; ¹School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
This work proposed a surface discretization method to attain fast parametric structure modeling for complete aircraft configurations. The geometric model is established in a discretized way at the beginning of parametric modeling process instead of being discretized after finite element (FE) analysis is started. Then FE meshing becomes faster and more likely to succeed, and the design zones can be easily grouped. It’s successfully applied in modeling supersonic transport, tailless fighter and flying-wing bomber.
Reserve Paper 3.1.R TILT-DUCT AIRCRAFT WING AERODYNAMIC DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION BASED ON ADJOINT METHOD
Y.-T. Zhang¹, S.-R. Xu¹, Z.-J. Zheng¹, Y.-L. Liu¹, Y. Zheng¹; ¹Zhejiang University, China
Presenter: Shangru Xu, Zhejiang University
Reserve Paper 3.1.R TRANSIENT SIMULATION CALCULATION FOR ELECTRIC THERMAL ANTI-ICING PERFORMANCE OF COMPOSITE WING IN INCING ENVIRONMENT
Zheyuan Dong¹, Xiaofeng Guo¹, Wei Dong¹, Pingyang Wang¹; ¹Shanghai Jiaotong University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 3.1.R AICRAFT-0 SAT D1 FOR GREENER, SAFER AND AFFORDABLE MORE ELECTRIC (MEA) AND FLY-BY-WIRE (FBW) SMALL AIR TRANSPORT (SAT)
M Mancini, Piaggio Aerospace, Italy
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 3.1.R THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT WING MOTIONS ON THE LIFT IN BIO-INSPIRED AERIAL VEHICLES
B.T.V. Carnielo¹, D.D. Bueno¹; ¹São Paulo State University, Brazil
4.1Systems Engineering
Chair(s): B. Fredriksson , Herzog, E.
Track 4
02 - Systems Engineering and Integration
  10:30 10:55 4.1.1 AIRCRAFT SYSTEM DESIGN: A MODEL-BASED AND COLLABORATIVE APPROACH
V. Voth¹, O. Bertram¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
This paper investigates challenges in decentralized aviation system development. With globalized teams, traditional document-centric methods become cumbersome. Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is explored as a solution, reducing document reliance, improving collaboration and providing a centralized system model for consistency. The paper aims to integrate aircraft design and MBSE for more efficient and cohesive development in the aerospace industry. The research introduces a model-based multidisciplinary method, demonstrated through a use case.
  10:55 11:20 4.1.2 TECHMAPS – TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT FOR THE ARCHITECTING PROCESS OF AIRCRAFT ON-BOARD SYSTEMS
N. Kuelper¹, V. Kriewall¹, K. Beschorner¹, F. Thielecke¹; ¹Hamburg University of Technology, Germany
For low emission aviation, existing and novel technologies are investigated. However, navigating technology knowledge is challenging, requiring support to explore technologies during conceptual design. Thus, the Technology Management for Architecting Process of on-board Systems (TechMAPS) method is developed, enabling conservation of standardized knowledge, while considering intellectual property.
  11:20 11:45 4.1.3 MODEL-BASED APPROACH FOR HYDROGEN PRELIMINARY AIRCRAFT DESIGN CONSIDERING SAFETY AND OPERABILITY
A. Sarr¹, J. Jézégou¹, P. de Saqui-Sannes¹; ¹ISAE-SUPAERO, France
This paper proposes a model based approach for system modelling and safety assessment for a tube-and-wing liquid hydrogen fuelled aircraft considering operability. System Engineering and Safety Assessment tools and methods are applied during the process. Initial analyses show that new functions need to be considered at aircraft and system levels since they would impact the preliminary design.
  11:45 12:10 4.1.4 SAFETY ANALYSIS (CCA) OF THE AIR SUPPLY SYSTEM OF A FUEL CELL-POWERED AERO ENGINE FOR ELECTRIC REGIONAL AIRCRAFT
S. Kazula, DLR - Electrified Aero Engines, Germany
By means of a Common Cause Analysis (CCA), potential safety challenges of the air supply system for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems (PEMFCSs) as the primary energy provider in electric aero engines are identified and mitigated. The design of an exemplary hydrogen-fuelled PEMFCS-powered aero engine is described, focusing on the air supply system. The safety assessment method CCA, consisting of a Zonal Safety Analysis (ZSA), a Particular Risk Analysis (PRA) and a Common Mode Analysis (CMA), is described and conducted on the PEMFCS aero engine’s air supply system. Failure modes and external events, which can have safety effects are identified, and potential design adaptations for mitigation are presented.
Reserve Paper 4.1.R AN AUTONOMOUS SYSTEM FOR DOCKING AND BATTERY SWAPPING OF UAVS
I Kute¹, J Dagli¹, E Khot¹, R Verma¹, P Gupta¹, D Shukla¹, RS Pant¹; ¹Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India, India
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 4.1.R RESEARCH ON TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION CAPABILITY EVALUATION INDEX FOR AVIATION INDUSTRIES
Wenyuan CHENG¹, Rongtao FAN, Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Ltd (AVIC), China; Jia XU¹, Hui ZHANG¹, Zexi WANG¹; ¹Aviation Industry Development Research Center of China (ADR), China
5.1Applied CFD 1
Chair(s): P. Eliasson , Gao, Z.
Track 5
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  10:30 10:55 5.1.1 EFFECTIVENESS OF CFD FOR AIRCRAFT DESIGN: STATUS AND PROSPECTS
P. Raj, Virginia Tech, United States
Presenter: Pradeep Raj, Virginia Tech

A fully effective CFD that delivers credible aerodynamic data on time and on budget is crucial to developing quality affordable aircraft. From five decades of experience, author asserts that RANS cannot produce credible data due to turbulence [and transition] modeling deficiencies anytime soon--if ever. Long-term (DNS), mid-term (LES), and near-term (TicTac) options are discussed in the paper.
  10:55 11:20 5.1.2 CCOMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS ON THE EFFECTS OF LEADING EDGE TUBERCLES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROTATING PROPELLER
D. Di Pasquale¹, Ta. Tarun, Indian Institute of Technology(BHU) , India; S. Shubham¹, S.A. Prince¹, A. Proenca¹; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
This research paper focuses on investigating the effect of leading edge tubercles on the performance of rotating propeller. The primary objective of this study is to assess if bio-mimic passive flow control techniques such as tubercles could be employed to suppress flow separation on propeller blades, and thereby delay the onset of transition that leads to recirculation vortices caused by the stimulus of flow breakdown. The study involved the assessment of various leading edge tubercles of various sizes and extent on a three blade propeller. Preliminary RANS CFD investigations have shown that these tubercles can have a positive effect in term of thrust produced. These results will further be validated against other two different numerical solver. An unsteady solver based on a vorticity panel code and another solver based on a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The three aerodynamic methods will be discussed and compared in term of numerical results, stability, robustness, and numerical efficiency. Additionally, experimental test will be performed for further validation using a new propeller rig already designed and manufactured at Cranfield University and capable of measuring propeller thrust. The primary focus is the validation of tools and methods that can be used to design and analysing of the next generation of rotorcraft.
  11:20 11:45 5.1.3 ANALYSIS OF AERODYNAMIC INTERFERENCE CHARACTERISTICS AND NOISE FOR COMPOSITE HELICOPTER IN HOVER AND HIGH SPEED FLIGHT
L.-Y. Huang¹, X. Zhao¹, H.-Y. Qiao, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China; ¹School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi, China
The special configuration of rotor, fixed wing and thrust propellers is employed in the X3 composite helicopter to achieve VTOL and high-speed cruise capability. This paper is based on the momentum blade element theory,and high-precision unsteady flow simulation method to analysis the interference characteristics and predict the noise of the composite helicopter in hover and high speed flight.
  11:45 12:10 5.1.4 INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF A CFD ICING TOOL
J. R. Teixeira Da Silva¹, M E. M. C. Lopes¹, C. F. Rafael¹, P. C. Souza Villela², G. A. Lima da Silva², H. Jasak, Cambridge University, United Kingdom; ¹ATS Aerothermal Solutions, Brazil ;²Aerothermal Solutions and Software Distributor LLC, Brazil
This paper introduces iceAccretionRimeFoam, a 3D ice accretion tool in Foam-extend 5.0 CFD suite. It simulates rime ice growth on NACA0012 airfoil using Eulerian droplet trajectories and evaluates solver accuracy. It considers parameters like droplet size, liquid content, airspeed, temperature, ice density, and droplet distribution.
Reserve Paper 5.1.R RESEARCH ON AIRSPEED CORRECTION TECHNOLOGY OF EJECTION SEAT BASED ON CFD
Lou Jin¹, Guanghui Feng¹, Liang Wu¹; ¹Overall Technology R&D Department, AVIC Aerospace Life-support I, China
Reserve Paper 5.1.R NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE INTERACTION OF OPPOSING JETS AND SUPERSONIC FREE FLOWS
Zhikan Liu¹, Yilun Liu¹, Quanzheng Li¹, Gang Wang¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.1.R CONJUGATED HEAT TRANSFER SIMULATION OF BUOYANCY-INDUCED FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER MECHANISMS IN A COMPRESSOR CAVITY
Menghua Jian¹, Yu Xiao¹, Xianda Cheng¹, Wei Dong¹; ¹Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.1.R MACHINE LEARNING INTEGRATION IN COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS FOR RAPID FLOW FIELD PREDICTION
AR Jahangirian, Iran
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.1.R OPTIMIZATION OF A DBD PLASMA ACTUATOR FOR FLOW CONTROL OVER AIRFOILS USING GENETIC ALGORITHM AND N.S FLOW SOLVER
aj Jahangirian, Iran
6.1AI-assisted Flow Analysis
Chair(s): M. Post , Breitsamter, C.
Track 6
03.3 - Basic Fluid Dynamics and Flow Control
  10:30 10:55 6.1.1 A CFD STUDY OF THE ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL SYSTEM BEHAVIOUR ON A VERTICAL TAIL SECTION OF AN AIRPLANE, WITH THE AID OF AI
C. Cordoni¹, A. Saporiti¹, M. Boffadossi¹; ¹DAER, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano, Italy, Italy
CFD study of an active flow control (AFC) system on a full-scale vertical tail section of an airplane. The rudder is subjected to fluidic oscillators (FOs) action, which are introduced as boundary conditions. Results are used with Artificial Intelligence (AI) to obtain a control-law for the AFC system so to gain optimal aerodynamics performances.
  10:55 11:20 6.1.2 GENETIC ALGORITHM OPTIMIZATION OF AN OPPOSITION CONTROL STRATEGY IN A FULLY TURBULENT CHANNEL FLOW
E. Saccaggi¹, G.M. Di Cicca¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Presenter: Enrico Saccaggi, Politecnico di Torino

The proposed study investigates a real-time opposition control strategy to reduce the skin friction drag driven by a
genetic algorithm optimization. The experiments are conducted in a fully turbulent channel flow having the friction
Reynolds number Re? = 270. Opposition control of sweep events is carried out using a wall-normal jet. Changes to
the turbulence structure in the region closer to the wall are examined using hot-wire anemometry. By using a genetic
algorithm, amplitude, frequency, and phase are optimized to minimize the skin friction drag.
  11:20 11:45 6.1.3 FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND TOLERANCE SYSTEM OF FLIGHT STATE PERCEPTION MODEL BASED ON MACHINE LEARNING FOR CO-FLOW JET AIRFOIL
Y.-R. Zhao, China; B.-G. Mi, China; H. Zhan, China; H.-Y. Xu, China
A flight state perception model for CFJ airfoil has been developed using DNNs. To enhance robustness, a fault diagnosis method using random forest classification algorithm is proposed. A fault diagnosis and tolerance system for CFJ airfoil’s flight state perception model is constructed, ensuring accurate prediction even with pressure measurement point malfunctions.
7.1IFAR Civil Aviation and AAM initiatives
Chair(s):
Track 7
15 - Guest lectures
  10:30 10:55 7.1.1 IFAR-X: COLLABORATIVE ENGINEERING FRAMEWORK FOR NEXT GENERATION OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERS WORKING ON AIRCRAFT DESIGN
S. Garg¹, A. M. P. Silva², P. F. Albuquerque², E. Nguyen-Van, The French Aerospace Lab (Onera), France; K. Kimura³, Y. Sugioka³, P. Shiva Prakasha¹, B. Nagel¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany ;²Centre of Engineering and Product Development (CEiiA), Portugal ;³Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Japan
IFAR-ECN 2023 conference brought 18 IFAR member together, to introduce the next generation of engineers to the Collaborative Engineering Framework (CEF). This paper presents the framework and guidelines, using a high aspect ratio wing (HAW) aircraft design to showcase the collaborative efforts across multiple institutes, establishing a reference aircraft for future IFAR-ECN events.
  10:55 11:20 7.1.2 ADVANCING URBAN AIR MOBILITY: COLLABORATIVE EXCELLENCE AND INFRASTRUCTURE INITIATIVES BY DLR
O. Bertram¹, B.-I. Schuchardt¹, A. König¹, K. Wendt¹, P. Shiva Prakasha¹; ¹DLR, Germany
This paper showcases the HorizonUAM project's pioneering advancements in eVTOL development and the planned establishment of regulatory sandboxes at airports. Emphasizing MBSE, it delves into the collaborative approach and interdisciplinary cooperation within DLR’s HorizonUAM project. The integration of disciplines, strategic utilization of DLR resources, and the implementation of regulatory sandboxes for testing are discussed. The paper underscores ongoing collaboration, innovation, and the HorizonUAM project's significance in shaping AAM.
  11:20 11:45 7.1.3 AIRCRAFT WING STRUCTURAL SIZING COMPUTATIONAL TOOL TAILORED FOR A COLLABORATIVE MULTIDISCIPLINARY DESIGN FRAMEWORK
Pedro Albuquerque¹, Ana Silva¹, André Pereira¹; ¹CEiiA, Portugal
Presenter: Ana Silva, CEiiA

This article presents two innovative tools, WinG3N and WingSizer, designed to streamline the traditional process of hand-made model development for aircraft wings. WinG3N enables the automatic generation of a wing finite element model within seconds. The WingSizer automates the sizing process for static and buckling analyses.
It enables benchmark studies between metallic and composite structures.
8.1Complex Flow Phenomena
Chair(s): E. Gowree
Track 8
03.2 - Experimental Aerodynamics
  10:30 10:55 8.1.1 EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF A STRUCTURAL-DYNAMICALLY SCALED DELTA WING WITH TRAINING EDGE FLAPS
K. Bantscheff¹, F. Santelli¹, C. Breitsamter¹; ¹Technische Universität München / Lehrstuhl für Aerodynamik, Germany
Presenter: Konstantin Bantscheff, Technische Universität München / Lehrstuhl für Aerodynamik

The main objective of this work focuses on the conduction of experimental investigations of a newly developed aeroelastically scaled delta wing featuring deflectable trailing edge flaps. The model at hand is used to study the effects of different flap angles on the occurring flow phenomena for low Mach numbers and stationary inflow conditions considering dynamic deformations.
  10:55 11:20 8.1.2 EVALUATION OF WIND TUNNEL TEST RESULTS OF TAXIDERMY BLACK-TAILED GULL (LARUS CRASSIROSTRIS)
Naoko Kishimoto, Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan; Daichi Wada¹, Masato Tamayama¹, Yasuko Iwami², Naoki Tomita², Tadashige Ikeda³, Yoshiaru Tanahashi³, Kazuaki Katagiri, Hiroshima University, Japan; ¹JAXA, Japan ;²Yamashina Institute of Ornithology, Japan ;³Chubu University, Japan
In this paper, we reported the aerodynamic results of a wind tunnel experiment on taxidermy black-tailed gulls, a 3D printed model and a 2D aluminum plate based on scan data of taxidermy specimen. Due to manufacturing method issues, we improved the taxidermy specimen by creating a 3D-printed body based on the X-ray CT data of the black-tailed gull. In these experiments, we also measured deformation using stereo viewing and experimented with varying the yaw angle.
  11:20 11:45 8.1.3 HOT-WIRE ANEMOMETRY OF THE BOUNDARY LAYER PRIOR TO A CAVITY IN RESPONSE TO VARIED UPSTREAM GEOMETRY
Caroline Hamilton Smith¹, Nicholas Lawson¹; ¹The University of Sydney, Australia
Wind tunnel tests were conducted with hot-wire anemometry to map the boundary-layer prior to an open cavity of L/D = L/W = 3, at U = 10-20m/s. Changes in geometry up-stream were used to alter the boundary-layer profile, separation, acceleration and turbulence intensity, to see how the up-stream boundary-layer impacted cavity response. A number of complex geometry changes using fuselage and nose curvature controlled the boundary-layer . Results align with literature, where a thin boundary-layer returns more energetic excitation. In contrast, a thick boundary-layer was found to filter out detrimental acoustic phenomena. This data is part of a larger study, to see how BL data can be used to predict cavity spectral response and cavity feedback, to harvest energy inside the cavity.
  11:45 12:10 8.1.4 INFLUENCE OF TRAILING EDGE STIFFNESS FLAPPING WINGS ON AERO-DYNAMIC FORCE
Y.-F. Wang¹, B.-F. Song¹, X.-Y. Lang¹, W.- Wang¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
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Reserve Paper 8.1.R EXPLORING WINGTIP COLUMNAR VORTEX GENERATORS FOR UAV PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT
R.-B Rafael Bardera¹, A.A-R.S Ángel Antonio Rodríguez-Sevillano², J.C-M Juan Carlos Matías¹, E.-B Estela Barroso¹, M.-O María Ojeda², J.-F Jaime Fernández²; ¹Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA)., Spain ;²Escuela Técnica Superior de ingeniería Aeronáutica y del Espacio, Spain
9.1Micro - nano Structures
Chair(s):
Track 9
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  10:30 10:55 9.1.1 MODELING THE STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FATIGUE CRACK FORMATION LIFETIME IN LARGE VOLUMES OF POLYCRYSTALS
T. G. Gu, Institute of Polytechnic Science and Aeronautics (IPSA), France
Microstructure-scale interactions involving crystallographic texture (orientation and disorientation distributions), distributions of grain shape and size, nearest neighbor grains/phases, etc. in polycrystals can be simulated using the Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Method (CPFEM). Digital statistical volume element (SVE) instantiations that comprise a significant number of grains are analyzed by CPFEM to compute fatigue indicator parameters (FIPs) which are used as surrogate measures of the driving force for fatigue crack formation within the first grain or nucleant phase. The computed maximum FIPs usually increase in magnitude with larger numbers of realistic microstructure instantiations or SVEs analyzed. This work predicts the extreme value distribution (EVD) of the maximum FIPs associated with large engineering components comprised of up to 10^8 SVEs using a recently developed upscaling scheme, based on statistical information identified from simulations involving only hundreds of SVEs, with each SVE containing nominally 264 grains. This scheme is numerically validated by extensive simulations for samples of duplex Ti-6Al-4V microstructure models with sharp transverse texture strained in two characteristic directions. The size of the training dataset for a reliable prediction is determined for different textures and loading directions based on uncertainty analysis. Finally, the statistical distribution of fatigue crack formation lifetime (FCFL) is correlated with the EVD of the maximum FIPs, facilitating quantitative exploration of the effect of crystallographic texture and sample size on the FCFL.
  10:55 11:20 9.1.2 USE OF GRAPHENE MATERIAL IN AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE FOR LIGHTNING STRIKE PROTECTION
Jha Pranav, Rv college of engineering, India
Lightning strikes can cause structural damage to an aircraft. Certain parts of the aircraft that are made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) suffer mechanical damage. This can compromise the structural efficiency of aircraft. Hence there is a need to upgrade the existing lightning strike protection technology. Graphene, a carbon derivative, is a possible solution to enhance lightning protection, owing to its superior electrical, heat conductivities and mechanical strength. There are different physical mechanisms through which damage to airframe structures occur while lightning strikes thermal effects of the resistive volume, joule heating due to the flow of current in the electrically conducting structures. Thermal effects due to thermal radiation from hot plasma channel. Thermal effects due to direct heat input from the hot plasma channels. Lightning strikes can cause structural damage to an aircraft. Certain parts of the aircraft that are made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) suffer mechanical damage. This can compromise the structural efficiency of aircraft. Hence there is a need to upgrade the existing lightning strike protection technology. There are different factors which we see while selecting one material like, the composite material should be compatible with the electro-chemical properties. The effectiveness of the lightning protection and dielectric coating and the adhesive ability with the composite structure. System cost and the material costs of the lightning system. Complexity and the cost of manufacturing process of the lightning system and finally the cost of maintenance. Graphene, a carbon derivative, is a possible solution to enhance lightning protection, owing to its superior electrical, heat conductivities and mechanical strength. The study offers an overview on the damage mechanisms involved in a lightning strike to an aircraft, requisite for a lightning strike protection system and the viability of adding graphene to the ca
  11:20 11:45 9.1.3 EFFICIENT THERMOMECHANICAL SIMULATION FOR METALLIC LATTICE STRUCTURES FABRICATED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
N. Tsushima, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan; M. Kita¹, I. Matsubara¹, M. Ohishi, Ryoyu Systems Co., Ltd., Japan; R. Higuchi, 2The University of Tokyo, Japan; K. Yamamoto¹; ¹3Cybernet Systems Co., Ltd., Japan
In this study, the efficiency and accuracy of different heat source models and numerical configurations in thermomechanical simulations are investigated. We focus on the powder bed fusion (PBF) process, which is one of the popular processes offering compatibility with metal alloys for practical stiffness and strength properties. Structural characteristics of lattice structures with geometrical predictions of fabricated lattice structures with various thermomechanical simulations are also investigated to evaluate the feasibilities of each simulation model in terms of computational efficiency and accuracy. The study provides a better understanding of the fabrication process and resulting geometrical deviation of lattice structures by the AM.
  11:45 12:10 9.1.4 USE OF GRAPHENE MATERIAL IN AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE FOR LIGHTNING STRIKE PROTECTION
Pranav Jha¹, Vageesha Sharma¹, V Samanyusree¹, Arundhati Sharma¹, Smrati Maheshwari¹; ¹R. V. College of Engineering, India
Lightning strikes can cause structural damage to an aircraft.there is a need to upgrade the existing lightning strike protection technology. Graphene, a carbon derivative, is a possible solution to enhance lightning protection, owing to its superior electrical, heat conductivities and mechanical strength.
Reserve Paper 9.1.R EFFECT OF LASER PRINTING MODE ON SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY, MICROSTRUCTURE AND CORROSION PROPERTY OF ADDITIVE-MANUFACTURED NITI
Xin Liu¹, Dngdong Gu¹; ¹Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
10.1Wings / Postbuckling
Chair(s):
Track 10
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  10:30 10:55 10.1.1 TOWARDS EFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF POSTBUCKLING IN AIRCRAFT STIFFENED STRUCTURES
M. H. I. Elalfy¹, R. de Breuker¹, S. G. P. Castro¹; ¹TU Delft, Netherlands
This paper introduces a new computationally efficient tool to predict postbuckling behavior in thin-walled aircraft
structures, particularly stiffened plates. Focusing on the critical transition where local buckling alters load
distribution but retains the structure’s load-carrying capacity. The proposed postbuckling analysis tool employs
a semi-analytical approach based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method and the perturbation approach. By assuming
a displacement field through Ritz Method and utilizing hierarchical polynomials, this tool seeks to overcome
limitations in existing methodologies. The integration of hierarchical polynomials aims to enhance versatility
and computational efficiency, enabling its application across a wide range of structural configurations and
boundary conditions. The enhancement in computational efficiency, additionally, provides substantial benefits
to the design and optimization processes.
  10:55 11:20 10.1.2 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CARBON FIBER AND FLAX FIBER COMPOSITES: REAL-WORLD NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION
F.-L. Lovero, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This study conducts a comprehensive assessment of carbon fiber-reinforced composites (CFRC) and flax fiber-reinforced composites, integrating numerical and experimental analyses. The research evaluates their mechanical and environmental properties on a 1:8 scaled wing section, offering valuable insights into their real-world applicability and implications for sustainable engineering materials.
  11:20 11:45 10.1.3 A NOVEL TESTING METHOD FOR COMPOSITE-METAL HYBRID DIHEDRAL WING ROOT STRUCTURE
He He, COMAC BEIIJNG AIRCRAFT TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE, China
This paper reports a novel tension test method for composite-metal hybrid wing-root structure with 11 degrees of dihedral angles. The test fixture consists of lateral support, clamping ends, load arm and deformation monitoring settings, which provides the capability to reproduce the loading conditions of the wing root structure in service. Firstly, a lateral support apparatus is installed in the middle of the test structure not only to simulate the real circumstances but also to prevent torsional instability. Secondly, the clamping end with three pin-shaft connection has been used to eliminate pretentious stress concentration and to ensure that the loads applied on the test article get appropriately distributed and transferred. Thirdly, the strain gauge layout is adequately arranged in a way to properly measure the deformations at joint locations for deducing bearing and bypass loads with high fidelity. In addition, the load arm is delicately designed to exert up to three-time load of actuating cylinder capacity by the means of an adjustable setting for flexible leverage ratios and load applying directions. Meanwhile, a finite element model with geometric, material and contact nonlinearity has been established to simulate the test process. The load distribution and the failure mode from the simulation agree well with the test results. It demonstrates that both the experimental test and the numerical simulation are cross-validated accordingly.
  11:45 12:10 10.1.4 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF A COMPLIANT MORPHING FLAP FOR NEXT GENERATION HYBRID-ELECTRIC REGIONAL AI
M. C. Noviello¹, I. Dimino¹, S. Ameduri¹, A. Concilio¹; ¹The Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA), Italy
Presenter: Maria Chiara Noviello, The Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA)

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF A COMPLIANT MORPHING FLAP FOR NEXT GENERATION HYBRID-ELECTRIC REGIONAL AIRCRAFT
Reserve Paper 10.1.R MORPHING WING THROUGH REVERSIBLY ASSEMBLED MULTI-STABLE METAMATERIALS
- Yin, Beihang University, China
11.1Dynamic loads 1
Chair(s):
Track 11
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  10:30 10:55 11.1.1 POTENTIAL LIMITS OF LOAD ALLEVIATION IN REDUCING THE STRUCTURAL MASS OF A LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION
Vega Handojo¹, Sven Puelm¹; ¹DLR German Aerospace Center, Germany
In recent years, numerous publications have dealt with load alleviation to reduce the structural mass of transport aircraft. With more and more aggressive load alleviation functions however, aspects such as fatigue, loads during failure cases as well as high-lift loads might become sizing relevant. This work addresses to what extent the mentioned points pose potential limits of load alleviation.
  10:55 11:20 11.1.2 CLOSED-LOOP GUST LOADS ANALYSIS OF A SUPERSONIC FIGHTER AIRCRAFT
A. Voß¹, J. Baier¹; ¹DLR Institute of Aeroelasticity, Germany
Military supersonic fighter configurations, due to their high maneuverability requirements, are usually sized by maneuver loads. This work investigates if gusts can exert higher loads on the primary structure in terms of section loads and structural dynamic accelerations.
  11:20 11:45 11.1.3 DYNAMIC DROP SIMULATION OF THE MAIN LANDING GEAR OF A GENERAL AVIATION AIRCRAFT
N. Li¹, H. Wang¹, Z.Q. Li¹, Z.H. Wang¹; ¹Taiyuan University of Technology, China
The kinematic model of the rigid-flexible coupling for the main landing gear was established, the dynamic simulations under extreme working conditions were conducted, and the strength& stiffness models were obtained, so that the performance was reflected more accurately, and the optimization strategies and structural design suggestions were put forward.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 11.1.R FLIGHT LOADS RESEARCH OF TWIN VERTICAL TAIL FOR WING-BODY FUSION AIRCRAFT
Zhengwang Guo¹, Ani Tang¹, Qideng Jiang¹; ¹Chinese Flight Test Estsblishment, China
12.1Computational aeroelasticity 1
Chair(s):
Track 12
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  10:30 10:55 12.1.1 AEROELASTIC STABILITY OF HEATED PANEL IN MACH REFLECTION
Yiwen He¹, Aiming Shi¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
The aeroelastic stability and chaotic motions of a two-dimensional heated panel in Mach reflection are investigated through theoretical analysis, which reveals the impact of shock impingement location on the stability boundary and discloses the stability region of post-divergence flutter, providing insight into the aeroelastic behavior of heated panels in Mach reflection.
  10:55 11:20 12.1.2 PARAMETERISATION OF NONLINEAR AEROELASTIC REDUCED ORDER MODELS WITH AERODYNAMIC AND STRUCTURAL NONLINEARITY
M Candon¹, E Hale¹, M Balajewicz, Independent Researcher, United States; A Delgado-Gutierrez¹, V Muscarello¹, P Marzocca¹; ¹RMIT University, Australia
Presenter: Pier Marzocca, RMIT University

It is shown that, through Orthogonal Matching Pursuit, sparse higher-order functional series based ROMs can now be efficiently applied to complex 3D aeroelastic systems. Furthermore, an interpolation scheme for a nonlinear ROM library demonstrates excellent precision and robustness in modelling high amplitude limit cycles for a stabilator with freeplay and transonic aerodynamic nonlinearity.
  11:20 11:45 12.1.3 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED AERODYNAMIC FORCES CONSIDERING LAMINAR-TURBULENT TRANSITION ON A NLF WING
Carlos Sebastia Saez¹, Jaime Martin Ferres ¹, Mirko Hornung¹; ¹Technical University of Munich, Germany
The wing's dynamic aeroelastic stability analysis, referred to as flutter analysis, typically involves potential-flow-theory-based methods to model unsteady aerodynamics, which do not consider viscous or non-linear effects. Modern sailplane wings with Natural-Laminar-Flow (NLF) airfoils present significant chordwise runs of laminar boundary layer. Assuming an inviscid or completely turbulent flow over the wing chord would result in completely wrong predictions of the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of the wing and hence an inaccurate prediction of the dynamic aeroelastic behavior.

This study presents a coupled FE beam model of a sailplane with a CFD model to calculate the Generalized Aerodynamic Forces (GAF). The influence of transition on the unsteady aerodynamic response of a modern sailplane's NLF wing is investigated numerically with the Gamma-Transition Model. The GAF are compared to the results obtained with the fully turbulent Spalart-Allmaras (SA) model.
  11:45 12:10 12.1.4 EFFICIENT MULTI-FIDELITY REDUCED-ORDER MODELING FOR FLUTTER PREDICTIONS ACROSS MULTIPLE MACH NUMBERS
Xu Wang¹, Xuhao Peng¹, Haolin Liu¹, Jiaqing Kou¹, Weiwei Zhang¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
A method for constructing a multi-fidelity reduced order model has been proposed, which can effectively improve modeling efficiency and reduce the cost of flutter analysis. The generalization of Mach number and angle of attack shows that this model has good generalization capability and can be applied to flutter simulation of aircraft.
Reserve Paper 12.1.R REVIEW ON NONLINEAR AEROELASTIC ANALYSIS WITH FREEPLAY
Yukai Sun¹, Zheng Han¹, He Cao¹, Wenyuan Cheng¹, Zhigang Wu², Chao Yang²; ¹Aviation Industry Development Research Center of China, China ;²School of Aeronautic Science and Engineering, Beihang University, China
Presenter: Zheng Han, Aviation Industry Development Research Center of China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 12.1.R AEROELASTIC DIVERGENCE AND FLUTTER ANALYSIS OF A WING WITH ALL MOVING WING TIP
Wang Weiji¹, Qian Wei¹, Ai Xinyu¹; ¹Dalian University of Technology, China
13.1Combustion Heat Transfer 1
Chair(s): C. Mari
Track 13
05 - Propulsion
  10:30 10:55 13.1.1 FAST PREDICTION METHOD FOR RADIAL GROWTH OF LABYRINTH SEAL CLEARANCE BASED ON TRANSIENT THERMAL-FLUID COUPLING NETWORK
Zijun Li¹, Chuankai Liu¹, Peng Liu¹, Yufei Wang¹, Xin Jin¹, Shuiting Ding¹; ¹Research Institute of Aero-Engine, Beihang University, China
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  10:55 11:20 13.1.2 BASE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS FOR A SUB-SCALE, HIGH-SPEED EXHAUST AT OVER-EXPANDED MODE
Spyros Tsentis¹, Ioannis Goulos¹, Simon Prince¹, Vassilios Pachidis¹, Vladeta Zmijanovic, Reaction Engines Ltd, United Kingdom; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
The flow of a high-speed exhaust at overexpansion mounted on the tunnel wall through a wing is presented. DDES computations are performed to analyse the flow. Results show that the mean and fluctuating pressure is significantly reduced behind the pylon. This is also confirmed through the application of POD. This flow asymmetry can increase base drag and cause side loads on wingtip-mounted engines
  11:20 11:45 13.1.3 NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF FLOW DYNAMICS IN A GAS TURBINE SWIRL COMBUSTOR
B.O. Cakir¹, D. Sanned¹, P. Vauquelin¹, M. Prakash¹, J.P. Hannappel¹, A. Subash¹, M. Richter¹, X.S. Bai¹, C. Fureby¹; ¹Lund University, Sweden
Achieving lower global emission levels in aviation demands alternative fuels to be developed. This necessitates the characterization of thermochemical properties and combustion characteristics. Accordingly, The Triple Annular Research Swirler burner, which simulates aeroengines combustors, is employed for experimental and numerical investigations of non-reactive and reactive flows dynamics.
  11:45 12:10 13.1.4 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF AN ENGINE-INTEGRATED CLOSED-AIR COOLING THERMAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN A NEXT-GENERATION FIGHTER
T. Matuschek¹, J. Häßy¹, M. Schmelcher¹, A. Görtz¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
The potential of an engine-integrated TMS in a next-generation fighter configuration is analyzed. The cooling cycle is a closed-air reverse Brayton cycle, in which heat is transfered from the internal cooling system to the engine bypass stream. The aim is to quantify and evaluate the dependencies between cooling capacity and engine performance as well as installation space and required TMS mass.
Reserve Paper 13.1.R NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HEAT TRANSFER IN MINIATURE SODIUM/POTASSIUM RADIALLY ROTATING HEAT PIPES
Guo Li, Tianmushan Laboratory, China; Yuchen Zhang¹, Guohua Zhang, Beihang University Research Institute of Aero-Engine, China; Shiyu Huang¹, Shuiting Ding, Civil Aviation University of China, China; ¹Beihang UniversitySchool of Energy and Power Engineering, China
14.1Human Factors 1
Chair(s): S. Conway
Track 14
10 - Safety and Security
  10:30 10:55 14.1.1 INSIGHTS INTO HUMAN FATIGUE: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS IN AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
J. Silva, Brazil; A. Barqueira, Portugal; L. Magalhães, Portugal; L. Santos, Portugal
Study shows 52.90% of aircraft maintenance technicians face significant fatigue, affecting those aged 36-50 and night shift workers. It links fatigue to drowsiness and high workload, impacting quality of life. The findings prompt regulatory bodies to develop specific fatigue management strategies, crucial for aviation safety and relevant to other industries where fatigue is a key safety issue.
  10:55 11:20 14.1.2 PILOT FATIGUE DETECTION USING BP NEUTRAL NETWORKS
C.-R. Huang¹, H.-L. Shi¹; ¹AVIC Aerospace Life-Support Industries, Ltd., China
The purpose is to ensure the safety of pilots. BP neural network extracts data features for fatigue assessment based on physiological parameters.When pilots are under fatigue, the machine will involve more, which can reduce the load on pilots and also promote better human-computer interaction. The paper combines the algorithms of BP neutral network to make the assessment to reach 98% precision.
  11:20 11:45 14.1.3 ASSESSING MENTAL WORKLOAD AND INTERFACE USABILITY IN MILITARY PILOTS: AN ADVANCED EYE-TRACKING METHODOLOGY
A.C. Russo, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil; A. Sarmento¹, I. S. Rehder¹, M. M. Cardoso-Junior¹, E Villani¹; ¹Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brazil
Presenter: Moacyr Machado Cardoso-Junior, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica

This study delves into the cognitive and ergonomic aspects of military UAV operations, focusing on pilots' mental workload and interface usability through advanced eye-tracking technology. The research encompasses a group of 24 military pilots participating in 30-minute flight simulations, with their eye movements meticulously recorded by Tobii Pro Glasses 2 and analyzed using Tobii Pro Lab software. Alongside this objective data, pilots' subjective perceptions of workload and interface usability are gauged through NASA-TLX and SUS questionnaires. The objective is to establish a correlation between eye-tracking data and pilots' subjective assessments, thereby providing a comprehensive view of the cognitive processes and ergonomic challenges faced in military UAV operations. This study is poised to offer significant contributions to the fields of military aviation training and interface design, underscoring the necessity of integrating technological advancements with human factors to enhance operational safety and efficiency.
  11:45 12:10 14.1.4 METAMODELLING OF THE WORKLOAD ASSESSMENT IN SIMULATED FLIGHTS USING THE KRIGING METHOD
Antonio Esposito¹, Giuseppe Iacolino¹, Calogero Orlando¹, Andrea Alaimo¹; ¹Kore University of Enna, Italy
This work focuses on the use of the supervised surrogate Kriging model, based on input data from objective metrics obtained via sensors. The signals are collected during simulated flight tasks, and a workload level classification is performed. the adoption of multidimensional approaches holds promise for a deeper understanding of these phenomena, offering an alternative to traditional sensors.
Reserve Paper 14.1.R A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF HUMAN FACTORS AND AI INFLUECING OPERATOR PERFORMANCE IN MUM-T ENVIRONMENTS
Ivan de Souza Rehder¹, Moacyr Machado Cardoso Júnior¹, Emilia Villani¹; ¹Aeronautical Institute of Technology, Brazil
Presenter: Emilia Villani, Aeronautical Institute of Technology
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 14.1.R TRANSITION TO DIGITAL TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION: EXPLORING HUMAN FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CRITICAL MAINTENANCE TASKS
K.I. Kourousis, University of Limerick, Ireland
15.1Education and Training Enablers
Chair(s):
Track 15
14 - Education and Training
  10:30 10:55 15.1.1 A TIERED CONTINUOUS CULTIVATING SYSTEM FOR AVIATION TECHNOLOGY TALENTS THAT INTEGRATES STEM AND POPULAR SCIENCE EDUCATIO
J. Li¹, Y. He, Sichuan Technical Exchange Center, China; X.H. Tang, School of Public Administration, Sichuan University, China; Y.M. Zhou¹, W.F. Huo², J. Zhang², K. Lin², Y. Luo, Mao County Innovation Institute of Intelligent Aircraft Engineer, China; M. Ling, Chenghang Innovation Institute of Intelligent Aerocraft, Chengdu, China; ¹School of Aeronautic Science and Engineering, Beihang University, China ;²Chengdu Xueshang Technology Co., Ltd, China
Presenter: Ji Li, Beihang University/School of Aeronautic Science and Engineering

This article analyzes the student growth patterns and curriculum in the basic education stage, designs a continuous advanced aviation science and technology innovation curriculum system that matches student abilities, systematically develops teaching aids, textbooks, resources, and forms a complete aviation characteristic STEM course.
  10:55 11:20 15.1.2 UK-ARC AEROSPACE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: AN ACADEMIC SPRINGBOARD FOR AEROSPACE GROWTH
R Gardner, UK-AEROSPACE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM, United Kingdom
The UK Aerospace Research Consortium (UK-ARC) was established in 2020 to maximise the coordinated value of academic aerospace research. Theme narratives linked to need, knowledge gaps and priority have been developed across disciplines and shared with industry. In UK-ARC2, the consortium will grow, co-create projects and expand international collaboration.
  11:20 11:45 15.1.3 MICKEY MOUSE AND A GIANT: COMPARISON OF AERONAUTICS EDUCATION IN FINLAND AND CHINA
M. Kanerva¹, Y. Zhang, Tsinghua University, China; R. Yondo Mine¹, L. Qiu, Beihang University, China; M Wang, BIT, China; ¹Tampere University, Finland
Presenter: Raoul Yondo Mine, Tampere University

This study focuses on comparing the size and structure of aeronautics education in two different universities and nations: Tampere University in Finland and Tsinghua University in China. Parametric data is collected and analysed.
  11:45 12:10 15.1.4 DESIGN AND VISUALIZATION OF A KNOWLEDGE-BASED AIRCRAFT CABIN IN VIRTUAL REALITY
C. Eriksson¹, F. Prokic¹, R.C. Munjuluru¹; ¹Linköping University, Sweden
Presenter: Fredrik Prokic

By constructing and using a knowledge-based aircraft cabin and a VR game engine, the designed cabin can be visually inspected in the VR environment to help further the design and better understand building processes or the user experience. This paper will explain the process of creating geometrical models and how to transfer the model into the VR environment and Airport Terminal operations.
Reserve Paper 15.1.R DESIGN BUILD AND FLY: A STUDENT APPROACH TO THE CREATION OF A RC DRONE FOR A UNIVERSITY COMPETITION
E. Gaspari¹, E. Bianchini¹, L. Pezzullo¹, A. Giorgi¹, M. Giannetti¹, D.M. Macchini¹, L. Ferrarini¹, F. Bondanese¹, S. Celli¹, T. Strafforello¹, U. Mignemi¹, A. Arnaldi¹, M. Ferrazzani¹, M. Sanna¹, D. Geraci¹, M.R. Chiarelli¹, A.A. Quarta¹, G. Palaia¹, L. Boni¹; ¹University of Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineeri, Italy
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 15.1.R AN AERO-ENGINE IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL TEACHING AND TRAINING SYSTEM DRIVEN BY REAL-TIME MODEL
J.L. Yang, Tsinghua University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 15.1.R DESIGNING A FRAMEWORK FOR FLIGHT SIMULATOR TRAINING SCENARIOS. AN EVIDENCE BASED TRAINING APPROACH.
Oliver Lehmann, Abu Dhabi University, Germany
16.1Aircraft Handling Qualities (including Flexible Aircraft)
Chair(s): T. Rogalski , Oliviera, P.J.
Track 16
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  10:30 10:55 16.1.1 INFLUENCE OF CONTROL POWER RATE ON HIGH-ALPHA ROLL MANOEUVRABILITY
Philip Månsson, Saab AB, Sweden
Highly manoeuvrable and unstable platforms, such as fighter aircraft, can have complex aerodynamic characteristics and dynamic sizing cases for control design which calls for earlier entry of flight dynamics into the conceptual design phase. This paper highlights the effect of control power rate on the lateral flying and handling qualities (FQ/HQ) of a particular test bed concept fighter. Aspects of control surface failure and integration of thrust vectoring control (TVC) in the control suite are also shown.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 16.1.R DATA ORIENTED EVALUATION OF FLIGHT CHARACTERISTIC MODELS BY USING BAYES FACTOR
M. Naruoka¹, T. Ninomiya¹; ¹Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 16.1.R PILOT INDUCED OSCILLATIONS AND FLIGHT PHASES IDENTIFICATION OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE AND TRANSPORT AIRPLANES
S. Kolb, CREA (Centre de Recherche de l'Ecole de l'air et de l'espace), France
17.1Actuator Systems
Chair(s):
Track 17
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  10:30 10:55 17.1.1 OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF HELICOPTER EHA BASED ON LOAD MATCHING METHOD
C.-W. Wang, Beihang University, China
A load-matching design method is proposed to address the problems such as poor heat dissipation conditions of electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA) for helicopter swashplate. This communication will establish a performance model and perform sensitivity analysis to identify the key parameters to be optimized, which improves the comprehensive performance of the EHA.
  10:55 11:20 17.1.2 MODEL-BASED DESIGN OF ACTIVE/ACTIVE ELECTRO-HYDROSTATIC ACTUATION FOR HELICOPTER FLIGHT CONTROLS
M. -W. SUN¹, J. FU¹, J. -C. MARE, ICA, INSA-Toulouse, France; ¹Beihang University, China
The EHA design involves 2 channels arranged in a tandem force-summing configuration, which needs a detailed study of the redundant EHA in the active/active mode, as well as in the passive mode. Thus, the research addresses the characteristics difference between the dissimilar power modules. A cooperative control method is proposed to manage the force equalization and the pressure transients.
  11:20 11:45 17.1.3 NOVEL TOPOLOGIES FOR DIGITAL HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS FOCUSED ON REDUNDANCY FOR OPERATING FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
T. de A. B Gonçalves¹, D. O e Silva, Federal University of the South and Southeast of Pará, Brazil; M. P. Nostrani¹, R. S. Lopes Junior¹, V. J. De Negri¹; ¹Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil
Focusing on energy efficiency for aircraft, digital hydraulics is displayed as an alternative to conventional systems. This paper introduces novel digital hydraulic topologies that can be applied to critical tasks in aviation, emphasizing reliability and performance. Size and weight of are also estimated through analogies between general-purpose and industry-specific components.
  11:45 12:10 17.1.4 DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELECTRO-HYDROSTATIC NOSE LANDING GEAR ACTUATION AND STEERING SYSTEM
M. Duval¹, T. Dr. Lammering¹; ¹Liebherr-Aerospace Lindenberg GmbH, Germany
A self-sufficient, electro-hydrostatic based solution is proposed for to perform all functions of the nose landing gear of an aircraft.
The system works solely on electric power, and thus is an important brick towards the electrification of future aircraft.
The development process from concept selection to functional demonstrator in a representative environment is described.

1.2GSA - Aircraft Concepts & Demonstrations 1
Chair(s):
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  14:00 14:25 1.2.1 X-66: ACCELERATED LEARNING THROUGH FULL SCALE PROTOTYPING
B. R. Cobleigh, NASA, United States
invited speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track
  14:25 14:50 1.2.2 BOMBARDIER ECOJET RESEARCH PROJECT; THE QUEST FOR SUSTAINABLE AVIATION
Stephen McCullough, Bombardier, Canada
Invited Speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track
  14:50 15:15 1.2.3 Q&A - MINI PANEL
Q&A A,
Q&A - MINI PANEL
2.2Hydrogen Aircraft 2
Chair(s): P. Schmollgruber
Track 2
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  14:00 14:25 2.2.1 IMPACT OF HYDROGEN FUEL ON OVERALL DESIGN OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT
E. Nguyen Van¹, J. Gauvrit-Ledogar¹, C. Julien², B. Paluch², J. L. Ruan, ONERA/DMPE, France; F. Moens, ONERA/DAAA, France; ¹ONERA/DTIS, France ;²ONERA/DMAS, France
This paper presents the ONERA research effort made to enable hydrogen aircraft, understand the impact of hydrogen on the overall design of aircraft and characterise the performance of a hydrogen fuelled transport aircraft. The study focuses on Small to Medium Range Aircraft and on two aircraft configurations; a traditional Tube and Wing aircraft and a more advanced Blended Wing body concept.
  14:25 14:50 2.2.2 A PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF HYDROGEN AIRCRAFT CONCEPTS
Simon Taylor¹, Michael Hales¹, Myles Joynt¹, Swati Chandran¹, Devendran Sanjeevekumar¹; ¹GKN AEROSPACE, United Kingdom
GKN Aerospace is committed to sustainable aviation. This paper will present data showing the benefits of a cryogenic fuel cell powertrain for regional aircraft when compared to non-cryogenic and combustion platforms. It will also present a future view on the scale potential for hydrogen fuelled aircraft.
  14:50 15:15 2.2.3 PRELIMINARY SIZING OF HYDROGEN-BURNING JETLINER FOR DIRECT OPERATING COST OPTIMIZATION
H. Mohammadi¹, G. Sirtori¹, L. Trainelli¹; ¹DAER, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Presenter: Gabriele Sirtori, DAER, Politecnico di Milano

This study aims to conduct a design study on the use of liquid hydrogen (LH2) as a direct burning fuel in passenger aircraft. The goal is to minimize direct operating costs associated with LH2 fuel usage and adapt the current tube and wing configuration to accommodate LH2. Additionally, the objective is to find optimal solutions for narrowbody and widebody aircraft that meet market demands.
  15:15 15:40 2.2.4 INVESTIGATING THE FLEXIBLE HYDROGEN AIRCRAFT SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN USING THE VR CO-DESIGN APPROACH
F. Reimer¹, M. Fuchs¹, J. Herzig¹, S. Cornelje¹, J. Biedermann¹, B. Nagel¹; ¹DLR, Germany
In an era of ongoing global climate change, there is a trend towards a more sustainable and climate-neutral aviation, which necessitates a multitude of new key technologies. Particularly, the exploration of alternative propulsion systems such as hydrogen propulsion exhibits significant potential to substantially reduce the emissions of future aircraft. However, the integration of novel propulsion systems notably impacts the aircraft cabin and its system architecture. As a safety-critical subsystem of the overall aircraft, critical system interfaces and the complex interactions of individual subsystems must be understood and considered during integration into retrofit and novel aircraft architectures. Utilizing digital methods, it is possible to integrate these complex and innovative system components including the relevant system and subsystem interfaces based on rules, 3D models and digital twins of conventional aircraft architectures, vividly depicting them in virtual reality.
3.2Design Methods
Chair(s): B. Nagel
Track 3
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  14:00 14:25 3.2.1 A MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF METHODS FOR CONCEPTUAL AIRCRAFT DESIGN UNDER UNCERTAINTIES
V.T. Todorov¹, D. Rakov, Blagonravov Institute of Engineering Science, Russia; A. Bardenhagen¹; ¹Technical University of Berlin, Germany
Disruptive technologies should be achieved by assuring their reliable operation while accelerating their entry into service. Hence, the need for novel methods for conceptual aircraft design under uncertainties is additionally stressed. These are outlined and analyzed by using the Advanced Morphological Approach. The work serves as an aid for future aircraft designers for the selection or development of conceptual design methods.
  14:25 14:50 3.2.2 NUMERICAL AND THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF HELICOPTER DITCHING WITH VARIOUS INITIAL VELOCITY AND PITCHING ANGLE
Li Zheng¹, Mingyi Wang², Yujin Lu², Hongyu Qiao¹, Tianhang Xiao¹, Shuanghou Deng¹; ¹Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China ;²Chinese Aeronautical Establishment, China
Results demonstrate the effects of initial downward velocity and pitching angle on the helicopter ditching process in detail. A shape factor and an average deadrise angle are introduced to extend the theoretical model for predicting the kinematic parameters during ditching.
  14:50 15:15 3.2.3 MAXIMUM SPEED OF ELECTRIC POWERED TILT-ROTOR AIRCRAFT
Nahyeon Roh¹, Minjun Park¹; ¹Hanwha systems, South Korea
This key aim of the current paper is to derive exact analytical expression for the maximum speed of an electric powered tilt-rotor aircraft. To achieve it, properly sized aircraft with determined maximum power and torque is considered. Two operational methods are proposed, and the feasibility of applying simplified formulas is evaluated. Subsequently, a formula is derived to calculate the maximum flight speed while adhering to constraints on both maximum power and maximum torque.
  15:15 15:40 3.2.4 EFFICIENT MULTI-OBJECTIVE DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF ROTOR AIRFOILS FOR IMPROVING DYNAMIC STALL CHARACTERISTICS
Z. Lu¹, Z.-H. Han¹, W.-P. Song¹, K.-S. Zhang¹, K.-Y. Zhou¹; ¹School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
This paper conducted a multi-objective design optimization of rotor airfoils for improving dynamic stall characteristics, through employing an efficient surrogate-based algorithm. Furthermore, a multi-objective design optimization considering both dynamic stall and static aerodynamic characteristics have been made, since they are equally important.
Reserve Paper 3.2.R A DISTRIBUTED UMDO ARCHITECTURE BASED ON SURROGATE MODELS FOR LAUNCH VEHICLE DESIGN
Y Liu¹, CN Li¹, CL Gong¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reserve Paper 3.2.R AN UNCERTAINTY MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROPAGATION ANALYSIS METHOD FOR CORRELATED HIGH-DIMENSIONAL DATA IN AIRCRAFT DESIGN
S Du, China; C Li, China; Y Liu, China
Presenter: Siyi Du
4.2System of Systems 1
Chair(s): D. de Laurentis , Holmberg, G.
Track 4
02 - Systems Engineering and Integration
  14:00 14:25 4.2.1 COLOSSUS EU PROJECT - COLLABORATIVE SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS EXPLORATION OF AVIATION PRODUCTS,SERVICES AND BUSINESS MODELS
Prajwal Shiva Prakasha¹, Nabih Naeem¹, Kristian Amadori, SAAB Aeronautics, Sweden; Giuseppa Donelli¹, Jasamin Akbari¹, Fabrizio Nicolosi, UNINA, Italy; Ludvig Franzen Knoos, Linkoping University, Sweden; Manuela Ruocco, Smartup Engineering, Italy; Thierry Lefebvre, The French Aerospace Lab, France; Bjoern Nagel¹; ¹German Aerospace Center - DLR, Germany
COLOSSUS EU Project will develop a system-of-systems design framework and methodology which for the first time will enable the combined optimization of aircraft, fleet, operations and business models. To develop a robust framework two contrasting use cases are considered
1) Sustainable Intermodal Mobility (ADAM) and
2) Aerial Wildfire-Fighting (EVE)
In addition, developed methods and tools will be openly published in order to foster exploitation for SOS research and industry. This collaborative research paper by several Research Organizations, Industry Partners, SMEs and Universities in Europe will highlight the Framework development, Initial results and the insights of such coupled framework for bringing together Aviation Products – Operations – Digitalization and Business Models. The two-use cases pose diverse and unique requirements on the framework and thereby aim to rekindle the research approach.
The paper will show the first coupling results and sensitivity between Subsytems (Technology tradeoff) , Constituent Systems (Aircraft), System of Systems (Fleet and ConOps), and Business Models. The Agent-Based Simulation of System of Systems developed for both Use Cases will also be delivered in future along with paper for community use.

  14:25 14:50 4.2.2 A SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS AIRCRAFT DESIGN FRAMEWORK: DEMONSTRATION USING A SEAPLANE TRANSPORT NETWORK IN THE GREEK ISLANDS
V. Nugnes¹, P. Ratei¹, C. Varriale, TU Delft, Italy; P. Shiva Prakasha¹, B. Nagel¹; ¹DLR, Italy
This paper aims to contribute to the field of aircraft design with a novel approach, adopting a System of Systems Engineering (SoSE) perspective. For this purpose, conventional design disciplines are coupled with Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation (ABMS) defining a unique optimization problem. We want to show the impact of including ABMS in the design workflow on aircraft design parameters.
  14:50 15:15 4.2.3 CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS IN AN AGENT-BASED SIMULATION: A SYSTEM-OF-SYSTEMS APPROACH
F. Villas¹, L. Knöös Franzén¹, C. Jouannet², K. Amadori², I. Staack, TU Braunschweig, Germany; ¹Linköping University, Sweden ;²Saab Aeronautics, Sweden
Presenter: Ludvig Knöös Franzén, Linköping University

The paper presents an approach for analyzing and generating Concepts of Operations using the Unified Architecture Framework to prioritize operational aspects of aircraft agents, aligning with stakeholders' needs while maintaining cooperative behavior within the System of Systems. An example of the approach is applied for forest firefighting scenario.
  15:15 15:40 4.2.4 SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF AUTONOMOUS AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS IN AIR CARGO FEEDER NETWORKS
P.W. Jansen¹, R.E. Perez¹; ¹Royal Military College of Canada, Canada
Air cargo networks provide an important logistical support to large cities and remote communities alike. This research presents a Systems-of-Systems analysis of the operational changes that autonomous vehicles can bring within existing regional air cargo feeder networks. The analysis shows the potential of autonomy to reduce operating costs, enhance and expand cargo feeder networks operations.
Reserve Paper 4.2.R TECHNICAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF SYSTEM OF SYSTEM BASED ON TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT
He CAO¹, Wenyuan CHENG¹, Chenguang XING, Chinese Aeronautics Establishment (CAE), China; Gang SONG¹; ¹ Aviation Industry Development Research Center of China (ADR) , China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 4.2.R RESEARCH ON ROUTE PLANNING METHOD FOR UAV SWARM AREA COVERAGE MISSIONS BASED ON COMPLEX NETWORKS
Xiaochen LI¹, Liang DENG¹, Yang PEI¹, Yunchen GU², Luguang CAO², Aiming SHI¹; ¹NORTHWESTERN POLYTECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, China ;²Shanghai Electro-Mechanical Engineering Institute, China
5.2Applied CFD 2
Chair(s): J. Martins , Kiszkowiak, L.
Track 5
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  14:00 14:25 5.2.1 A NUMERICAL VIRTUAL FLIGHT PLATFORM DEVELOPMENT AND ITS APPLICATION ON HIGH MANEUVERABILITY FLIGHT VEHICLES
Hongyu Qiao¹, Fan Qin¹, Shuanghou Deng¹; ¹Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
In this paper, a numerical virtual flight platform for high maneuvering aircraft is studied, which integrates an unsteady flow solver, a rigid body dynamics solver and a flight control system module. It can simulate the complex flow phenomena and multidisciplinary coupling effects of high maneuvering aircraft, which provides a necessary reference for the design and analysis of actual aircraft.
  14:25 14:50 5.2.2 LOW SPEED AERODYNAMICS OF SIX OPTIMISED UNCONVENTIONAL RE-ENTRY VEHICLE AEROSHAPES
S.M. Giannino¹, G. Pezzella¹, A. Viviani¹; ¹Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy
Presenter: Spartaco Giannino, Università della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli"

This paper deals with the CFD analysis of six different lifting body aeroshapes developed for the optimal design of a Return Vehicle for Low Earth orbit. The flowfield past those aeroshapes at subsonic flow conditions, close to landing conditions, is investigated for different angles of attack and sideslip. Aeroshapes longitudinal and lateral-directional stabilities are discussed in detail
  14:50 15:15 5.2.3 GRID EFFECT ON THE FLOW PAST THE M823 BOMB CONFIGURATION AT TRANSONIC REGIME
J. Jiménez-Varona¹, G. Liaño¹; ¹INTA, Spain
The flow field past an axisymmetric body configuration at high angles of attack is asymmetric, and unsteady. Projectiles, missiles and bombs are composed of an axisymmetric body with a fins set and/or strakes. At subsonic and transonic regimes, the flow may be asymmetric at certain angles of attack, due to instabilities at the tip nose region, amplified by the leeside vortex interaction with the rear fins. The role of grids in such cases is very decisive when numerical calculations are performed. Excessive irregularities in the tip nose region, due to a coarse and/or inaccurate definition of the tip, may lead to important differences of the calculated forces and moments when compared to experimental data. The grid role in terms of resultant forces and moments may be large at high angles of attack, where there are nonlinear effects, some of them due to spurious numerical effects. This effect may also be significant in rolling motion and on the derived Magnus forces and moments at high angles of attack.
In this paper, the grid role is studied by using different grids resembling the configuration M823 Bomb at transonic regime and moderate angles of attack. These grids differ on the amount of numerical roughness, which is a way of measurement of the geometrical irregularities regarding the ideal configuration.
At the larger values of angle of attack, important differences of the calculated side and normal force and pitching moments are present, due to large irregularities of one of the grids. There are smooth and rough configurations in terms of numerical calculations. The numerical effect in terms of an increment of the side force at larger angles of attack has also been verified in wind tunnel testing with either smooth or rough models.
Therefore, for subsonic and transonic regime and at high angles of attack conditions, care must be taken in the numerical calculations, due to the grid is absolutely determinant on the accuracy of the solutions. Exper
  15:15 15:40 5.2.4 SCALE EFFECT ON WATER LANDING PERFORMANCE OF AMPHIBIOUS AIRCRAFT
Henghui Zhang¹, Jichang Chen², Fangli Wang¹, Guijia Zhang¹, Zishi Shen, Aircraft Strength Research Institute of China, Germany; Qiang Zhu, China Special Vehicle Research Institute, Germany; Guanghui Wu, Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China Ltd, Germany; Mingbo Tong²; ¹Jinling Institute of Technology, China ;²Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
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Reserve Paper 5.2.R TRANSIENT ACCELERATION EFFECTS ON BOW SHOCK FORMATION.
S. R. Morrow, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
Reserve Paper 5.2.R ADJOINT-BASED OPTIMIZATION OF A SUPERSONIC SEPARATOR
J. P. Cavalcante, U, Brazil
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.2.R APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK (ANN) FOR PREDICTION OF DRAG COEFFICIENT OF AXISYMMETRIC BOATTAIL MODELS
Quang Nguyen Dinh¹, Hung Tran The¹, Gopal Sharma², Jun Tanimoto²; ¹Le Quy Don Technical University, Vietnam ;²Kyushu University, Japan
Presenter: Gopal Sharma
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.2.R LAUNCH TRAJECTORY SIMULATION AND FLIGHT TEST VERIFICATION OF SMALL AIR-LAUNCHED UAV
G.-B. Guo¹, L.-Y.F. Lu¹, W.-B. Wang, Chinese Academy of Military Science, China; G.-Z. Guo¹, J.-G.W. Jia¹, L.-D.N. Liu¹; ¹National University of Defense Technology, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.2.R THE INFLUENCE OF CONTINUOUS WIND DIRECTION ON THE AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF OVERSIZE MODULAR PARAFOIL
F. Duan¹, J.-Y. Li¹, Z.-D. Li, Aerospace Life-support Industries Ltd, China; M.-B. Tong¹; ¹Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
6.2Lift and flow separation control
Chair(s): P. Vijgens , Heller, G,
Track 6
03.3 - Basic Fluid Dynamics and Flow Control
  14:00 14:25 6.2.1 PASSIVE FLOW CONTROL DEVICES ON LOW-REYNOLDS DU89-134 AIRFOIL
Carlo Brunelli¹, Matija Avirovic¹, Bart Janssens¹, Benoît G. Marinus¹, Mark Runacres, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium; Georg May, Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Belgium; Ecorce Antoine², Antonin Dalbera²; ¹Royal Military Academy, Belgium ;²National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse , France
The usage of standard passive flow control on Low-Reynolds airfoil – for High-Altitude Pseudo-Satellites (HAPS) vehicles - to increase lift-to-drag ratio using a numeric and experimental approach shows that geometry and position of the device are crucial for increasing efficiency.
  14:25 14:50 6.2.2 MITIGATING DYNAMIC STALL WITH A MOVABLE LEADING-EDGE: THE NACA0012-IK30 WING
Emanuel Camacho¹, André Silva¹, Flavio Marques, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil; ¹Universidade da Beira Interior, Portugal
Presenter: Emanuel Camacho, Universidade da Beira Interior

One major problem that affects rotor blade aerodynamics is dynamic stall, characterized by a series of events where transient vortex shedding negatively affects drag and lift, leading to abrupt changes in the wing’s pitching moment. The present work focuses on the mitigation of such effects by using a modified NACA0012 airfoil: the NACA0012-IK30 airfoil, used previously for thrust enhancement in flapping propulsion. Hence, an experimental rig is designed and built to study the advantages of a time-varying pitching leading edge on a plunging wing, more specifically its influence on the aerodynamic coefficients over time. Results indicate that when the wing is not experiencing significant stall, the movable leading edge does not hold considerable influence on drag or lift. However, it can reduce the pitching moment intensity by indirectly shifting the pressure center. Contrarily, when the wing is under proper dynamic stall, the movable leading edge truly improves the aerodynamic characteristics while operating at smaller effective angles of attack. This study contributes to the long-standing discussion on how to mitigate the adverse effects of dynamic stall by providing an innovative yet simple solution.
  14:50 15:15 6.2.3 NUMERICAL STUDY ON ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR HIGH LIFT
P. Scavella¹, G. Paolillo¹, T. Astarita¹, G. Cardone¹, C. S. Greco¹; ¹University of Study of Naples Federico II, Italy
Exploring Active Flow Control (AFC) with a focus on the CoFlow Jet (CFJ) airfoil shows potential lift improvement, drag reduction, and increased stall margin through strategic slot placement. This study examines combining AFC solutions like CFJ with circulation control devices like the Coanda jet for enhanced efficiency. LES and RANS simulations quantify various AFC solutions, suggesting integrated configurations for potential application in finite wing designs.
  15:15 15:40 6.2.4 CHAOTIC DYNAMICS OF TURBULENT, SEPARATED FLOWS AT MODERATE REYNOLDS NUMBERS
J. G. Coder, Penn State University, United States
A detailed study of the chaotic dynamics associated with turbulent, separated flows about lifting bodies is presented as a step towards obtaining stabilized adjoints for aerodynamic design and flow control. Wall-resolved, implicit large-eddy simulations are performed on multiple airfoils at varying Reynolds number and angle of attack with different amounts of turbulent flow separation.
Reserve Paper 6.2.R RESEARCH ON UNSTEADY AERODYNAMIC MODELING METHOD OF PREPOSITIVE WING - MAIN WING COMPOSITE SYSTEM AT HIGH ATTACK ANGLE
Xuan Bai, China; Baigang Mi, China; Junyao Zhang, China
Reserve Paper 6.2.R DESIGN OF DUAL-FUSELAGE FLIGHT PLATFORM FOR JET CONTROL FUNCTION VERIFICATION
C.-P. Li, China
7.2IFAR Wildfire / disaster response
Chair(s):
Track 7
15 - Guest lectures
  14:00 14:25 7.2.1 AVIATION TECHNOLOGIES TO AID AERIAL PUBLIC GOOD MISSIONS AND DISASTER RESPONSE: POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES
A. Andreeva-Mori, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Japan; D. Sziroczák, Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), Hungary; G. Schwoch, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany; M.C.R. Murça, Aeronautics Institute of Technology (ITA), Brazil; B. Dziugiel, Lukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation (ILOT), Poland; J. Homola, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), United States; V. Kramar, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland
IFAR researchers have identified many commonalities in original advanced air mobility (AAM) applications, i.e., public good missions. This presentation will identify commonalities and differences in the disaster-response research conducted by various IFAR members and discuss lessons learned and remaining gaps. Most common use cases and types of disasters are shown and analyzed.
  14:25 14:50 7.2.2 ON-GOING WILDLAND FIRE WORK AT NRC CANADA WITH A FOCUS ON THE USE OF COTS RPAS FOR REDUCTION OF NON-FIRE PILOT WORKLOAD
George Leblanc¹, Gabriela Ifimov¹, Margaret Kalacska², Oliver Lucanus², Juan Pablo Arroyo-Mora¹, Janine Gorman¹, Melanie Wheatley, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Canada; Colin McFayden, Natural Resources Canada, Canada; ¹National Research Council of Canada (NRC), Canada ;²Applied Remote Sensing Laboratory, McGill University, Canada
The effective use of aircraft crew duty day is a major consideration for airborne asset operators including during disaster relief efforts. During wildfire operations, crew duty day is impacted by non-fire suppression activities, such as reconnaissance and intelligence gathering of the active fire and burned regions. The National Research Council of Canada and supporting partners, the Applied Remote Sensing Laboratory (McGill University), the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, and the Canadian Forest Service, have on-going collaborative activities to provide assessments of the utility of Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) for general non-fire suppression support to the wildfire management team. These areas of support include assessing active fire and smouldering detection distances and accuracies, nighttime RPAS visible and thermal IR-based intelligence gathering operations, general situational overview of the fire front and determining practical limitations with COTS RPAS in these environments.

Here we present the on-going work, over the last 2 years of a multi-year effort to assess these fires using controlled fire experiments under various conditions, including under snow. Thermal imaging has been the primary tool for our work to date, however, we also include the use of 4K video, VisNIR (visible to near-infrared)_hyperspectral imaging and LiDAR pre/post burn assessments. To date, there have been effective detection distances of up to 9 km from a number of relatively small (~40 m x 10 m being the largest ) slash pile burns, as well as a high degree of active fire detection with a hyperspectral imager detecting a potassium emission feature in the radiance spectra – indicating high energies enough to allow for fire-induced emission to occur. Ground validation of fire intensity and temperatures were achieved by the simultaneous use of a FLIR thermal imager and in-situ temperature probes. The u
  14:50 15:15 7.2.3 NASA RESEARCH TO EXPAND UAS OPERATIONS FOR DISASTER RESPONSE
K Ellis¹, M Johnson¹, N Neogi¹, J Homola¹; ¹NASA, United States
Natural disasters can result in the loss of life and cost governments and private industry billions to recover each year. Over the past decade the rate and severity of natural disasters such as wildfires and hurricanes have resulted in increasingly negative impacts to communities, public health, natural ecosystems, and the economy. To help reduce these impacts, NASA’s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate is working to advance technologies and enable the safe and efficient inclusion of novel aviation applications to better assist in disaster response. To execute on these efforts, NASA’s Advanced Capabilities for Emergency Response Operations (ACERO) and System-Wide Safety (SWS) projects have developed coordinated strategic research plans focused on aviation operations for disaster response. The ACERO project will be a multi-year effort that focuses on enabling the use of uncrewed aircraft systems (UAS) to improve firefighter safety and efficiency and enable the use of UAS to conduct new missions such as logistics and aerial suppression. The ACERO project will demonstrate technologies that support the Second Shift concept, enabling UAS and ground technologies to support aerial suppression in degraded visual conditions (e.g., heavy smoke, nighttime). The SWS project will be a multi-year effort that focuses on addressing the key safety barriers that are preventing the authorization of UAS operations in a variety of increasingly complex disaster response applications: post-hurricane response, medical courier, and urban disaster response. The SWS project will demonstrate an In-Time Aviation Safety Management System (IASMS) designed to effectively monitor, assess, and mitigate safety risks associated with hazards to UAS operations for disaster response. This paper will provide a deeper insight into NASA’s research and development plans and discuss how solutions developed in partnership with industry stakeholders and federal agencies will improve disaster response acros
8.2AI-assisted Airfoil and Wing Performance Predictions
Chair(s):
Track 8
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  14:00 14:25 8.2.1 DATA MINING ANALYSIS ON AERODYNAMIC STEALTH DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF AIRFOIL PROFILES
S.-Y. Jin¹, Z.-H. Gao¹, S.-S. Chen¹, Y.-Q. Wang, China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, China; ¹ Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
This paper uses random forest and isometric mapping for data mining to optimize airfoil profiles for aerodynamics and radar cross-section. Leading/trailing edge curvature and chord length significantly impact performance. Data mining establishes optimal design variable ranges for airfoil profiles with superior aerodynamic and stealth performance.
  14:25 14:50 8.2.2 INTELLIGENT RECONSTRUCTION METHOD OF AIRFOIL FLOW FIELD BASED ON DEEP ATTENTION NETWORK
Kuijun Zuo¹, Xianxu Yuan, China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, China; Weiwei Zhang¹, Zhengyin Ye¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
The computation of aerodynamic parameters using Navier-Stokes (NS) equations is notably time-consuming.To address this, a data-driven Deep Attention Network (DAN) is introduced for rapid reconstruction of steady flow fields over various airfoil shapes. DAN model showcases robust generalization capabilities and high prediction accuracy across a wide array of airfoil flow fields.
  14:50 15:15 8.2.3 CORRELATION MODELLING OF SURFACE INVISCID FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND FRICTION DISTRIBUTION BASED ON MACHINE LEARNING
Shule Zhao¹, Weiwei Zhang¹; ¹NORTHWESTERN POLYTECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, China
This paper proposes a physics guided machine learning modelling approach for skin friction distributions with high generalizability. Compared to end-to-end deep learning modelling of distributed forces, the method achieves high modelling accuracy (drag error of about 2-3%) with a five-fold reduction in sample size, strong interpolation prediction capability and low dispersion of results.
  15:15 15:40 8.2.4 DYNAMIC STALL PREDICTION THROUGH COMBINING PHYSICAL MODELS AND MACHINE LEARNING
Weiwei Zhang, China; Xu Wang, China
Presenter: Weiwei Zhang

We propose new multi-fidelity modeling framework to improve the accuracy and efficiency for dynamic stall prediction. The framework combines the linear dynamic derivative model and machine learning, achieving higher accuracy under sparse experimental states. We validate the framework using wind tunnel data for the pitching motions of NASA Common Research Model (CRM) at high angles of attack.
Reserve Paper 8.2.R MULTI-FIDELITY SURROGATE MODELING BASED ON DATA EXTENSION USING POD AND ANN
W Wang¹, X Jia¹, C Gong¹, C Li¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Presenter: Chunna Li, Northwestern Polytechnical University
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 8.2.R PREDICTION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN OF AIRFOILS BASED ON WIND TUNNEL TEST DATA AND NEURAL NETWORK
Yuqin Jiao, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
9.2AAM 1 -Air Mobility Scenarios and Optimization
Chair(s): A. Vozella , Itoh, E.
Track 9
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  14:00 14:25 9.2.1 WHAT-IF SCENARIO ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL AIR MOBILITY OPERATIONS IN SOUTH KOREA
J.C. Lee¹, S.K. Kim, Georgia Institute of Technology, South Korea; S.M. Ahn¹, J.H. Kim¹; ¹Handong Global University, South Korea
This research starts by formulating a research question "What are market dynamics associated with the adoption of RAM services in South Korea?" To answer the question, this research proposes a methodology that leverages a data-driven approach incorporating four modules. Utilizing the modules, this research conducts what-if analysis on five transportation scenarios across potential O-D pairs.
  14:25 14:50 9.2.2 DEVELOPMENT OF LOW ALTITUDE 4-DIMENSIONAL OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ADVANCED AIR-MOBILITY
Tomoko Iijima¹, Naoki Matayoshi¹, Nobuhiro Yokoyama¹, Horoaki Yoshida¹, Atsushi Oosedo¹, Shigeyuki Kikkawa¹, Yawata Masanori², Suguru Nakada², Tomohito Yahata²; ¹JAXA, Japan ;²NEC, Japan
There is a growing momentum towards realizing Advanced Air Mobility (AAM) operations, including unmanned aircraft systems. We propose four-dimensional (4D) operations, in which flight plans are defined in both space and time, to avoid conflicts in the air and at vertiports at the flight planning stage. This paper describes the development of the low altitude 4D operations management system for AAM.
  14:50 15:15 9.2.3 EXPLORING RIDESHARING IN PASSENGER URBAN AIR MOBILITY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
A. Edsel¹, S. Biswas¹, M. Kilbourne¹, R. Gadre¹, S. Vashi¹, K. Mall¹, W. Crossley¹, D. DeLaurentis¹, M. Patterson², B. Sells²; ¹Purdue University, United States ;²NASA Langley Research Center, United States
Presenter: Daniel DeLaurentis, Purdue University

The concept of air-based ridesharing, although not subject to extensive study as of yet, shows promise for future passenger-carrying UAM operations. Our study demonstrates the potential for UAM-based ridesharing in expanding accessibility and increasing UAM affordability for the general public, as opposed to an alternative scenario of purely single-passenger UAM trips.
  15:15 15:40 9.2.4 CLASSIFICATION OF EXTENDED REALITY BASED HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE SCENARIOS FOR URBAN AIR MOBILITY
M. Gomes Araujo¹, C. Conte², F. De Crescenzio¹, D. Accardo²; ¹University of Bologna, Italy ;²University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Presenter: Millene Gomes Araujo, University of Bologna

Urban Air Mobility uses vertical take-off and landing vehicles for efficient urban transportation. Addressing challenges like public acceptance and operational visualization is crucial. Extended Reality (XR) technologies offer immersive interfaces aiding in early stages. This paper outlines collaborative research in PNRR and MOST projects, exploring XR-based scenarios for UAM integration and traffic management.
Reserve Paper 9.2.R AUTOMATED OPERATION OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE FIXED-WING DRONES: A POTENTIAL GAME-CHANGER FOR GREEN AERIAL SERVICES
J. H. Binnebesel¹, J. Mehnen¹; ¹mb+Partner, Germany
10.2Fatigue
Chair(s):
Track 10
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  14:00 14:25 10.2.1 DEMOCRATIZATION OF FATIGUE EVALUATION FOR REALISTIC RIVETING CONFIGURATIONS USING STATE-OF-THE-ART SIMULATIONS
I. Rivero¹, A. Palomar¹, M. Rebollo¹, J. Domingo¹, M. Lozano¹, Z. Mujika¹, D. Garijo¹, G. Lara¹, A. Capitan¹, J. Gomez-Escalonilla¹; ¹Airbus, Spain
Presenter: Alejandro Palomar, Airbus Defence and Space

To democratize the deployment of advanced simulation technologies for the development of the new generation of Military Aircraft Programs in Airbus, new integrated software tools are developed at Airbus. One of these tools, called INFERNAL, is able to generate high-fidelity simulations for aircraft riveted joints to predict fatigue cracking for realistic complex scenarios .
  14:25 14:50 10.2.2 THE FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION OF THIN-WALLED WELDED JOINTS
M. Sladky¹, M. Machac², J. Papuga², I. Jebacek¹; ¹Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic ;²Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Czech Republic
This contribution addresses the fatigue life prediction of thin-walled welded joints
in aerospace applications. It evaluates three approaches: nominal, structural, and notch stress
based predictions. A comparative study is conducted on a several types of specimens representing
critical aircraft structural locations, offering insights for enhanced reliability in these predictions.
  14:50 15:15 10.2.3 SURFACE QUALITY CHALLENGE FOR TI-6AL-4V ADDITIVE MANUFACTURED TOPOLOGIC OPTIMIZED LIGHTWEIGHT STRUCTURE
A. Diskin, Israel Aerospace Industries , Israel; O. Golan, Afeka- Tel-Aviv Academic College of Engineering, Israel; A. Garkun¹, E. Strokin¹, C. Matias, srael Aerospace Industries , Israel; ¹Technion Research & Development Foundation, Israel
AM technology topologic optimization, create hidden surfaces that cannot be adequately treated for produced rough and defective surfaces. This study presents an experimental evaluation procedure to examine state-of-the-art surface treatments, showing that they do not yet meet that challenge. Additional treatments are being suggested to be further evaluated by the procedure presented in this study.
  15:15 15:40 10.2.4 INTEGRATIVE ANALYSIS OF LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE AND CRACK PROPAGATION IN TURBINE BLADES
Nhat Minh Hoang¹, Minh Duc HA¹, Tien Quyet NGUYEN ¹, Phi Minh NGUYEN¹; ¹Viettel Aerospace Institute, Vietnam
Advancing turbine reliability: Our study integrates low-cycle fatigue and crack propagation analyses, aligning numerical simulations with practical insights. This work aims to enhance turbine durability, offering valuable contributions to design and maintenance strategies.
Reserve Paper 10.2.R FATIGUE CRACK LIFE PREDICTION BASED ON BAYESIAN DYNAMIC UPDATE DURING INDIVIDUAL AIRCRFT TRACKING
Yanjun Zhang, China; Yu Ning, China; Bintuan Wang, China; Hang Peng, China
11.2Dynamic loads 2
Chair(s):
Track 11
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  14:00 14:25 11.2.1 AEROELASTIC LOADS ALLEVIATION THROUGH SIMULTANEOUS OPTIMIZATION OF WINGBOX LAYOUT AND MATERIAL STIFFNESS
H.R Rahman, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
This paper presents an innovative design strategy that simultaneously optimizes layout and material stiffness variables using a gradient-based method. The primary focus is to investigate the potential benefits in alleviating the static and dynamic loads on the wing. These investigations are expected to provide valuable insights and additional ways to locally tailor the structure.
  14:25 14:50 11.2.2 A PRELIMINARY METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS GUST SPECTRA VIA SATELLITE DATA
Erasmo Carrera¹, Alfonso Pagani¹, Marianna Valente¹, Giuseppe Palaia¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Presenter: Erasmo Carrera, Politecnico di Torino

This study investigates the effects of rising turbulence intensity driven by climate change on gust spectra and related consequences on aircraft design and aviation. Utilizing data collected from the Aeolus ESA satellite, the authors compare effective gust profiles with established wind models, including those by von Kármán and Dryden.
  14:50 15:15 11.2.3 TRADE OFF STUDIES ON WING MANEUVER LOAD ALLEVIATION STRATEGIES BASED ON AILERONS AND WINGLETS MOVABLE SURFACES
R. Pecora, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Wing load alleviation is a crucial aspect in aircraft design for improved structural efficiency. Typically, movable surfaces are employed to lessen aerodynamic stresses during maneuvers, thereby reducing structural weight. This study evaluates aileron- and winglet-based strategies on a civil transportation aircraft, focusing on allowable reductions in wing bending moment/shear while adhering to structural stiffness constraints to prevent aeroelastic instability within the certification flight envelope. Analyzing different geometrical settings for the involved alleviators, trends in elastic aircraft behavior have been identified, offering insights into the benefits and drawbacks of each investigated alleviation strategy.
  15:15 15:40 11.2.4 MODELING AND SIMULATION OF LANDING GEAR SYSTEM FOR FIXED-WING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE
L.H.J.M. Jorge Machado, UFMG, Brazil
This work presents the analysis of displacements and accelerations experienced by the sprung mass of a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle through modeling its landing gear assembly of the passive type. The behavior of the mass-spring system was modeled, using the MATLAB® software and its control systems library to observe the dynamic response of the landing impact on the system.
12.2Computational aeroelasticity 2
Chair(s):
Track 12
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  14:00 14:25 12.2.1 HIGHER-ORDER 1D STICK MODELS FOR THE FLUTTER ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
Enrico Zappino¹, Martina Santori¹, Marco Petrolo¹, Erasmo Carrera¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This paper presents flutter analyses of aircraft structures using an advanced aeroelastic formulation. Three-dimensional problems are reduced to refined 1D structural models based on the Carrera Unified Formulation. Aeroelastic results are obtained by coupling the CUF structural model with the doublet-lattice method. Aeroelastic analyses on thin-wall and multi-component structures are proposed.
  14:25 14:50 12.2.2 LARGE AMPLITUDE TRANSIENT RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF A SLENDER COMPOSITE WINGBOX USING KOITER-NEWTON MODEL REDUCTION
K. Sinha, Germany
The inclination towards flexible wing designs has led to increased interest in nonlinear analyses. The drawback is that the simulation times are much larger in comparison to the linear counterparts. Through the utilization of the Koiter-Newton model reduction technique, it is demonstrated that the efficiency of the nonlinear analyses can be vastly improved with minimal compromise to the accuracy.
  14:50 15:15 12.2.3 A FORMULATION FOR WING AEROELASTIC ANALYSIS BASED ON THE UNSTEADY VLM AND STRUCTURAL DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN TECHNIQUE
F. Montano¹, I. Benedetti¹, V. Gulizzi¹; ¹Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy
Presenter: Ivano Benedetti, Università degli Studi di Palermo

This work proposes a novel formulation for the aeroelastic analysis of aircraft wings based on the conjoined use of the aerodynamic unsteady vortex lattice method (UVLM) and the structural high-order accurate discontinuous Garlerkin (DG) method. The advantages of the proposed approach, such as the ease of UVLM-DG coupling and the high-order accuracy of the DG method, are discussed in the paper.
  15:15 15:40 12.2.4 COUPLED THERMOELASTIC ANALYSIS OF BEAM STRUCTURES USING A REFINED 1D FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
M. Filippi¹, R. Azzara¹, M. Santori¹, M. Petrolo¹, E. Carrera¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
In this paper, static and dynamic problems in the framework of coupled and uncoupled thermoelasticity are
analyzed. A refined one-dimensional (1D) model, based on the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF), is employed
to provide accurate predictions for the displacement and temperature change fields within homogeneous
isotropic structures under thermal loadings.
Reserve Paper 12.2.R ANALYSIS AND STUDY ON FLUTTER CHARACTERISTICS OF WINGS UNDER TYPICAL FRAGMENT DAMAGE
Mingxuan Zhang¹, Hao Zhan¹, Baigang Mi¹, Yishan Zhang¹, Yan Liu¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 12.2.R INVESTIGATION OF THE INFLUENCE PARAMETERS OF MACHINE-BOMB SEPARATION CONSIDERING AEROELASTICITY
Yishan Zhang¹, Hao Zhan¹, Baigang Mi¹, Minxuan Zhang¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
13.2Combustion Heat Transfer 2
Chair(s): F. Haselbach
Track 13
05 - Propulsion
  14:00 14:25 13.2.1 SUSTAINABLE AVIATION FUELS SAFETY BOUNDARY DEMARCATION METHOD
T.-Q. Qiu¹, S.-B. Bao¹, S.-D. Ding, Civil Aviation University of China, China; Q.-M. Ma¹, X.-W. Wang¹, C.-G. Gan¹; ¹Beihang University, China
Presenter: Shengyu Bao, Beihang University

As global warming continues to increase, countries around the world are developing new energy sources to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. However, most new energy sources are less compatible with existing industrial systems. Especially in the field of aviation, it is difficult to rapidly apply emerging new energy technologies due to the lack of validation. The new aviation fuel is a new energy source similar to the traditional aviation fuel. On the one hand, it can reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and on the other hand, it has good compatibility with existing aviation equipment. Therefore, it has a greater potential for rapid popularization. The existing validation method of new aviation fuels is mainly based on the standard system of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the core is based on the operational experience of traditional aviation fuels to constrain the physicochemical properties of new aviation fuels, which can give a clear range of physicochemical properties before validation. Recently, some scholars believe that it is possible to improve the adequacy of the safety assessment of new aviation fuels from the perspective of safety analysis of aviation engines, but it is difficult to give a clear range of physicochemical properties before the assessment in this way, which is not conducive to the reference of research and development organizations. In this paper, we propose a method to obtain the safety boundaries of new aviation fuels by inverse mapping through Monte Carlo method using a standard engine model with fuel resolution. It not only provides support for the range of physicochemical properties of the ASTM standard, but also improves the reference of the new safety assessment method.
  14:25 14:50 13.2.2 EFFECTS OF SHAPE AND STREAMWISE SPACING OF PIN-FINS ARRAYS ON FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER UNDER DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE RATIOS
Longwen Li¹, Tianli Dong¹, Junmei Wu¹, Wentao Ji¹; ¹Xi'an Jiaotong University, China
Results show that pin-fin shapes and the spacing between rows greatly affect the flow and heat transfer characteristics with pin-fin arrays. Results also show higher heat transfer than the short pin-fins in previous studies. With the increase of heat load, the heat transfer capacity of the channel decreases and the friction factor increases with the same Reynolds number.

  14:50 15:15 13.2.3 A MOMENTUM-INTEGRAL METHOD TO CALCULATE WINDAGE LOSSES ON A ROTATING DRUM WITH SUPERPOSED FLOW
H. T. Tuo, Beihang University, China
In order to evaluate the windage losses of the rotating drum in aero-engines, a Von Karman-type momentum-integral method is presented. A 1/7th power law for the velocity profile is assumed. Comparison results showed that the moment coefficient’s discrepancy between the theoretical solution and the CFD method is less than 10% for Rossby numbers ranging from 0.1 to 1.
  15:15 15:40 13.2.4 MULTI-DIMENTIONAL DESIGN AND THERMAL PROTECTION CAPABILITY OF A REGENERATIVE COOLED RBCC VARIABLE-GEOMETRY COMBUSTOR
L Zhang, China; T-T Jing, China; X Sun, China; T Gao, China; Z Xu, China; F Qin, China
The study conducted a multidimensional approach to design the regenerative cooling structure of the RBCC variable-geometry combustor. The investigation aimed to determine the effect of different cooling equivalent ratios on the cooling effect.
Reserve Paper 13.2.R FUEL CONSUMPTION MONITORING OF TURBOPROP ENGINE
Jaroslav Juracka¹, Zuzana Hubnerova¹; ¹Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
14.2Human Factors 2
Chair(s): P. Chimetto
Track 14
10 - Safety and Security
  14:00 14:25 14.2.1 VALIDATING ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT PILOT RECOGNITION: A PCM-BASED APPROACH FOR AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION SAFETY ASSESSMENT
D. M. C. de Lima¹, D. C. Fernandes¹, M. M. Cardoso Junior¹; ¹Aeronautical Institute of Technology, Brazil
Aircraft accident investigations have indicated the necessity of a deeper evaluation of the role of the pilot during failure conditions. The current guidance for safety assessment does not provide a structured methodology to perform such evaluation. This paper proposes to use the PCM structure to establish a framework for the evaluation of pilot recognition and response to failure conditions.
  14:25 14:50 14.2.2 THE IMPACT OF PIEZOELECTRIC STACK HEATING ON AIRCRAFT DEICING
L.-Y. Yuan¹, B.-M. Miao¹, K.-Y. Yan¹, C.L.-Z. Zhu¹; ¹Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
The phenomenon of aircraft icing poses a significant threat to flight safety. There is considerable potential for piezoelectric actuators based on deicing techniques. The focus of this paper is to examine the correlation between vibrational frequency and heating properties of piezoelectric stack, as well as the effect of the piezoelectric stack heating on deicing. The findings indicate that the heating rate of the piezoelectric stack is significantly affected by its vibrational frequency. Short-term and low frequency (below 1000Hz) vibration of the piezoelectric stack at -16°C of environment have slight impact on deicing.
  14:50 15:15 14.2.3 HANDLING QUALITIES RATING SCALE: THE IMPACT OF THE PILOT SUBJECTIVITY IN WORKLOAD EVALUATION
M.D. Turazza¹, J.C.A Macedo ¹, J.H. Bidinotto¹; ¹EESC/USP, Brazil
This work evaluates the impact of the pilot subjectivity in the workload. Emergency maneuvers were performed by test pilots, the tasks were classified using the Cooper-Harper Scale. Results showed a strong variation in ratings for different pilots performing the same tasks, highlighting the importance of the development of a tool to become this evaluation without the subjectivity caused by the pilots’ opinion.
  15:15 15:40 14.2.4 CLASSIFICATION OF COGNITIVE LOAD BASED ON THE PILOT’ VISUAL SCAN PATTERNS
Jie Yao, China; Yanyu Lu, China; Zhenjie Zhong, China; Shan Fu, China
This study focuses on the differences between the pilots’ visual scan patterns. Three eye movement features were examined and a variety of classification algorithms were used to test the classification ability of different features. The results showed that the eye movement features can distinguish scan patterns of different pilot tasks, especially with the combination of multiple features.
Reserve Paper 14.2.R SLEEPINESS IN BRAZILIAN AVIATION: A PROBLEM-SOLVING APPROACH
Virgínia Gomes¹, Thiago Paiva¹, Artur Herculano¹, Thiago Dias¹, Moacyr M. Cardoso-Junior¹, Mischel Carmen Belderrain¹; ¹ITA, Brazil
15.2Flight Controller Design 1
Chair(s): V. Shaferman
Track 15
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  14:00 14:25 15.2.1 LINEAR QUADRATIC PURSUIT AND EVASION DIFFERENTIAL GAME GUIDANCE STRATEGY WITH OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE
X. Wang¹, M. Yang¹, P. Ma¹, T. Chao¹; ¹Harbin Institute of Technology, China
In this paper, a class of linear quadratic differential game guidance scheme is presented to study the pursuit and evasion conflict scenario that an evader establishes a static obstacle and performs the evasion maneuver to avoid a pursuer. First of all, the engagement kinematic model among the obstacle, the pursuer, and the evader is linearized according to the assumption. The issue of the pursuit and evasion game is transformed into a linear quadratic differential game through the dead zone and the cost functions. Furthermore, the linear quadratic differential game approach is utilized to obtain the guidance strategy with obstacle avoidance. Numerical simulation results are employed to validate the performance of the guidance policy.

  14:25 14:50 15.2.2 LEARNING-BASED FULL-ENVELOPE AUTOPILOT DESIGN BASED ON THE KOOPMAN OPERATOR THEORY
Youngjun Lee¹, Jinrae Kim¹, Youdan Kim¹; ¹Seoul National University, South Korea
A data-driven approach to designing an autopilot for missile is proposed based on the Koopman operator theory. The proposed approach employs neural networks to approximate the Koopman embedding function. A linear quadratic integral controller is designed for the embedded system, yielding an optimal controller capable of addressing a broad operational spectrum with only a few gain tunings.
  14:50 15:15 15.2.3 INTEGRATING POST-OPTIMAL SENSITIVITIES INTO SUPERVISED TRAINING OF NEURAL NETWORKS
J. Diepolder¹, J. Z. Ben-Asher¹; ¹Technion, Israel
In this paper, we present an advancement for learning quantities derived from solutions to optimal control problems. The proposed approach leverages sensitivity information obtained at optimal solutions to enhance the supervised training of neural networks.
  15:15 15:40 15.2.4 PREDICTIVE CONTROL DRIVEN TACTICAL MANEUVERING
J. Novák ¹, J. Hanák¹, P. Chudý¹; ¹BUT, Czech Republic
Presenter: Ji?í Novák, Brno University of Technology

This paper presents a Adaptive Flight Control System (AFCS) capable of controlling a jet fighter aircraft during high speed, agile, i.e. tactical, maneuvering. The aircraft model is part of a large simulation framework, developed at the Faculty of Information technology, Brno University of Technology, which serves as a research platform for tactical pilot training. The simulation framework enables an option to practice tactical aerial maneuvers against multiple agent-controlled opponents.
Reserve Paper 15.2.R AI-BASED CONTROL OF A HYPOTHETICAL UNSTABLE AIRCRAFT
F.-A. Sarigul, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 15.2.R PURSUIT-BASED LONG-RANGE AIR-TO-AIR MISSILE MIDCOURSE GUIDANCE ROBUST TO CHANGES IN THE PREDICTED IMPACT POINT
M. Shin¹, M.-J. Tahk¹, B. Kim¹, C.-H. Lee¹; ¹Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, South Korea
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 15.2.R CONTROL ALLOCATION OF A DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC PROPULSION AIRCRAFT USING DIFFERENTIAL THRUST
C. DÖLL¹, S. WAITMAN¹; ¹ONERA, France
16.2UAV Control Systems 2
Chair(s): R. Munjulury , Grabowski, T.
Track 16
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  14:00 14:25 16.2.1 HYBRID MODELING APPROACH FOR OPTIMIZATION BASED CONTROL OF MULTIROTOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES
J. Novák ¹, P. Chudý¹, J. Hanák¹; ¹BUT, Czech Republic
Optimization based techniques such as Model Predictive Control (MPC) often rely on simplified governing equations of the system omitting complex interactions which are difficult to accurately model. This paper investigates a hybrid modeling approach based on Sparse Identification of Nonlinear Dynamics (SINDy) for local model improvement within the MPC framework.
  14:25 14:50 16.2.2 MEDIAL AXIS TRANSFORMATION-BASED CONVEX-MPC FOR MULTIROTOR INDOOR AUTONOMOUS FLIGHT WITH FIXED ALTITUDE
H.J. Ahn¹, H.C. Bang¹; ¹KAIST, South Korea
This paper introduces an advanced strategy for Medial Axis Transformation(MAT)-based Convex MPC(CMPC) for multirotor indoor autonomous flight. The main idea of this suggested framework is the collaboration of MAT-based collision free graph(CFG) generation with the set of circles, piecewisely defined safe flight corridor(SFC), and CMPC including SFC, multirotor dynamics, and other constraints.
  14:50 15:15 16.2.3 AERODYNAMIC MODEL IDENTIFICATION OF A VTOL TAILSITTER UAV USING SPARSE IDENTIFICATION OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICS
H.-S. Lee¹, D.-W. Lee¹, H.-C. Bang¹; ¹KAIST, South Korea
As a data-driven approach, a sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics (SINDy) is implemented for an aerodynamic model identification of the tailsitter UAV. The candidate functions are chosen to reveal the nonlinear relations between aerodynamic terms and system states. The tailsitter dynamics are fully derived and it is verified through simulation and flight tests.
  15:15 15:40 16.2.4 ROBUST SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR UAV FORMATION WITH EXTERNAL DISTURBANCES UNDER EVENT-TRIGGERED STRATEGY
L.H. Wang¹, A.J. Li¹, CH.Q. Wang¹, Z. Yury, Samara National Research University, Russia; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
A robust sliding mode formation control method based on event-triggered strategy is investigated for UAV formation flight trajectory tracking affected by external interference and limited communication. Under this scheme, the discontinuous communication is realized in the discrete update state of the sliding mode surface. Stability proofs and simulations are completed.
Reserve Paper 16.2.R A SIMULINK APPROACH TO MODELING HETEROGENEOUS DRONE FORMATIONS FOR AGENT-BASED SIMULATION
G. Raspaolo, Italy; G. D'Alterio, Italy; I. Notaro, Italy; E. D'Amato, Italy
Presenter: Immacolata Notaro
17.2Energy Supply and Management
Chair(s):
Track 17
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  14:00 14:25 17.2.1 SMART ELECTRIC POWER MANAGEMENT ONBOARD FUTURE AIRCRAFT
Fabrizio Cuomo¹, Carmine Musto¹, Beniamino Guida, Aeromechs srl, Italy; Serhiy Bozhko, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom; ¹Leonardo Aircraft, Italy
Presenter: Beniamino Guida, Aeromechs srl

Smart Electric Power Management (SEPM) refers to the sophisticated innovative control of aircraft electrical generation, distribution, and utilization, facilitating the efficient operation of onboard electrical systems, aiming for enhanced safety, reliability, and the overall performance of aircraft operations.
SEPM goes beyond the limitations of legacy EPM by making onboard Electrical Power Systems (EPS) flexible and adaptable, adding new functions through real-time power management, as discussed further in this document.
The expected benefits of the SEPM approach are:
- Increased availability: by using SEPM, the overall aircraft electrical network becomes dynamic and reconfigurable, with benefits in terms of availability when failures occur;
- Improved efficiency: focusing on a/c electric power train, SEPM steers the operations of converters, generators and motors towards their towards optimal operation points, having efficiency maximization for whole power train as target 
- Efficient hybridization: SEPM enables the usage of secondary hi-power energy sources (e.g. batteries, fuel cells) to achieve hybridization by realizing power paths from sources to electrical propellers 
  14:25 14:50 17.2.2 DESIGNING A HARDWARE-IN-THE-LOOP SIMULATION TEST BED FOR AIRCRAFT ENERGY MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS
A. Alessandro, Linköping University, Sweden
This paper presents the design of a Hardware-in-the-loop simulation test bed for aircraft energy management applications. It requires interaction of several hardware and software systems and is able to simulate a complete flight mission of a fighter aircraft with flight controls, electric and hydraulic power and distribution. This allows different energy management strategies to be evaluated.
  14:50 15:15 17.2.3 DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ELECTRIC-HYDRAULIC HYBRID POWER DRIVE UNIT FOR MORE ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT HIGH LIFT SYSTEM
Z.-Z Zhou, BeiHang University, China
This focuses on the study of an Electric-Hydraulic Hybrid Power Drive Unit, investigating the system performance effects under normal condition in different operational states,in active-active and active-standby mode. The paper also discusses the impact of injecting faults into the system, allowing for a comparison of the various operational states.
  15:15 15:40 17.2.4 DUAL-STAGE BATTERY SIZING AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ON-BOARD HYBRID ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT
A. Wise¹, S. Bozhko¹, S. Yeoh¹, S. Sumsurooah¹, C. Manrique, Leonardo S.p.A, Italy; ¹University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
This paper presents analytical modelling to produce a battery, split between sizing and performance. This allows for the battery to be sized for maximum conditions while the performance aspect can have multiple mission profiles applied for one size. The design follows industrial modelling requirements, sized for power and energy, to allow the model to be implemented within an aircraft design.
Reserve Paper 17.2.R PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT FOR STRUCTURAL BATTERY COMPONENTS
G. di Mauro¹, M. Guida¹, G Olivares², L. M. Gomez², R. Turco¹, R. Tesser¹, S. Mallardo¹, G Santagata¹, Pietro Russo¹; ¹Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy ;²Jerry Moran Center for Advanced Virtual Engineering & Testing (A, United States
Presenter: Michele Guida, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
1.3GSA - Aircraft Concepts & Demonstrations 2
Chair(s):
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  16:00 16:30 1.3.1 TOWARDS ZERO CLIMATE IMPACT AVIATION
GT Llewellyn, Airbus, France
An inside view on how Airbus is preparing the path towards zero climate impact flight.
  16:30 17:00 1.3.2 ACCELERATING THE CLEAN FUTURE OF FLIGHT
VM Miftakhov, ZeroAvia, United Kingdom
Invited speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track
  17:00 17:30 1.3.3 PANEL DISCUSSION
PD D,
PANEL DISCUSSION
2.3Hydrogen Aircraft 3
Chair(s): P. Schmollgruber
Track 2
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  16:00 16:30 2.3.1 CONCEPTUAL AIRCRAFT DESIGN OF A RESEARCH BASELINE WITH DIRECT LIQUID HYDROGEN COMBUSTION
M. Kotzem¹, S. Wöhler¹, T. Burschyk¹, C. Hesse¹, S. Hellbrück¹, T. Zill¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
This study addresses the conceptual aircraft design of a short-medium range research baseline with direct liquid hydrogen combustion and an assumed technology in 2035. The final aircraft design is based on the results of aircraft design and sensitivity studies focusing on the integration of the LH2 tanks and systems, and can be used as a reference point for future research efforts.
  16:30 17:00 2.3.2 DESIGN OPTIMISATION OF A BOUNDARY LAYER INGESTION PROPULSOR FOR A MULTI-FUEL HYDROGEN AIRCRAFT
A. Battiston¹, A. Magrini¹, R. Ponza¹, E. Benini¹, B. Türkyilmaz², A. Seitz², A. Heidebrecht, TU Delft, Netherlands; ¹hit09, Italy ;²Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Germany
Presenter: Andrea Battiston, hit09

The paper presents a design optimization framework for a multi-fuel singel-aisle passenger aircraft with boundary layer ingestion propulsion, combining highly efficient ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan burning sustainable aviation fuels or H2, with a hydrogen fuel cell auxiliary propulsion and power unit driving a tail BLI fan, in order to minimize the pollutant emissions over the entire mission.
  17:00 17:30 2.3.3 MODELLING HYDROGEN FUEL CELL AIRCRAFT IN SUAVE
C. Svensson¹, P. Miltén¹, T. Grönstedt¹; ¹Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
The open-source conceptual aircraft design tool SUAVE has been extended with methods for designing and simulating regional hydrogen fuel cell aircraft. This includes sizing methods for the airframe, LH2 storage and fuel cell stacks. Dynamic models for H2 boil-off and fuel cell power draw are integrated in the mission solver. This tool enables operators to understand future hydrogen flight.

  17:30 18:00 2.3.4 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF A FULL ELECTRIC GENERAL AVIATION AIRCRAFT POWERED WITH FUEL CELL: A CASE STUDY
G. Cafiero¹, P. J. Comunian¹, A. Lerro¹, F. Ponti², A. N. Damiani Ferretti²; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy ;²Università di Bologna, Italy
In this work we perform a preliminary analysis of a full electric general aviation aircraft based on fuel cells and
we compare the performance of this solution with those obtained with the same aircraft when powered with
solid state batteries. For the considered class of aircraft, the results show that the fuel cell-based system can
achieve a much greater range with respect to the battery powered system, when constraining the maximum
take-off weight (MTOW). In particular, the fuel cell-based solution can achieve values of the range as large as
700nm, with a mass penalty with respect to the internal combustion engine (ICE) of about 30%, whilst the
battery powered solution can only attain values of the range equal to 230nm
3.3Novel Design and Analysis 1
Chair(s): T. Gibson
Track 3
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  16:00 16:30 3.3.1 LARGE LANGUAGE MODEL-DRIVEN SIMULATIONS FOR SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS IN FIREFIGHTING AIRCRAFT CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
Raghu Chaitanya Munjulury, Saab Aeronautics & Linköping University, Sweden; Ingo Staack, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany; Petter Krus, Linköping University, Sweden
Aircraft designed for specific roles, such as firefighting, require a holistic consideration of systems and components. System of Systems analyses aim to achieve this by also considering collaborative emergent behaviours. The present approach integrates a Large Language Model into the decision-making process of Agent-Based Simulations within a wildfire study case.
  16:30 17:00 3.3.2 DATA-DRIVEN MULTI-RANGE MISSION-BASED OVERALL AIRCRAFT CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
L.J. LIU¹, D. Kim, Ecole Nationale de l’Aviation Civile, France; C. Reyner¹, R.P. LIEM¹; ¹The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR of China
This study presents an overall aircraft design framework for aircraft sizing purposes. Multi-range missions are considered in the process for overall fuel economy optimization. The flight simulation process combines different-fidelity models for efficient mission analysis. The utility is demonstrated through fuel economy comparisons between single and multi-range mission-based designs.
  17:00 17:30 3.3.3 ADVANCING ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS THROUGH LARGE LANGUAGE MODELS: A CASE STUDY
E A Moura¹, P Krus, Linköping University, Sweden; R G A Silva¹, L C S Goes¹, A A Paula¹; ¹Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brazil
Presenter: Petter Krus, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems/Linköping University

This case study explores Large Language Models (LLMs) as an aid in various stages of aircraft design. LLMs can be adopted to assist in the conceptualization and development of advanced projects, by searching, synthesizing, comparing and generating code for the simulation of stages and systems. Thus, the study evaluates the role of LLMs in engineering, highlighting capabilities and limitations.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 3.3.R PHYSICS INFORMED MACHINE LEARNING FOR INVERSE DESIGN OF SUPERCRITICAL AIRFOIL
J.Z. Li¹, Y.J. Yang¹, Y.F. Zhang¹; ¹School of Aerospace Engineering, Tsinghua University, China
4.3System of Systems 2
Chair(s): P. Prakasha , Knöös-Franzen, L.
Track 4
02 - Systems Engineering and Integration
  16:00 16:30 4.3.1 NAVIGATING COMPLEXITY: ADAPTING AEROSPACE DEVELOPMENT IN A DYNAMIC WORLD
C. Jouannet, Saab Aeronautics, Sweden
The aerospace industry is confronting numerous challenges, from the imperative for more sustainable aviation to the integration of collaborative systems in defense, in a constantly changing world. This presentation will explore challenges and opportunities associated with leveraging Systems-of-Systems engineering in this context.
  16:30 17:00 4.3.2 MODELING CARGO DEMAND FOR REGIONAL AIR TRANSPORT NETWORKS IN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES
M. M. Alexiev¹, R. E. Perez¹, P. W. Jansen¹, J. C.-H. Wang, Ribbit Inc., Canada; ¹Royal Military College of Canada, Canada
By 2030, most of North America's regional aircraft cargo fleet is expected to be phased out. This research adapts a methodology for passenger demand prediction and extends it to model regional air cargo networks in both Canada and the United States.
  17:00 17:30 4.3.3 RESEARCH ON UNMANNED CLUSTER RECONNECTION DECISION-MAKING METHOD CONSIDERING RESOURCE SUPPLEMENTATION
M Yao¹, X Wang¹, L Kong, Chinese Aeronautical Establishment, China; G Fu¹, X Wang¹, J Yao¹; ¹School of Reliability and Systems Engineering, Beihang Universit, China
Presenter: Mengfei Yao, School of Reliability and Systems Engineering, Beihang Universit

For the reconnection problem of unmanned clusters under resource replenishment, performance and potential cognition is carried out, and the number of replenishment decision is made by integrating the performance enhancement and the cost, and based on this, the connection decision is made by preference connection and particle swarm optimization.
  17:30 18:00 4.3.4 UAV BASED SMART GRAZING: A PROTOTYPE OF SPACE-AIR-GROUND INTEGRATED GRAZING IOT NETWORKS IN QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU
J.L. Li, China
Restricted by the geographical conditions of pastures, poor network infrastructure and low economic output, conventional IoT systems are difficult to apply in grazing. We propose the SAG-GIoT system based on the background of yak grazing production in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to solve the problems in application scenarios of daily grazing supervision, UAV grazing and searching for yaks.
Reserve Paper 4.3.R FROM ONTOLOGY TO SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE: AN MBSE APPROACH TOWARD THE REALIZATION OF URBAN AIR MOBILITY
S. Sinha Roy¹, Y. Huang¹, D. Bekdache¹, T.-Y. Fung¹, B. Beck¹, C. Guariniello¹, D. A. DeLaurentis¹; ¹Purdue University, United States
Presenter: Daniel DeLaurentis, Purdue University
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 4.3.R EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION METHOD FOR AVIATION EMERGENCY RESCUE SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS BASED ON EFFECT CHAIN
Y.-Z. Wang¹, B.-L. Shang¹, P.-F. Li¹, W.-Z. Liu¹, R.-X. Lin¹, K.-A. Xing¹, Y.-T. Deng¹; ¹School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
5.3Applied CFD 3
Chair(s): S. Prince , Viviani, A.
Track 5
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  16:00 16:30 5.3.1 IDENTIFICATION METHOD OF LONGITUDINAL COEFFICIENTS BASED ON THE NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE FLOW TOPOLOGY AROUND THE SACCON
B. Isnard¹, G. Tanguy¹, D. Farcy¹, E. Garnier¹, J.M. Foucault, LMFL, France; ¹ONERA, France
This paper presents a new model for representing the aerodynamic torsor based on the flow topology on the upper surface of the SACCON geometry. In particular, it takes into account the evolution of flow dynamics as the angle of attack increases or decreases. Among other things, this model provides an improved representation of aerodynamic coefficients at high angles of attack.
  16:30 17:00 5.3.2 COMPARISON OF STEADY AND UNSTEADY RANS WITH EXPERIMENTAL DATA FOR A THRUST REVERSER UNIT
H. I. Bdeiwi, Aircraft Reserach Association, United Kingdom
Numerical methodologies for a thrust reverser unit were investigated using the wind tunnel model. Two numerical models of differing fidelity were applied to the turbofan engine: steady RANS using an actuator disk model for the fan and unsteady RANS with rotating fan using the Chimera meshing approach. the CFD quantitative and qualitative results were compared against the experimental data .
  17:00 17:30 5.3.3 AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS RESEARCH OF A DISTRIBUTED PROPULSION AIRCRAFT
S Q.-C. Chen¹, Z.-G. Guo¹, G W.-J. Jia¹, D N.-L. Liu¹; ¹National University of Defense Technology, China
The manuscript focuses on the distributed propulsion system of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The essential three-dimensional layout parameters of the distributed propulsion system are designed to be dimensionless, which intended to obtain the optimal layout law during takeoff and landing stages. Based on the experimental verification of numerical simulation methods, the Multi-Reference Frame (MRF) method and the sliding grid method were used to perform high-fidelity quasi-/unsteady RANS simulations of the aerodynamic characteristics of multiple propeller-wing-flap coupling configurations. The manuscript reveals the flow mechanism which caused by the aerodynamic interference of multiple propellers-wing-flap in a distributed propulsion system at low Reynolds numbers and high angles of attack; We focused on the three-dimensional spanwise and chord flow characteristics of the wing surface, and the optimal aerodynamic lift enhancement law of the distributed propulsion system is obtained. Finally, the results of Vortex Lattice Method calculation and RANS simulation at high angle of attack were compared, laying the foundation for the subsequent establishment of a rapid optimization process for the three-dimensional layout of distributed propulsion systems.
  17:30 18:00 5.3.4 HYDRODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF STATIC WATER IMPACT ON WEDGE-SHAPED HULL WATERTIGHT TEST SPECIMEN THROUGH NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
Muwen Niu, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China; Feng Sun, Xi'an Modern Control Technology Research Institute, China; Chenxi Du, AVIC XAC COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT CO., LTD., China; Heyuan Huang, Northwestern Polytechnical University/Aircraft Strength Reserch , China
Analyzing the static water impact of amphibious aircraft is essential. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT is employed to numerically simulate the water response of a wedge-shaped hull in static water. This approach facilitates a detailed analysis of the hull's behavior under water landing conditions.
Reserve Paper 5.3.R ON THE AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CRESCENT WING
D. F Kurtulus¹, B. Anilir¹, D. Raymer, Conceptual Research Corporation, United States; ¹METU, Turkey
Reserve Paper 5.3.R ANALYSIS OF SUCTION FORCE EFFECT ON DIFFERENT FUSELAGE SHAPE DURING THE WATER DITCHING
J.-Y. LI¹, X.-Y. WANG, Shanghai Electro-Mechanical Engineering Institute, China; J.-C. CHEN¹, M.-B. TONG¹, J. JIAO, China Special Vehicle Research Institute, China; C.-L. YAN, Beijing University Of Aeronautics And Astronautics, China; ¹Nanjing University Of Aeronautics And Astronautics, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.3.R APPLICATION OF U-NET NETUTRAL NETWORK IN PREDICTING THE FLOW FIELDS AROUND TWO-DIMENSIONAL AIRFOIL MODEL
Gopal Sharma¹, The Hung Tran, Le Quy Don Technical University, Vietnam; Jun Tanimoto¹; ¹Kyushu University, Japan
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.3.R NUMERICAL ANALYSIS ON AERIAL WATER-DROPPING OF FIRE-FIGHTING AIRCRAFT
YL Li, Nanjing University Of Aeronautics And Astronautics, China
6.3Hypersonic Aerodynamics 1
Chair(s): M. Choudhari , Viviani, A.
Track 6
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  16:00 16:30 6.3.1 AERODYNAMIC NUMERICAL/EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON OF A HYPERSONIC TEST VEHICLE IN MORE&LESS PROGRAM
Marco Marini, CIRA, Italy; Roberta Fusaro¹, Nicole Viola¹, Dumitru Pepelea, INCAS, Romania; Bora Cakir, VKI, Belgium; Matthew Clay, REL, United Kingdom; ¹POLITO, Italy
This paper deals with a numerical and experimental activity for the development and integration of the aerodynamic database of hypersonic test vehicle in the framework of the H2020 More&Less project. At this purpose, a dedicated methodology has been developed and applied to several supersonic/hypersonic vehicles. This methodology foresees the development of aerodynamic aerodatabases by means of incremental steps starting from simplified methods up to very reliable data based on high fidelity CFD simulations and experimental measurements with associated confidence levels. In particular in this paper a direct comparison between CFD results and experimental measurements is reported being this a fundamental step for the building of the final aerodynamic database of the Mach 5 flying experimental vehicle (flying test bed).
  16:30 17:00 6.3.2 ANALYSIS ON COMPLEX HYPERSONIC FLOW DURING THE REENTRY OF EXPIRED SPACECRAFT
Z. H. Zheng Han¹, Z.-H. L Zhi-Hui Li, National Laboratory for Computational Fluid Dynamics, China; S.-Y. C. Shi-Yong Chu¹, W.-Y. C. Wen-Yuan Cheng¹, C.-S. W. Chuan-Sheng Wang¹; ¹Aviation Industry Development Research Center of China, China
This study aims at the accurate numerical simulation of hypersonic flow created by multiple disintegration of expired spacecraft re-entering into near space. Taking the Tiangong-1 spacecraft as an example, we conducted flow simulation calculations for the compartment. We also conducted numerical simulations for the multi-body flow around the debris of the Tiangong-1.
  17:00 17:30 6.3.3 ASSESSMENT OF A MACROSCOPIC MODEL FOR THE AEROTHERMODYNAMICS CHARACTERIZATION OF ICE GIANTS ATMOSPHERIC ENTRY
D. Ninni¹, F. Bonelli¹, A. Laricchiuta², G. Colonna², G. Pascazio¹; ¹Politecnico di Bari, Italy ;²CNR ISTP Bari, Italy
This work provides the assessment of an hybrid macroscopic/state-to-state approach for the numerical simulation of Ice Giants atmospheric entry flows. A GPU-equipped solver is presented with the goal of simulating hypersonic flows past bluff bodies. A comparison between macroscopic and state-to-state results is provided.
  17:30 18:00 6.3.4 KINETIC MONTO CARLO BASED CATALYTIC VISCOUS WALL BOUNDARY MODELING IN CFD SIMULATION OF HIGH-ENTHALPY NON-EQUILIBRIUM FL
Qin Li¹, Xiaofeng Yang², Wei Dong¹, Yanxia Du²; ¹Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China ;²China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, China
A KMC based catalytic model simulating heterogeneous catalysis was constructed and coupled into CFD method as viscous wall boundary by interpolation. The results showed that simulation of high-enthalpy flow with current method could drive a deterministic heat transfer rate on surface of high-speed aircrafts, thus improve reliability of aerodynamic heating prediction on thermal protection material.
Reserve Paper 6.3.R AERO-THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE DURING RE-ENTRY MANOEUVRER
A. Assonitis¹, R. Paciorri ¹, V. Orlandini¹, A. Neri, ESA ESRIN, Italy; ¹University of Rome La Sapienza , Italy
Presenter: Valerio Orlandini, University of Rome La Sapienza
7.3Multiphase flows
Chair(s): E. Gowree , Post, M.
Track 7
03.3 - Basic Fluid Dynamics and Flow Control
  16:00 16:30 7.3.1 VALIDATION OF MULTIPHASE FLOW SIMULATIONS BY EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS IN A CHANNEL FLOW
M. Khaled¹, B. Faraji-Tajrishi¹, A. Herrgen, MTU Aero Engines AG, Germany; B. Weigand¹; ¹Institute of Aerospace Thermodynamics, University of Stuttgart, Germany
Water separation from an exhaust gas flow is of great importance for the Water-Enhanced Turbofan concept (WET). Experiments and numerical simulations are performed in a rectangular channel to separate water from a gas flow. In this study a numerical model is developed and validated against measurements. To achieve this, Euler-Lagrange simulations combined with a Fluid Film model are conducted.
  16:30 17:00 7.3.2 STUDY OF THE OIL PUMP PERFORMANCE FOR TWO-PHASE FLOW IN AN AIRCRAFT IN AN AIRCRAFT ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM: PART II
Yaguo Lyu¹, Nan Wu¹, Jing Wang¹, Yi Tan¹, Zhenxia Liu¹, Jianping Hu¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
The lubrication system of aircraft engines supplies lubricating oil to the bearings and gears for lubrication, which mixes with the sealed air in the cavity to form an oil-air mixture in the bearing cavity and accessory gearbox. The oil return pump suctions the oil-air mixture for transport to components such as the oil-gas separator for the recovery of lubricating oil, and ultimately returns to the sliding oil tank for cyclic use. For the problem of poor oil return effect of the oil return pump, this paper focuses on studying the scavenge pump and conducts experimental research on the flow rate performance under negative pressure at high altitude based on ground tests. The high-altitude state takes the local atmospheric pressure at different flight altitudes of the aircraft as a reference, adjusts the inlet pressure of the pumps at all levels to the reference value, and measures the flow rate after reaching stability; the ground state obtains the flow rate characteristics of the pumps at different outlet pressures by adjusting the pressure after the pumps. This article obtains the effect of inlet pressure, outlet pressure, and rotational speed on the flow characteristics and volumetric efficiency of the oil return pump under high-altitude pressures in the pure oil state.
Following experiments conducted under high-altitude pressures in the oil-air two-phase medium, different inlet negative pressures are examined for their impact on pump performance, the following conclusions can be obtained:
  17:00 17:30 7.3.3 STUDY OF DROPLET MOTION AND WATER FILM FLOW CHARACTERISTICS ON SUPERHYDROPHOBIC SURFACES UNDER AIRFLOW SHEARING
H. Zhao¹, D. Zhu¹, S. Wang², S. Chang², L. Yu¹, Y. Wu¹; ¹AVIC Aerodynamics Research Institute, China ;²Beihang University, China
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  17:30 18:00 7.3.4 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF WATER SEPARATION IN ANNULAR FLOW WITHIN A CIRCULAR CHANNEL
R. Haidl¹, B. Weigand¹; ¹Institute of Aerospace Thermodynamics, University of Stuttgart, Germany
An experimental investigation of different separation lip designs is carried out to better understand the process of water separation from a supersaturated flow in a circular, horizontal channel. The experiments are conducted at Reynolds numbers between Re ? 70,000?230,000 and for different levels of supersaturation. The water recovery factor and the pressure loss denote the two key parameters.
8.3High Lift Device Applications
Chair(s):
Track 8
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  16:00 16:30 8.3.1 MORPHING LEADING-EDGE TUBERCLES ON CESSNA 172 WING
G. Abate¹, H.P. Monner¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
Sinusoidal modifications of the leading-edge also called “tubercles” are applied to the Cessna 172 wing in order to study their aerodynamic effect especially at post-stall conditions. Originally, tubercles characterize the Humpback whale flippers, and they help these giant animals to increase their speed and maneuverability into the water by acting like flow control devices. Studies showed that tubercles are similar to vortex generators and wing fences: they re-energize the leading-edge flow by generating vortices that can block most of the spanwise flow leading to a delay in flow separation and stall. It has been shown that they can successfully be applied to fans and wind turbine blades, but not many works highlight their positive effects on wing applications. Therefore, the present study wants to conduct an aerodynamic analysis of tubercles applied to the leading-edge of the Cessna 172 wing. A particular attention will be given to three design parameters: amplitude, wavelength, and wingspan location. These variables characterize every single tubercle configuration, and their combination results in different aerodynamic flow effects. The aim of this analysis is to give some insights on tubercle parameterization and their geometric characteristics in order to achieve stall delay and relevant aerodynamic improvements in off-design regimes. Moreover, as mentioned before, since the positive effect of tubercles is relevant only at some flow conditions or regimes, the present work wants to consider the possibility of designing tubercles as morphing structures that are deployed only when needed by changing the shape of the leading-edge wing thanks to smart materials and actuators.
  16:30 17:00 8.3.2 ON THE CHALLENGES OF SURROGATE-BASED AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMISATION
J. A. Rasines Mazo¹, D. Verstraete¹; ¹The University of Sydney, Australia
Simulation failures are a critical challenge in surrogate-based aerodynamic shape optimisation. Understanding its effect on algorithm convergence and trends between low- and high- fidelity simulation is essential to inform efficient algorithm design. This works investigates this through evaluation of a low Reynolds number airfoil design problem.
  17:00 17:30 8.3.3 HYBRID RANS/LES AND WALL-MODELLED LES OF HIGH LIFT COMMON RESEARCH MODEL WITH SU2
E.S. Silveira Molina, Embraer, Brazil
Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) / Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Wall-Modelled LES
in the open-source SU2 framework is evaluated on high-lift aircraft configurations comprising the component
build-up study for the 5th AIAA High Lift Prediction Workshop (HLPW-5). Preliminary results showed reasonable agreement with experimental data.

  17:30 18:00 8.3.4 AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CAMBER MORPHING AIRFOILS USING PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY AND COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
L. Kiszkowiak¹, M. Marciniuk², P. Piskur, Polish Naval Academy of the Heroes of Westerplatte, Poland; L. Malicki², K. Strzelecka², K. Sibilski¹, S. Kachel¹; ¹Military University of Techology, Poland ;²Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland
The paper presents aerodynamic analysis results of camber morphing airfoils using Particle Image Velocimetry and Computational Fluid Dynamics methods. Velocity distribution from the PIV experiment was used to validate the numerical model. Morphing airfoils could provide better aerodynamic performance due to a smooth transition between the leading and trailing edges.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 8.3.R AERO-KINEMATIC OPTIMIZATION OF HIGH-LIFT DEVICES WITH DOWNWARD DEFLECTION OF SPOILER
Chuang Wei¹, Chong Rao¹, Long Yang¹, Tiejun Zhang¹; ¹Aerodynamics Research Institute, China
9.3AAM 2 -Airspace Integration
Chair(s): , Maroney, D.
Track 9
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  16:00 16:30 9.3.1 ADVANCED HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACES FOR DRONE MONITORING: ASSESSMENT OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE DESIGN OF AN AUGMENTED REALITY INTERFACE
S. Bagassi¹, T. Fadda¹, M. Corsi¹; ¹University of Bologna, Italy
As UASs are constantly growing in number and intended tasks over the years, risks for safety and security, including incursion in restricted areas or collision with other air vehicles, are also increasing. Exploiting recent solutions for airport towers and UAS piloting, this work assesses a novel framework for the design and implementation of an A/MR interface for UAS surveillance and monitoring
  16:30 17:00 9.3.2 LOW-ALTITUDE INTEGRATED AIRSPACE OPERATIONS OF AIRCRAFT FLYING UNDER VISUAL FLIGHT RULES: THE VERTICAL DIMENSION
A. Andreeva-Mori¹, K. Ohga¹, K. Kobayashi¹; ¹Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Japan
Helicopters, small drones and eVTOLs are going to share low altitude airspace, and are most likely to be separated vertically. This research uses mission information to model altitude profiles based on actual flight data and pilot interviews.
  17:00 17:30 9.3.3 CORUS-XUAM: TACKLING URBAN AIR MOBILITY AIRSPACE INTEGRATION CHALLENGES
G. Riccardi, ENAV S.P.A, Italy; L. Brucculeri¹, E. Fornaciari¹, G. Ferrara, Eurocontrol, France; M. D'Onofrio, Techno Sky, Italy; A. Zilli², D. Leanza², M. Molinario³, G. Esposito³, A. Favier, Pipistrel, Italy; ¹d-flight, Italy ;²DTA, Italy ;³NAIS, Italy
Presenter: Giancarlo Ferrara, EUROCONTROL

The paper is focused on demonstrations in the context of CORUS XUAM SESAR Project. The activity was focused on Urban Air Mobility cargo operations between civil airport and logistics centers. Flight tests, with involvement of a large fixed wing aircraft and other drones took place in south of Italy with involvement of Air Traffic Management component and U-space services. The demo addressed: safety, access and equity, cyber security and human performance.
  17:30 18:00 9.3.4 AI-ASSISTED DESIGN OF UAV DOCKING STATION NETWORK FOR DUAL USE PURPOSES
A. Avi¹, G. Quaranta¹, A. Valentini, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Italy; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy
In this paper we propose a method to design a network of unmanned aerial vehicle docking station in order to perform dual-use activities. In particular, we aim to develop a method, based on European AI On-Demand (AI4EU) platform, that could select best locations where docking station should be located.
10.3Impact 1
Chair(s):
Track 10
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  16:00 16:30 10.3.1 BIRD STRIKE ON AERONGINE: MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION, NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION
Y.Z.-G. Guo, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
For a long time, bird strikes have been a major threat to aviation safety.The parts of an aircraft that are prone to impact usually include the leading edge of the wing surface, windshield, radar hood, and engine, among which engine damage accounts for the highest proportion, exceeding 27%. In order to validate the anti-bird strike performance of the engine and make the corresponding anti-bird strike design, this paper first analyses and tests the titanium alloy material used for the blades, and obtains the parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive and failure model after optimisation. The accuracy of the parametric model was then validated using static blade bird strike tests. Based on the existing model, numerical simulations of bird strike were carried out for both single and multi-layer blades and the response results were found to be related to bird mass, impact location and engine operating stage. In addition, a hazardous situation of collision with adjacent layered blades occurs at higher rotor speeds.
  16:30 17:00 10.3.2 A DIRECTIONAL SCALED FRAMEWORK OF GEOMETRICAL DISTORTED STRUCTURES UNDER IMPACT LOADS
X.-Z. Chang, School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
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  17:00 17:30 10.3.3 BIRD AND DRONE IMPACT DAMAGE PROGNOSIS OF ON-DEMAND AIR MOBILITY SERVICE AIRCRAFT ENGINE
P. P. Vaghela, United States
Direct and oblique impacts from bird and drone are modelled on the engine of a modern short take-off and landing aircraft for On-Demand Air Mobility using high fidelity user defined modeling and analysis. Results from the impacts are analyzed and compared to investigate the damage and vibration instability of the aircraft engine to establish new analysis strategies and airworthiness criteria.
  17:30 18:00 10.3.4 MULTIPHYSICS MODELING FOR SAFE BATTERIES USING LS-DYNA
G. Di Mauro¹, M. Guida¹, G. Olivares², L. M. Gomez²; ¹University of Naples Federico II, Italy ;²Jerry Moran Center, AVET, NIAR, WSU, United States
In this activity the possibility to simulate an abuse load scenario on a conventional battery is investigated throughout the use of the LS-DYNA commercial solver. Attention is dedicated to the adopted methodology, suitable for the analysis of both traditional and structural batteries, along with the parameter set up for the battery model and experimental tests needed to get the required data.
11.3Experimental aeroelasticity 1
Chair(s):
Track 11
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  16:00 16:30 11.3.1 COMPUTATIONAL/EXPERIMENTAL AEROELASTIC STUDY FOR AN ALL-MOVABLE HORIZONTAL TAIL WITH TORSION FREE-PLAY
X.-Y. Ai, China; X.-Y. Chen, China; W.-J. Wang, China; J. Liu, China; X.-J. Ran, China; W. Qian, China
Segmented optimization describing function method is proposed to study the dynamic response induce by free-play. By the method, piecewise expressions for the time history and phase portrait of limit cycle are derived, and the high-order harmonic is predicted. A 3D all-movable horizontal tail with free-play was produced, and the effectiveness of the method was verified by wind tunnel test.
  16:30 17:00 11.3.2 NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON AEROELASTICITY OF HIGH-ASPECT-RATIO WINGS
Jun LIU¹, Wei Qian¹, Xin HU¹, Xinyu AI¹, Xiaojia RAN¹; ¹Dalian University of Technology, China
An unusual aeroelastic phenomenon was discovered in early wind tunnel test, where deformation of the high-aspect-ratio wing model used in the test suddenly decreases before flutter. In order to figure out the reason of the phenomenon, a new simulation frame is established and a series of high-aspect-ratio wings are designed. The wind tunnel tests are planned to be conducted.
  17:00 17:30 11.3.3 W-WING AEROELASTIC DEMONSTRATOR DESIGN MODIFICATION AND UPGRADE
J. Cecrdle¹, O. Vich¹, J. Starek¹, J. Vlach¹, M. Kolar¹, M. Smid¹; ¹Czech Aerospace Research Centre (VZLU), Czech Republic
W-WING is whirl flutter aeroelastic demonstrator representing a half-wing with the nacelle, engine, and propeller. Two experimental campaigns were accomplished in past. Currently, it is intended for further experiments. For this purpose, the modification and upgrades were proposed. The paper describes the activities including the design, instrumentation, and aerodynamic and structural analyses.
  17:30 18:00 11.3.4 MEASUREMENT OF WING BENDING IN-FLIGHT FROM A T67 SLINGSBY FIREFLY LIGHT AIRCRAFT
Nicholas J. Lawson, The University of Sydney, Australia; Simon C. Place¹, Robert A. Harrison¹; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
This paper presents in-flight wing bending data, taken using the image pattern correlation technique (IPCT) from a Slingsby T67 Firefly aircraft, during wind-up turns. Data were recorded up to a normal g-load of 3.5g and the wing bending displacement data was compared to a simple cantilever model and inertial data.
Reserve Paper 11.3.R EXPERIMENTAL DATA DRIVEN OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL DESIGN
S.M.O. Tavares, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal
12.3Structural Design and Optimization 1
Chair(s):
Track 12
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  16:00 16:30 12.3.1 NUMERICAL METHOD TO DETERMINE STRUCTURAL ELEMENT REDUCED STIFFNESS FOR DESIRED COMPOSITE WING STRUCTURES CONFIGURATIONS
Sebastian Stammel¹, Chiara Bisagni¹; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy
This study aims to introduce a novel and simplified design method for morphing composites wing structures. Morphing composite structures will lead to an increase in efficiency and a decrease of structural weight and therefore in a reduction of the environmental impact of future aeronautical and space vehicles.
  16:30 17:00 12.3.2 SEMI-ANALYTICAL SENSITIVITY METHODS FOR AEROELASTIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION
G. M. Gagliardi¹, M. D. Kulkarni, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, United States; F. Marulo¹; ¹University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Novel semi-analytical methods for flutter eigenvalues sensitivity analysis with respect to the shape has been developed. The derivative of all the structural matrices has been calculated analytically with an element-agnostic approach, while aerodynamic matrices have been differentiated using finite differences. The methods allow for a more accurate and efficient aeroelastic shape sensitivity analysis.
  17:00 17:30 12.3.3 ABSOLUTE NODAL COORDINATE FORMULATION FOR NONLINEAR MULTIBODY MODELING OF FLARED HINGED WINGS
K. Otsuka, Tohoku University, Japan; C. W. Cheng¹, R. Palacios¹; ¹Imperial College London, United Kingdom
The wings of transport jets are becoming high aspect ratio to reduce induced drag. To alleviate excessive large deformation under gust conditions, flared hinged wings have been developed. In this study, multibody simulation considering geometrical nonlinearity based on absolute nodal coordinate formulation is developed for designing the flared hinged wings.
  17:30 18:00 12.3.4 OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF MULTI-SCALE ACTIVE COOLING STRUCTURE FOR AIRCRAFT
P. Xu¹, Q.-X. Mu¹, W.-N. Zhang¹; ¹AVIC Shenyang Aircraft Design and Research Institute, China
To improve the resistance to extreme environments of ultra-high temperature and pressure loads for the aircraft leading edge structure, this work proposes a novel structural form combining microlattice and flow channels, and a corresponding design method for such structures is developed. Results show that the optimized leading edge structure exhibits excellent mechanical and thermal performances.
13.3Combustion Heat Transfer 3
Chair(s): F. Haselbach
Track 13
05 - Propulsion
  16:00 16:30 13.3.1 LEVERAGING DEEP LEARNING IN TURBOMACHINERY DESIGN: OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES, AND INSIGHTS FROM MODELING IN-FLIGHT ICING
J. Flassig, Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany
We analyze DL approaches for their potential integration, supplementation, extension, or substitution in classical turbomachinery design, focusing on the challenge of in-flight icing modeling. While DL offers promising technological advancements in numerical design processes, the inherent opacity of these models poses significant hurdles to their application especially in safety-critical systems. Here, concepts of explainable AI (XAI) become crucial to bridge this gap, enabling a deeper understanding and acceptance of DL in engineering.
  16:30 17:00 13.3.2 EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF NOISE GENERATION IN HYDROGEN AND METHANE-HYDROGEN LAMINAR FLAMES
F.G. Schiavone¹, M. Durand², M. Torresi¹, S.M. Camporeale¹, T. Schuller², D. Laera¹; ¹Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy ;²Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse, France
Understanding combustion noise generation is crucial to implement noise reduction strategies in aircraft propulsion systems. Noise generation is here investigated in hydrogen and methane-hydrogen laminar flames, stabilized over a bluff-body burner. Numerical simulations are performed adopting detailed reaction schemes and a fully resolved approach and compared with experimental recordings.
  17:00 17:30 13.3.3 AN EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION ON THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FILM COOLING HOLE SHAPES ON PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON TURBINE VANE
Zhenxia Liu¹, rongsheng Ruan¹, Long Cheng¹, Zhenxia Liu¹, Zhenxia Liu¹, Dingyi Wu¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
When aircrafts fly in environments with high concentrations of sand, dust, and other particles, the engines will inhale a large number of these particles. After entering the aero engine, these particles undergo heating in the combustion chamber and then interact with the turbine vanes in a molten or solid-state, depositing on the surface of the turbine vanes. This affects the aerodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of the turbine vanes and may even block the film cooling holes, leading to the erosion of the turbine vanes and accordingly a flight accidents.
Currently, film cooling is used on most high-performance turbine vanes to protect the vanes from heat. However, the presence of film cooling causes interference between the mainstream and cooling flows, which seriously affects the deposition characteristics of particles on the vane surface. Changes in the film cooling hole shape not only affect the cooling efficiency of the vane but also the flow field structure behind the film cooling hole, which in turn affects the movement and heat transfer of particles in the flow field, leading to changes in the amount and distribution of particle deposition on the vane surface. This paper conducts experimental studies on the deposition of particles on flat surfaces with different film cooling hole shapes near ambient temperature conditions, and explores the influence of different film cooling hole shapes on the particles deposition, providing reference for the design of film cooling holes for turbine vane to reduce the deposition.
The experimental system applied by Liu et al and consists of the wind tunnel, the wax spray system and the cooling air system, however, the last of which is revised. Atomized wax is used for simulating the particles in harsh environments, and the film-cooled flat plate serves as the test model. The wax deposition on the flat plate surface simulates the deposition of particles on the actual turbine blade surface. The airflow in the w
14.3Hybrid Electric Concepts: H2 Architectures
Chair(s): G. Bezos OConnor
Track 14
05 - Propulsion
  16:00 16:30 14.3.1 POTENTIAL OF AMMONIA AS HYDROGEN STORAGE FOR FUTURE ELECTRIFIED AIRCRAFT
M. C. Massaro, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
The study explores a fully electrified propulsion system using ammonia as hydrogen storage and fuel cells as energy converters. A preliminary analysis shows a 9.3% gravimetric index for ammonia storage, comparable to current physical storage methods. In regional aviation, the system is theoretically viable, but improvements in fuel cell efficiency are needed to optimize the overall system size.
  16:30 17:00 14.3.2 ASSESSING THE TECHNICAL VIABILITY OF ALL-ELECTRIC HYDROGEN-POWERED AIRCRAFTS
P. Marocco¹, M. C. Massaro¹, A. H. A. Monteverde¹, Massimo Santarelli¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
A comprehensive overview of the most promising solutions for all-electric hydrogen-based aircraft in current and future scenarios is conducted, both from a technical and environmental perspective. A detailed electrochemical model of the fuel cell section is also implemented for an accurate design of the propulsion system.
  17:00 17:30 14.3.3 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A HYDROGEN FUELLED COMPOSITE CYCLE AEROENGINE
A Johansson¹, P Miltén¹, A Lundbladh, GKN Aerospace, Sweden; C Xisto¹; ¹Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
A composite cycle engine (CCE) is an air-breathing jet engine that combines the power density of turbomachinery with the thermal efficiency of a piston engine. The present work investigates the synergies of combining the CCE with hydrogen fuel. A system level model is presented and used to estimate the performance of a short-medium range aircraft engine, focusing on fuel burn and emissions.
  17:30 18:00 14.3.4 CFD-BASED SCOUTING FOR THE DESIGN OF A MULTI-FUEL KEROSENE/HYDROGEN ATMOSPHERIC BURNER
L. Palanti¹, L. Mazzei¹, C. Bianchini¹, S. Link², K. Dave², F. De Domenico², A. G. Rao²; ¹Ergon Research, Italy ;²TU Delft, Netherlands
Within the HOPE project, this study focuses on the multi-fuel concept for aircraft propulsion. Considering a laboratory-scale combustor hosted at TU Delft and originally fueled with pure hydrogen, reactive CFD simulations are used to explore different spray injection configurations and assess the impact of kerosene on the overall performance of the rig.
15.3Flight Controller Design 2
Chair(s): L. Campos
Track 15
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  16:00 16:30 15.3.1 DOWNRANGE CONTROL GUIDANCE DURING REENTRY BURN OF REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE
Ki-Wook: K.-W. Jung¹, Chang-Hun:C.-H. Lee¹; ¹KAIST, South Korea
This study addresses trajectory correction for Reusable Launch Vehicles using a new guidance law. It focuses on reentry burn phase, utilizing prediction of aero-ballistic trajectories by partial-closed form solution . Simulations confirm its effectiveness and computational efficiency, improving robustness of the RLV operations.
  16:30 17:00 15.3.2 ACTIVE FAULT-TOLERANT NONSINGULAR FAST TERMINAL SLIDING MODE CONTROL OF A FLEXIBLE SPACECRAFT
Milad Azimi, Khayyam research institute, Iran
The present paper employs an adaptive fault-tolerant non-singular fast terminal sliding mode control (ANFT-SMC) in order to introduce a new perfect attitude control method for a flexible spacecraft. The proposed ANFT-SMC law exhibits convergence within a fixed-time and effectively avoids singularity. Consequently, it could potentially be used to construct a fault-tolerant controller that satisfies numerous requirements within a fixed-time. The controller's independence from inertia uncertainty and external disturbances is proven via the use of adaptive parameters. Instead, a new adaptive radial basis function neural network (ARBFNN) method is used to evaluate the actuator faults in the spacecraft main hub. The estimation process's performance is compared to that of conventional learning observers, revealing its strength in estimating system faults with minimal computational burden. The closed-loop system's stability is confirmed by Lyapunov's theorem. The proposed approach is renowned for its simplicity and ability to maintain system stability despite any faults or faultless circumstances. Simulations are carried out to assess the performance, resilience, and fault tolerance of the proposed strategy.
  17:00 17:30 15.3.3 CONTROL OF A UAV IN THE PITCH CHANNEL DURING THE APPROACH PHASE TO LANDING, BASED ON THE VISION MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
D. Kordos, Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland
The article presents the control of an aircraft in the pitch channel during the approach to landing. It is assumed that the measurement of the aircraft's position relative to the runway(RWY) will be based solely on a proprietary vision system that analyzes the image of the runway and its surroundings. The presented solution has been tested both under simulation conditions and during actual flights
  17:30 18:00 15.3.4 EXPLICIT MODEL FOLLOWING TRAJECTORY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR MULTIPLE VERTICAL TAKEOFF AND LANDING CONFIGURATIONS
A. Comer¹, I. Chakraborty¹; ¹Auburn University, United States
This paper demonstrates a flight control system architecture suitable for Simplified Vehicle Operations and applicable to three dissimilar vehicle configurations. It utilizes a novel Trajectory Control System for controlling longitudinal dynamics coupled to explicit model following inner-loop control. This is demonstrated through representative maneuver simulations.
Reserve Paper 15.3.R CONVEX PROGRAMMING APPROACH OF ROBUST POWERED DESCENT GUIDANCE THROUGH DYNAMIC TUBE MPC
J.-I. Jang¹, C.-H. Lee¹, S He, BIT, China; ¹KAIST, South Korea
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 15.3.R A NOLINEAR MOOEL PREDICTIVE METHOD FOR AIRBREATHING HYPERSONIC VEHICLE BASED ON KOOPMAN OPERATOR
C.R. Li¹, W.Q. Li¹, Y. Li¹, S. Tang¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
16.3UAV Navigation and Path Planning
Chair(s): L. Kiszkowiak , Krus, P.
Track 16
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  16:00 16:30 16.3.1 HARDWARE-IN-THE-LOOP SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR THE EVALUATION OF AUTONOMOUS FLIGHT FUNCTIONS
David Pla Guerrero¹, Anoosh Hegde¹, Jia Wan, Flanders Make, Belgium; Elias Allegaert¹, Yves Lemmens¹; ¹Siemens Digital Industries Software, Belgium
Presenter: Elias Allegaert, Siemens Digital Industries Software

This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop simulation framework for autonomous aerial vehicles to validate the performance of the flight controllers in realistic flight conditions. The framework makes use of the Siemens Simcenter software and was evaluated with a Pixhawk flight controller together with a visual simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm on a flight computer
  16:30 17:00 16.3.2 AN OPTICAL FLOW BASED GUIDANCE ALGORITHM FOR A QUADROTOR UAV MOVING INSIDE CIRCULAR CORRIDORS
Amirreza Bagherzadeh¹, Saghafi Fariborz¹; ¹Sharif University of Technology, Iran
AN OPTICAL FLOW BASED GUIDANCE ALGORITHM FOR A QUADROTOR UAV MOVING INSIDE CIRCULAR CORRIDORS
  17:00 17:30 16.3.3 THE INVESTIGATION OF STABILITY PERTURBATIONS INDUCED BY THE DETACHMENT OF A DEPLOYABLE AIRCRAFT FROM ITS PRIMARY CARRIER
BZ Ziezio, Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering, Warsaw University, Poland
Wys?ano
The study investigates the impact of detaching a UAV from mothership aircraft on the stability. Various configurations and attachment points, dynamic and static properties will be considered. Simulations will be conducted using PANUKL and SDSA programs. The results can support the efficient and safe deployment of UAVs in diverse applications.
17.3Sensors and Testrig Design
Chair(s):
Track 17
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  16:00 16:30 17.3.1 HYBRID AIR DATA SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE: FROM DESIGN TO FLIGHT TEST VERIFICATION
Matteo Rovelli¹, Savino Di Bitonto¹, Fabrizio Di Donfrancesco¹, Alberto Brandl¹, Emiliano Maruccia¹, Ivo Viglietti¹, Danilo Marchetti¹; ¹Leonardo, Italy
Overview of the design, integration and test of a Hybrid Air Data System architecture that relies on both sensors and synthetic estimator, designed to solve a calibration problem occurring on an already existing architecture. The proposed design is verified and validated in a laboratory environment and through flight testing.
  16:30 17:00 17.3.2 DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF AN ACTUATION SYSTEM FOR A MORPHING CONTROL SURFACE
Michael Schäfer¹, Ralf Keimer¹, Oliver Bertram¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
Morphing structures can contribute to reduce the fuel consumption of aircraft. In addition to the structure itself, an actuation system must be developed that meets the requirements for an aircraft control surface. The paper presents the design, test environment, and experimental results of an actuation system for a shape-variable trailing edge.
  17:00 17:30 17.3.3 PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS AND MANEUVER-INDUCED DEFORMATIONS ON FBG OPTIC FIBER INTEGRATED SYSTEMS
A. Aimasso¹, M. Bertone¹, C.G. Ferro¹, M.D.L. Dalla Vedova¹, P. Maggiore¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
The work is about a FBG sensors network onboard an UAV. It collects local temperature and maneuver-induced deformations to provide health status information. The tests were conducted from on ground analysis to flight. Thanks to data collected, the proposed system presents a promising approach to provide an alternative data source, thereby enhancing the reliability of current navigation systems.
  17:30 18:00 17.3.4 NUMERICAL METHOD FOR DESIGNING AND MODELING AN EXHAUST CLUSTER FOR A SMALL TURBOJET ENGINE TEST CELL
T.-G. Nguyen¹, Q.-H. Nghiem¹, P.-M. Nguyen¹; ¹Viettel Aerospace Institute, Vietnam
This paper describes the process of designing, modeling, and simulating a jet engine test cell’s exhaust cluster including an augmentor tube, a blast bucket, a deflector cone, and a square-cross-section exhaust stack. This system is intended for testing a small and uncooled turbojet engine at sea level condition with exhausted gas temperature (EGT) of around 700°C. The studying method used in this research is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The design target is to dilute the engine’s hot exhaust gas by induced air via an augmentor tube to the extent that allows installation of supervising camera at the nose of a deflector cone i.e. 150 oC. After that, a deflector cone and a blast basket are used to divert and decelerate the direction of now-cooled exhaust gas into an exhaust stack. By introduction of a dump region design between a deflector cone and a blast bucket, it is discovered to address the shortcomings of published systems so that the high velocity jets are no longer blown against an exhaust stack’s end wall. This design feature promotes mixing between high and low velocity jets inside an exhaust stack, exploiting better exhaust stack’s space to offer more slowed down, more uniform flow field before discharging to ambient environment.
Reserve Paper 17.3.R INTEGRITY MONITORING OF TIGHTLY INTEGRATED BDS/SINS USING MULTI-HYPOTHESIS SOLUTION SEPARATION (MHSS) ALGORITHM
shuguang sun¹, haolin wang¹, ruihua liu¹, shan kuang¹, wantong chen¹; ¹Civil Aviation University of China, China
1.4GSA - Electric and Hydrogen Technology
Chair(s):
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  09:30 10:00 1.4.1 FUEL CELL BASED POWERTRAINS
J Ludvik, Honeywell, Czech Republic
Fuel Cell (FC) is a promising technology for decarbonization of CS23 and smaller CS25 aircrafts. FCs bring significant benefits: high efficiency, low noise, no NOx or PM emissions. FCs also come with challenges - complexity, novelty, weight. The presentation will outline the progres and future of transition from traditional turbines to FCs in aerospace.
  10:00 10:30 1.4.2 PROGRESS ON THE ADVANCMENT AND ADOPTION OF ELECTRIC POWERTRAINS IN COMMERCIAL AVIATION THOUGH THE NASA EPFD PROGRAM
B J Loxton, magniX, United States
Invited Speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation Track
  10:30 11:00 1.4.3 CLEAN AVIATION HIGH VOLTAGE NETWORK AND DEMONSTRATION
R. F. Foley, Collins Aerospace, Ireland
Invited speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track
  11:00 11:30 1.4.4 PANEL DISCUSSION
PD D,
PANEL DISCUSSION
2.4Progress toward BWB Concept Test and Development
Chair(s):
Track 2
15 - Guest lectures
3.4MDAO
Chair(s): B. Nagel
Track 3
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  09:00 09:30 3.4.1 ROBUST SCHUR-COMPLEMENT SOLVERS AND LARGE-SCALE MULTIDISCIPLINARY DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
M.A.S Abdul-Kaiyoom¹, A Yildirim¹, J.R.R.A Martins¹; ¹University of Michigan, United States
In this work, we use the newly developed nonlinear and linear Schur complement solvers, appropriate for multidisciplinary models based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to solve these saddle-point problems. When compared to conventional optimizations, the SC solver-based optimization proved to be more cost-effective in the benchmark case we provided.
  09:30 10:00 3.4.2 PROCESSES, METHODS AND TOOLS SUPPORTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF AERONAUTICAL SYSTEMS
L. Boggero¹, J. Bussemaker¹, G. Donelli¹, F. Torrigiani¹, B. Nagel¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
New processes, methods and tools are needed to efficiently support the development of new aeronautical systems, from the definition of their stakeholders to their design and optimization, considering their whole life-cycle. This paper presents the processes, methods and tools being developed at the German Aerospace Center, demonstrating how they can effectively support the main activities of a system development process.
  10:00 10:30 3.4.3 MDAX : ENHANCEMENTS IN A COLLABORATIVE MDAO WORKFLOW FORMULATION TOOL
S. Garg¹, J. H. Bussemaker¹, L. Boggero¹, B. Nagel¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
Collaborative MDAO Workflow Design Accelerator, MDAx, bridges the gap between competence deployment phase and workflow execution phase with help of XDSMs. Industry feedback driven additions like modelling sub-workflows as components, value-based identification of variables, duplication of tools etc. are presented along with a user-friendly interface.
  10:30 11:00 3.4.4 SURROGATE-ASSISTED HIERARCHICAL OPTIMIZATION METHOD FOR VARIABLE SWEEP FLIGHT VEHICLE TRAJECTORY
N.-H. Ye¹, T. Long¹, B. Fu, Xi’an Modern Control Technology Research Institute, China; R.-H. Shi, Beijing Institute of Technology Chongqing Innovation Center, China; ¹Beijing Institute of Technology, China
As the most crucial procedure, the trajectory design generally determines the morphing flight vehicle performance. To sufficiently improve the flight range, a surrogate-assisted hierarchical optimization method is developed for the variable sweep flight vehicle trajectory, which consists of inner and external optimization processes.
  11:30 12:00 3.4.5 RAPID DESIGN OF UNCONVENTIONAL AIRCRAFT USING SOFTWARE TOOLS COUPLED IN OPTIMIZATION LOOP – LESSONS LEARNED
T. Goetzendorf-Grabowski¹, A. Kwiek¹, J. Mieloszyk, ?ukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation, Poland; A. Tarnowski¹; ¹Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
The paper presents the experience gained while designing aircraft in unconventional configuration using a methodology based on multidisciplinary optimization. An outline of the method involving the inclusion of dynamic stability analysis at an early design stage is presented. Several examples of aircraft designs with unconventional configurations using self-developed software were shown.
Reserve Paper 3.4.R EXPLORATION OF EFFICIENT HYPERPARAMETERS ADAPTION OF SUPPORT VECTOR REGRESSION FOR AERODYNAMIC DESIGN
Ke-Shi Zhang¹, Hai-Long Qiao¹, Peng-Hui Wang¹, You-Quan Du¹, Zhong-Hua Han¹; ¹School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
4.4MBSE
Chair(s): B. Stoufflet
Track 4
02 - Systems Engineering and Integration
  09:30 10:00 4.4.1 REQUIREMENTS UNCERTAINTY PROPAGATION IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN USING BAYESIAN NETWORKS
A. Spinelli¹, A. Sharma, Centre for Aeronautics, Cranfield University, United Kingdom; T. Kipouros¹; ¹Centre for Propulsion and Thermal Power, Cranfield University, United Kingdom
This paper presents the application of a Bayesian Network as a tool for propagating the uncertainty between the aircraft-level design and the component-level design. The framework is applied to an example case in UAV design for payload transport. By querying the model, we demonstrate its ability to capture the casual relationships of the design problem and propagating the effects of design decisions on other parameters.
  10:00 10:30 4.4.2 APPLICATION OF SYSML IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AIRCRAFT CABIN HEALTH MANAGEMENT
Adrian Hecchelmann¹, Thomas Mannchen¹; ¹Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University (DHBW) Ravensbur, Germany
Digitalization unlocks new prospects for aircraft cabin maintenance, which have to be developed under
consideration of operational aspects and adherence to safety and security regulations. This paper presents the
application of a customized model-based systems engineering (MBSE) approach advancing the development
of health management for aircraft cabin systems.
  10:30 11:00 4.4.3 AUTOMATION OF ENGINEERING INTEROPERABILITY FOR MECHANICAL SYSTEM DESIGN
F During¹, R C Munjulury¹, R Hällqvist, System Simulation and Concept Development, Saab Aeronautics, Sweden; ¹FLUMES, Linköping University, Sweden
The work showed that an automated framework can estimate the pressure loss coefficient for an internal flow system with good accuracy as well as merge the CAD model with other topological simulation models. By automatically updating the pressure loss coefficients when re-designing a flow system, a simulation can be run whit pre-packaged parameters reducing the risk for errors.
  11:00 11:30 4.4.4 AUTOMATIC SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS VERIFICATION FOR THE MBSE-ORIENTED AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROCESS
A. Dagna¹, S. Centomo², E. Brusa¹, C. Delprete¹, R. Gentile²; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy ;²Leonardo LABS, Leonardo S.p.A., Italy
The present work introduces a new approach to robustly write requirements and easily integrate them into physical models which simulate the systems to be designed. The final goal is to provide the designer with a tool-agnostic workflow, enabling an automatised requirements verification process since the very early steps of systems design.
  11:30 12:00 4.4.5 AN MBSE ENABLED MDAO APPROACH FOR THE CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS
Mahmoud Fouda¹, Lennart Willrodt¹, Henrique Almeida¹, Juliana Cortez¹, Omar Hussein¹, Fabian Castaneda¹, Hachem Dhouib¹, Chifaa Dahik¹, Vincent Drouet¹, Ryan Brook¹; ¹Capgemini Engineering, Germany
Presenter: Mahmoud Fouda, Capgemini Engineering

This paper explores integrating MBSE and MDAO in aerospace product development. It introduces a novel approach where the MBSE models is connected to enabling process models, allowing automatic extraction of MDAO specifications. This ensures digital continuity and enhances decision-making, demonstrating adaptability and reusability in changing requirements. The method is applicable to other engineering projects aiming to harmonize MBSE and MDAO.
Reserve Paper 4.4.R ENHANCING AIR VEHICLE DESIGN THROUGH A CLEAR REPRESENTATION OF THE DIGITAL THREAD
E. Moerland, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 4.4.R ASSESSING QUANTUM TECHNOLOGIES’ IMPACT ON THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Do not apply Pereira, Federal Univeristy of ABC, Brazil
5.4Supersonic and Hypersonic Aircraft 1
Chair(s): J. Melkert
Track 5
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  09:30 10:00 5.4.1 BREAKING THE SOUND BARRIER: ACHIEVING QUIET SUPERSONIC FLIGHT OVER LAND
P. Coen, United States
The time saving benefits of supersonic civil aviation remain one of the great unfulfilled promises of the modern air transportation system. As part of its charter to develop technology that will transform the future of air transportation, NASA participates with the international community to develop solutions that will make supersonic air travel sustainable and available to a broad segment of the population. NASA is leading efforts to overcome one of the most challenging barriers to this vision: supersonic overland flight restrictions put in place to protect the public from exposure to unacceptably loud sonic boom noise. Inspired by a breakthrough in the understanding of airframe design techniques that can reduce the sonic boom to a soft thump, NASA has embarked on the Quesst mission. Quesst will use the X-59 research aircraft as the centerpiece of a multi-year project to collect data on how populations respond to the sonic thump. Quest will provide this data to Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil Aviation Organization to support their efforts to define a standard for acceptable sound levels from supersonic flight. The presentation will review the history of the development of the quiet supersonic design methodology, provide details of the X-59 aircraft and describe the elements of the Quesst mission. Opportunities for international collaboration related to the mission will be presented
  10:00 10:30 5.4.2 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR LOW-SUPERSONIC LH2-POWERED PASSENGERS AIRCRAFT
E. Sunzeri¹, D. Ferretto¹, N. Viola¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This paper aims at evaluating the possibility of designing a liquid hydrogen-powered aircraft for passengers transportation, flying in low supersonic regime along trans-Atlantic routes. A conceptual design methodology is described and results are discussed to highlight limitations of Concorde-like aircraft layouts, when non drop-in fuels are exploited.
  10:30 11:00 5.4.3 DUAL-STREAM JET NOISE TEST WITH INTERNAL MIXER DESIGN VARIATIONS FOR LTO NOISE OF SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT
R.A. Habing¹, M.-J. Van der Meulen¹, M. Huet, ONERA / DAAA, France; R. Jaron, DLR, Germany; F. Petrosino², M. Barbarino², O. Zaporozhets, Institute of Aviation, Poland; ¹NLR, Netherlands ;²CIRA, Italy
One of the challenges of designing future commercial supersonic aircraft is accurate prediction and reduction of landing and takeoff (LTO) noise. It is expected that jet noise is a dominant noise source during LTO. In the present study a small-scale acoustic jet noise test has been designed and performed. The model contains a dual-stream nozzle including an external plug and has a modular design to vary nozzle length and internal mixers designs. An acoustic test in an anechoic environment with a sideline microphone array has been performed for a range of nozzle pressure ratios. The effect of mixer and lobes and nozzle length on the jet noise characteristics has been evaluated.
  11:00 11:30 5.4.4 LOW-BOOM MACH 1.5 BUSINESS JET RE-DESIGN TO MEET LONG-HAUL MISSION REQUIREMENTS
S.-G. Graziani, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This paper details the redesign of a 12-passenger Low Boom Business Supersonic jet, addressing high drag issues in the original configuration that hindered transatlantic range. Originating from NASA's X59 redesign, it aims to set new standards for supersonic overflight. The study includes CFD analysis of the clean configuration, varying Mach number and angle of attack. A low-bypass mixed-flow turbofan engine, excluding an afterburner, was tailored for long-haul range missions. Mission simulations validate the vehicle's design and performance for a reference mission.
  11:30 12:00 5.4.5 THE FUTURE OF CIVIL SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT IN EUROPE: THE SENECA AND MOREANDLESS PROJECTS
Robert Jaron, DLR, Germany; Nicole Viola, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
The request for faster and greener civil aviation is urging the worldwide scientific community and aerospace industry to develop a new generation of supersonic aircraft. To pursue this purpose, SENECA and MORE&LESS, answering to EC call “Towards global environmental regulation of supersonic aviation”, aim to support Europe to shape global environmental regulations for future supersonic aviation.

Reserve Paper 5.4.R POTENTIAL OF THE RANGE EXTENSION OF SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT
Z. Lei, SUWA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE, Japan
Reserve Paper 5.4.R AERODYNAMIC DESIGN OF A SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION CONSIDERING AVERAGE LOUDNESS IN THE WHOLE BOOM CARPET
Q. Chen¹, Z.-H. Han¹, J.-L. Qiao¹, Y.-L. Ding¹, K.-S. Zhang¹, W.-P. Song¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Presenter: Qing Chen, Northwestern Polytechnical University
6.4Transition Modeling
Chair(s): J. Coder , Halila, G.
Track 6
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  09:30 10:00 6.4.1 TRANSITION MODELING IN SUPPORT OF CFD VISION 2030 -- HIGHLIGHTS OF RECENT EFFORTS AT THE NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER
Meelan M. Choudhari, NASA Langley Research Center, United States
According to CFD Vision 2030, the most critical area in CFD simulation capability that will remain a pacing item is the ability to adequately predict viscous turbulent flows with possible transition and flow separation. Established methodology for transition prediction correlates the onset of transition with the linear amplification of instability waves, but automated calculations of the amplification factors pose a major challenge for routine CFD analyses, especially in the presence of strong viscous-inviscid interaction. The more recent approach based on the recasting of empirical transition correlations in the form of auxiliary transport equations is computationally robust, but cannot be easily generalized to capture the physical complexity of the transition process across the speed regime. This paper provides an overview of the recent advancements in CFD-integrated transition modeling at the NASA Langley Research Center. The dual-pronged strategy is aimed at simultaneous improvements in the robustness of automated stability computations coupled with RANS flow solvers along with the accuracy and the physical basis of transport-equations-based transition models. The paper outlines the lessons learned from the implementation and assessment of both approaches in NASA flow solvers, including their assessment in the context of various canonical configurations, encompassing both 2D and 3D boundary layers with a variety of pressure gradients, edge Mach numbers, and multiple instability mechanisms that may lead to transition either in isolation and/or in concert with one another. Furthermore, the development of machine-learning-based stability models as an effective surrogate for the direct computation of instability characteristics will be outlined. Several shortcomings of popular transport-equations-based transition models have also been identified in the course of this work. These include the lack of adequate physics to capture the cumulative history of disturbance
  10:00 10:30 6.4.2 EVALUATION OF CFD TRANSITION MODELING FOR TRANSONIC NATURAL LAMINAR FLOW DESIGN
James Coder, Pennsylvania State University, United States
The predictive capability of leading CFD-based laminar-turbulent transition models will be evaluated in the context of aerodynamic design in the transonic regime. The absolute location of boundary-layer transition will be validated against experimental data, as weill the ability of leading tools to capture the design-limiting movement of the upper-surface transition location.
  10:30 11:00 6.4.3 ON THE CHOICE OF TURBULENCE MODEL FOR THE SIMULATION OF AIRFOILS AT REYNOLDS NUMBER BELOW 200,000
S. Shahjahan¹, B. Emmerson¹, D. Verstraete¹; ¹The University of Sydney, Australia
CFD is increasingly used in the design and optimisation of wings of small UAVs. Airfoils of these small vehicles operate at Reynolds numbers where laminar-turbulent transition has a pronounced effect on performance. This paper presents a validation of four transition models using a steady RANS solver for three different airfoils at Reynolds numbers between 60,000 and 200,000.
  11:00 11:30 6.4.4 FLUIDODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER FLOWS
Nicola Capoluongo, Italy; Nicola Verde, Italy; Pietro Catalano, CIRA, Italy; Giuseppe Pezzella, University of Campania , Italy; Antonio Viviani, University of Campania, Italy
Presenter: Giuseppe Pezzella, Department of Engineering, University of Campania \"L. Vanvit

This work deals with the fluid dynamic analysis of subsonic, viscous flows characterized by low Reynolds numbers over various wing sections, utilizing advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics tools, including ANSYS-FLUENT, SU2, and XFoil tools. The primary goal extends beyond a mere exploration of flow characteristics; it aims to undertake a comprehensive investigation into the complex phenomenon of separation and the intricate formation of laminar bubbles. The research delves into the intricate dynamics of airflow around wing surfaces, seeking not only to characterize the separation patterns and laminar boundary layers but also to unravel the underlying mechanisms governing these phenomena. By scrutinizing the interplay of aerodynamic forces and boundary layer dynamics, the study endeavors to contribute valuable insights that can inform design considerations for enhanced performance under conditions of low Reynolds numbers. This holistic approach underscores the importance of a detailed understanding of fluid dynamics in optimizing the aerodynamic efficiency of wing profiles, particularly in the challenging regime of low Reynolds numbers.
  11:30 12:00 6.4.5 COUPLED BOUNDARY-LAYER SUCTION AND AERODYANMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION FOR HYBRID LAMINAR FLOW CONTROL ON A FIN
Haoyang Wu¹, Wenping Song¹, Han Nie¹, Zhonghua Han¹; ¹National Key Laboratory of Aircraft Configuration Design, China
Aerodynamic drag reduction is conducive to improving the economy and environmental friendliness of transport aircrafts, and is of great significance to achieving green aviation. Application of hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) system on fins has been proved of great potentials in drag reduction. To achieve drag reduction, the HLFC system has to attenuate the Tollimien-Schlichting (TS) and crossflow (CF) instabilities inside the boundary layers and delay flow transition, which requires coupled design of suction parameters and aerodynamic shape. For this purpose, a surrogate-based optimization framework is utilized toward the boundary-layer suction and airfoil shapes on a vertical fin. The optimization toolbox is an in-house software SurroOpt. The aerodynamic characteristics of the fin under HLFC are also evaluated by an in-house software PMNS3DR with automatic transition prediction by an eN method. Results show that the CF instabilities are mainly suppressed by boundary layer suction, and the TS instabilities are suppressed by a favorable pressure gradient introduced through shape optimization. Compared to the baseline configuration, the optimized vertical fin reaches a larger laminar flow range of approximately 55% over the fin surface, bringing a drag reduction by 41.7%, which indicates the effectiveness of the coupled design optimization method for HLFC.
Reserve Paper 6.4.R INVESTIGATION OF THE FLOW-TRANSITION BEHAVIOR ON A MICRO AIR VEHICLE
Chih Yang Hoong¹, Liang Wang¹, Sze Ye Liang¹; ¹Tsinghua University, China
Presenter: Chih Yang Hoong, Tsinghua University
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 6.4.R AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF REAL ROTOR AIRFOIL BASED ON TDDES MODEL
Xing, H. Xing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 6.4.R BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION AND RE-LAMINARIZATION IN MACH 6 NOZZLE OF A SHOCK TUNNEL–A NUMERICAL STUDY
Shahed Malekipour¹, Meisam M Amin¹, Iman B Jahromi¹; ¹Aerospace Research Institute, Iran
Presenter: Shahed Malekipour, ARI
7.4Regional fuel-flexible and hybrid Flight Demos Lessons Learned
Chair(s):
Track 7
15 - Guest lectures
8.4Airframe Aerodynamics 1
Chair(s):
Track 8
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  09:30 10:00 8.4.1 DESIGN OF A HIGHLY EFFICIENT TRANSPORT NLF AIRCRAFT WITH A BACKWARD SWEPT WING AND A LONG SINGLE-AISLE FUSELAGE
T. Streit¹, J. Ruberte Bailo¹, A. Seitz¹; ¹DLR (GERMAN AEROSPACE CENTER), Germany
Results obtained in the German LuFo project ULTIMATE for the numerical aerodynamic design and analysis of a highly efficient transport aircraft with a backward swept wing and a long single-aisle fuselage are presented. Large efficiency due to large aspect ratio wings and using natural laminar flow. The final designed geometry defines the shape for a windtunnel model for a ETW windtunnel test
  10:00 10:30 8.4.2 DECOUPLING STORE AND PARENT AERODYNAMICS FOR FAST PREDICTION OF SUBSONIC STORE TRAJECTORIES
N.M. Mthembu¹, H Ndlovu¹, B Ndebele¹, Kevin Jamison¹, L Zwane¹; ¹CSIR, South Africa
Presenter: Ndumiso Mthembu, CSIR

In this paper, we describe a method for calculating trajectories of stores separating from a subsonic aircraft. The method uses a combination of CFD to calculate the flowfield around the subsonic aircraft (excluding the store); Missile DATCOM to estimate the store aerodynamic characteristics; and a panel code to calculate store trajectories. This method was fast in calculating store trajectories.
  10:30 11:00 8.4.3 WIND-TUNNEL TESTS OF INNOVATIVE TAILPLANE CONFIGURATIONS
F. Nicolosi¹, P. Della Vecchia¹; ¹University of Naples Federico II, Italy
The article deals with an experimental wind-tunnel test campaign developed on a scaled model representative of a commercial jet tailplane. The main goal of aerodynamic tests is the test of an innovative tailplane geometry with forward sweep and with the application of a Leading Edge Extension (LEX) as stall control device. Tests have been performed on different geometries with positive and negative (forward) sweep angle. For the negative swept case several LEX with different shapes have been tested. Many visualization with tufts have been performed in order to highlight the tailplane stall path and the effect of LEX as stall control device. Several tests have been also performed with a boundary layer fence.

  11:00 11:30 8.4.4 FAST PREDICTION OF PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION FOR 3D CONFIGURATION BASED ON LARGE LANGRAGE MODEL
B W Shu, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China; Z H Gao, China; J T Huang, China; X Chen, China; W Zhang, China; H Zhao, China
Presenter: Hua Zhao, Northwestern Polytechnical University

A deep learning framework based on large langrage model is proposed for predicting pressure distributions for 3D layouts. Based on our framework, the pressure distribution can be obtained in seconds. Our framework is suitable for arbitrary CFD methods and experimental data, and avoids the dependence of neural networks on computational grids
  11:30 12:00 8.4.5 RESEARCH ON AERODYNAMIC DESIGN OF ENGINE NACELLE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF PROPELLER SLIPSTREAM FOR THE TURBOPROP AIRCRAFT
R-F Xu¹, W-P Song¹, X-H Li², R-Z Qian², Y-J Zhang², J-H Xu¹, Xin-Long Li¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China ;²AVIC The First Aircraft Institute, China
Presenter: Xin-Long Li, Northwestern Polytechnical University

The design and installation angle optimization of the engine nacelle for the civil turboprop aircraft considering the influence of propeller slipstream is completed. A detailed computational evaluation is conducted, and the interference mechanism between the slipstream flow, the nacelle and wing is analyzed.The results show that the lift to drag ratio of the aircraft can be greatly improved by 2%.
Reserve Paper 8.4.R ENGINEERING-BASED TOOL FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL ESTIMATIONS OF RE-ENTRY VEHICLES AEROTHERMODYNAMICS
Pasquale Di Nuzzo, Italy; Maria Maione¹, Giuseppe Pezzella¹, Antonio Viviani¹; ¹University of Campania, Italy
Presenter: Maria Maione, Department fo Engineering, University fo Campania "L. Vanvitell
9.4ERC
Chair(s):
Track 9
15 - Guest lectures
  09:30 10:00 9.4.1 EUROPEAN RESEARCH COUNCIL (ERC) - FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES AND REPRESENTATIVE PROJECT HIGHLIGHTS
George Symeonidis, European Research Council Executive Agency (ERCEA), Belgium
This presentation provides an outline of the funding opportunities offered by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Commission's Horizon Europe Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, highlighting some representative funded projects/topics in the field of Aeronautics.
  10:00 10:30 9.4.2 NABUCCO TAKE-OFF: MULTI-STABLE PANELS FOR AN ADAPTIVE WING
C. Bisagni, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
The project NABUCCO (New Adaptive and BUCkling-driven COmposite aerospace structures), funded by the European Union through an ERC Advanced Grant, aims to design new adaptive buckling-driven composite structures for next generation of aircraft configurations. The results of the first year of the project will be summarized, showing the potential impact for reducing weight and increasing efficiency needed for future clean aviation.
  10:30 11:00 9.4.3 THERMOACOUSTIC INSTABILITY IN AERO-ENGINE COMBUSTORS
S Morgans, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
Thermoacoustic instability is caused by a two-way coupling between acoustic waves and flame unsteadiness, and its resulting large amplitude oscillations can cause catastrophic damage. It can occur in the combustors of aero-engines, power gas turbines, rocket engines, domestic boilers etc. The transition to sustainable fuels may result in increased propensity to thermoacoustic instability, with designing it out being a key enabling technology. This talk will present the background and importance of thermoacoustic instability in aero-engine combustors, followed by research progress made through two European Research Council grants on the topic (ERC Starting Grant ACOULOMODE 2013-18 and ERC Consolidator Grant AFIRMATIVE 2018-23).
  11:00 11:30 9.4.4 METAMATERIALS FOR CONTROL OF FLUID FLOWS
M. Kotsonis, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Achieving extensive laminar flow can reduce aircraft drag by up to 15%, offering breakthrough potential for curbing polluting emissions in aviation and other energy-intensive sectors. To achieve this, wave-like flow instabilities growing in laminar boundary layers need to be controlled and attenuated, to delay transition from laminar to turbulent flow. However, their complex, multi-scale, and broadband nature makes these instabilities extremely challenging to control.

In this presentation, we outline a new disruptive concept for flow control, first born in classical wave physics: Metamaterials. These are engineered composite structures, invoking dispersive wave phenomena to gain exotic properties that go beyond what is considered possible in Nature. The main such property we explore is the bandgap, a range in which waves are suppressed when interacting with the Metamaterial.

The work aims to uncover the complex dynamic behaviour of flow instabilities under dispersive interaction with Metamaterials and will help us understand and fully exploit bandgap mechanisms in transitional flows. Ultimately we aim to create a new class of Metamaterials for flow control and pave the way to ultra-low drag wings for the next generation of emission-free aviation.

10.4Impact 2
Chair(s):
Track 10
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  09:30 10:00 10.4.1 HIGH TEMPERATURE BALLISTIC IMPACT TEST TECHNOLOGY BASED ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAUNCH
C Zhang¹, J Liu¹; ¹NORTHWESTERN POLYTECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, China
Considering the high temperature when areo-engine is working, it is necessary to carry out the ballistic impact test of the high temperature projectile penetrating target to study the blade containment at high temperature. This paper puts forward a ballistic impact test based on electromagnetic launch. A theoretical model and a scaled test are established to verify the rationality of the method.
  10:00 10:30 10.4.2 IMPACT TOLERANCE OF CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS
Gerardus Janszen¹, Antonio Maria Caporale¹, Lorenzo Cavalli, Petroceramics S.p.A., Italy; Mario De Stefano Fumo, CIRA, Italy; Alessandro Airoldi¹; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Ceramic Matrix Composites have been extensively studied for the development of Thermal Protection Systems in aerospace vehicles and have been proved capable of performing structural roles. This make them interesting candidates for the development of elements with structural roles in high-temperature environments. The study exploits their residual strength after barely visible damage after impact.
  10:30 11:00 10.4.3 INFLATABLE SPACE SHIELD STRUCTURE FOR SPACE HABITATION MODULE
J.H Cha, Chosun Uni., South Korea
Traditional spacecraft shields face limitations due to payload constraints. Addressing this, an origami shield structure using UHMWPE/hydrogen-rich benzoxazine composite (UHC) is proposed. Hypervelocity impact tests determine the stand-off distance, revealing improved bulletproof and cosmic radiation shielding performance compared to traditional shields.
  11:00 11:30 10.4.4 DAMAGE CHARACTERISTICS AND MECHANISM OF CARBON FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES IMPACTED BY HIGH-SPEED WATERJETS
Y. L. Li, China
Single and multiple waterjet impact erosion tests were performed and damage characterization were characterized on CFRP laminates to investigate their rain erosion performance. The influences of the impact velocity, impact number, impingement direction, waterjet diameter and other critical factors on the damage characteristics were further studied and damage mechanisms were revealed combined with finite element analysis.
  11:30 12:00 10.4.5 DAMAGE AND MECHANICAL REPAIR OF COMPOSITE LAMINATES: EFFECTS OF EMBEDDED DEFECTS AND LOW VELOCITY IMPACTS
Guijia Zhang, China; Mingbo Tong, China; Bing Yan, China; Fangli Wang, China; Henghui Zhang, China
Presenter: Guijia Zhang

Both numerical simulations and experimental methods were employed to investigate the compressive strength of laminates with pre-embedded defects and under low velocity impact. The CAI of laminates with embedded defects was also examined. Bolted repairs were implemented around the damaged area to investigate the effectiveness in improving compressive strength for both scenarios.
Reserve Paper 10.4.R HIGH-VELOCITY DROPLET IMPACT STUDIES ON C/SIC AND C/C COMPOSITES
Y.-L. Li, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reserve Paper 10.4.R IMPACT RESPONSES AND FAILURE MECHANISMS OF ALMGB14 UNDER DYNAMIC LOADS
YANYAN LU¹, WENZHI WANG¹, YUSHU ZHANG, Hangzhou Zhiyuan Research Institute, China; ZHENYI ZHANG, Northwest Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Presenter: YANYAN LU, School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University
11.4Vibrations and Damping
Chair(s):
Track 11
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  09:30 10:00 11.4.1 DETECTION OF DELAMINATIONS IN DAMAGED COMPOSITE PLATES VIA LOCAL DAMAGE RESONANCE APPROACH
Francesco Nicassio¹, Antonio Paolo Fontanella², Maria Cinefra², Gennaro Scarselli¹; ¹University of Salento, Italy ;²Politecnico of Bari, Italy
This study investigates the Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy (NEWS) via Local Damage Resonance (LDR) effects in the presence of kissing bonds in composite plates. The agreement between analytical/numerical/ results reveals that a monitoring approach combining NEWS and LDR is an extremely efficient and sensitive tool for ensuring integrity and safety of structural composite elements.
  10:00 10:30 11.4.2 FREE VIBRATIONS OF CYLINDRICAL SHELLS WITH CUTOUTS BY A SINGLE-DOMAIN RITZ FORMULATION
A. Milazzo, University of Palerrmo, Italy; M. Lo Cascio, University of Palermo, Italy
A novel single-domain Ritz approach is presented for the free vibration analysis of cylindrical laminated shells with cut-outs. The characteristic matrices of the resolving algebraic system are computed using a special integration technique based on the implicit description of the cut-out via level set function. Validation results and studies show the potential of the method for aerospace applications.
  10:30 11:00 11.4.3 LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURAL DYNAMIC TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION FOR AIRCRAFT VIBRATION REDUCTION UNDER RANDOM EXCITING RESPONSE
S. Xiao¹, L.-Y. Liu¹, H.-M. Xue¹, M.-Q. Wang¹, D.-Y. Chen¹; ¹AVIC Shenyang Aircraft Design and Research Institute, China
Presenter: Huimin Xue, AVIC Shenyang Aircraft Design and Research Institute

The aircraft is faced with complex and uncertain aerodynamic load environment. In this presentation, a large-scale dynamic topology optimization method considering random exciting response is developed to reduce the vibration of aircraft structures. Several numerical examples including an aircraft wall panel demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
  11:00 11:30 11.4.4 TUNABLE NONLINEAR META-PLATE WITH NON-SMOOTH OSCILLATORS FOR BROADBAND VIBRATION SUPPRESSION AND SUPERSONIC FLUTTER
- Zhao, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
We propose a new sort of tunable nonlinear meta-plate design featuring of periodically distributed oscillators with non-smooth nonlinearity for the broadband vibration and flutter suppression. The tunable nonlinear meta-plate shows an excellent suppression performance of vibration and supersonic flutter.
  11:30 12:00 11.4.5 ACTIVE CONTROL DAMPING WITH THE USE OF VOICE COIL ACTUATORS
Giada Cardellino¹, Tobias Melz¹, Robert Feldmann¹, Christian Adams, Technical University of Graz, Austria; Francesco Franco², Giuseppe Petrone², Sergio De Rosa²; ¹Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany ;²Universitä degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy
This paper presents a groundbreaking method using voice coil actuators to actively control damping in plates. By dynamically modifying damping, it streamlines experiments in aerospace and other fields, eliminating the need for repeated trials on different plates. This approach is important for the structural dynamics optimization, enhancing efficiency across various industries.
Reserve Paper 11.4.R ANALYTICAL STUDY ON HYDROSTATIC RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS DURING WATER LANDINGS OF AMPHIBIOUS AIRCRAFT
F. Sun, Xi'an Modern Control Technology Research Institute, China; Y.-H. Zheng¹, S.-S. Zhu¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
12.4Structural Modelling
Chair(s):
Track 12
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  09:30 10:00 12.4.1 REDESIGN OF AN AERONAUTICAL COMPOSITE STIFFENED PANEL WITH THE DOUBLE-DOUBLE DESIGN APPROACH
A. Riccio¹, A. Garofano¹, G. Rigliaco¹, M. Boccaccio², F. Acerra²; ¹University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Italy ;²Leonardo S.p.A., Italy
Double-Doubles introduce an alternative approach to design composite laminate structures with a proper and effective optimization in terms of laminate thickness and plies orientation. A Double-Double design for a composite stiffened panel has been proposed and optimized to meet the material strength requirements, resulting in a total mass reduction up to 26.48% as compared to the starting design.
  10:00 10:30 12.4.2 MACRO, MESO AND MICRO SCALE ENERGY EVALUATION IN LAMINATED AND COMPOSITE STRUCTURES USING THE COMPONENT-WISE APPROACH
S. Saputo¹, R. Augello¹, E. Carrera, Germany; ¹Department of Aeronautics and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico, Italy
The aim of this investigation is to exhaustively evaluate the strain energy assimilated within a structural system,
and establish a correlation between the energy absorption and the structural integrity
employing the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF).
The correlation assumes a predominant significance in predicting probable modes of failure.
The methodology allows to evaluate the strain energy distribution at the individual component level,
which plays a pivotal role in identifying specific regions within the structure that gather elevated levels of strain energy.
  10:30 11:00 12.4.3 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION HEATING OF TP-CFRP LAMINATES: FEM MODELLING AND VALIDATION
Jos Vankan¹, Niels van Hoorn¹, Bert de Wit¹, Tim Koenis¹; ¹NLR, Netherlands
The use of advanced 3D finite element modelling is essential for the prediction and understanding of complex local electromagnetic inductive heating phenomena in composite laminates. Such EM simulations can support induction welding processes that can be used in the innovative manufacturing and assembly of thermoplastic carbon composite components.
  11:00 11:30 12.4.4 ON AN EFFICIENT GLOBAL/LOCAL STOCHASTIC METHODOLOGY FOR FAILURE PREDICTION OF AIRCRAFT COMPOSITE STRUCTURES
Paolo Minigher, INEGI / University of Porto / University of Girona, Italy; Albertino Arteiro¹, Albert Turon, University of Girona, Spain; Javad Fatemi, Airbus NL, Netherlands; Ludovic Barrière, Saint Exupéry, France; Stephane Guinard, Airbus SAS, France; Pedro P. Camanho¹; ¹INEGI / University of Porto, Portugal
An efficient global/local approach to estimate the uncertainties in specific regions of interest with limited computational effort is proposed. This is achieved by refining only locally the model taking advantage
of Refined Structural Theories. The stochastic analysis is dealt with a sensitivity study carried out both in the global and in the local model.
  11:30 12:00 12.4.5 NUMERICAL SIMULATION ON THE STRESS RUPTURE LIFE OF 2D-C/SIC UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE AND WET OXYGEN CONDITION
guoqing chen, Northwestern Polytechnical University (NPU), China
C/SiC composites with high specific strength/stiffness are important candidates for thermal structures of new-generation hypersonic aircraft, and the main failure mode of this material is stress-oxidation failure under high temperature and wet-oxygen service environments. To further understand the performance of this material under high-temperature and wet-oxygen service conditions, this study takes C/SiC composites as the research object and establishes a multi-physical-field coupled high-temperature stress oxidation model in combination with numerical simulation to carry out the stress oxidation life study.
This study first established a diffusion coefficient equation based on the oxidation law of the carbon phase in a wet oxygen environment. It then mapped the relationship between external load, environmental conditions, and oxidation, and established a comprehensive failure criterion for stress oxidation under a high-temperature wet oxygen environment. Next, we introduce the criterion of overall failure due to stress oxidation into the finite element model of C/SiC composite material. We write a VUMAT user subroutine and simulate the progressive failure process of the composite material by adopting the method of element failure, and achieve the simulation of stress oxidation life. Finally, to carry out the numerical simulation study of the stress oxidation life of C/SiC composites, verify the accuracy of the model by testing data, and analyze the effect of temperature and external load on the stress oxidation life.Research results show that at 1300?, the stress oxidation life with the increasing of external load shows a decreasing trend, which roughly shows an exponential function trend; at 140MPa external load, the stress oxidation life with the increasing of temperature appears to decrease firstly, and then increase with the increasing of temperature, which shows a generally parabolic trend.In this study, we established a multi-physics field coupling high-t
13.4Propellers, Fans, Compressors 1
Chair(s): S. Bianchi
Track 13
05 - Propulsion
  09:30 10:00 13.4.1 ON THE WATER ENHANCED TURBOFAN CONCEPT: PART B – FLOW PATH AND MASS ASSESMENT
Jannik Häßy¹, Alexander Görtz¹, Marc Schmelcher¹, Jens Schmeink¹, Mahmoud El-Soueidan¹; ¹DLR, Germany
The Water-Enhanced Turbofan is a promising concept for reducing the climate impact of aviation in terms of CO2 and Non-CO2 effects. However, one challenge is the size and mass of the propulsion system in terms of installation and fuel burn penalties. This work deals with the estimation of the flow path and mass on conceptual level and comapres it to a conventional turbofan architecture.
  10:00 10:30 13.4.2 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A SCALED COMPOSITE UHBR FAN BLADE FOR WIND TUNNEL TESTS
B.A.T. Noordman¹, W.J. Vankan¹; ¹Royal Netherlands Aerospace Centre, Netherlands
Future aircraft have to comply with strict environmental targets like reductions in CO2, NOx and noise emissions. Ultra-High Bypass Ratio (UHBR) turbofan engines with large fan diameters are promising in terms of reduction of fuel consumption and emissions. To investigate the challenging integration of such an UHBR engine in the airframe, an experimental scaled turbofan model is being developed to perform a wind tunnel test campaign. For the fan stage of this turbofan model composite fan blades are designed that shall resist the high centrifugal and aerodynamic loads for different flight conditions. For the design and analyses of the composite fan blade, a detailed finite element method (FEM) modelling approach is developed taking into account accurately the 3D blade geometry including blade foot, composite material properties, fibre directions and composite layup of the blade design. This detailed FEM modelling approach is validated with test results of geometrically simplified composite test elements. Blade hot-to-cold analyses are applied to the Aerodynamic Design Point (ADP-S1) flight condition to retrieve the blades’ cold shape that will be manufactured. With the cold shape of the blade design the hot shapes are calculated for different flight conditions and blade twist angles and blade tip radial displacements are checked. Campbell diagrams for the blade design are generated for the first 3 eigenmodes to assess the blade’s vibrational behaviour under operational conditions. The first three blade eigenfrequencies at zero rotational speed were compared with test blade tap test results, which agreed quite well.
  10:30 11:00 13.4.3 ON THE WATER ENHANCED TURBOFAN CONCEPT: PART A - THERMODYNAMICS AND OVERALL ENGINE DESIGN
Alexander Görtz¹, Jannik Häßy¹, Markus Nickl², Alexandros Lessis², Marc Schmelcher¹, Mahmoud El-Soueidan¹; ¹German Aerospace Center, Germany ;²Bauhaus Luftfahrt e.V., Germany
Aviation is responsible for a growing portion of global greenhouse gas emissions contributing to climate change. The Water-Enhanced Turbofan (WET) is a promising concept for reducing the climate impact of aviation in terms of CO2 and Non-CO2 effects. The innovative thermodynamic cycle with a quasi-closed water circuit increases overall efficiency and reduces emissions. However, the Water Enhanced Turbofan offers a new range of design parameters for the propulsion system. The influence of important cycle parameters such as temperature, pressure and water to air ratio is assessed in this work. Furthermore, the impact of varying these parameters on the WET specific components is discussed. Finally, the influence of these changes is evaluated not only at engine level, but also on overall mission fuel burn.
  11:00 11:30 13.4.4 UNSTEADY AERODYNAMICS OF A COUPLED COMPACT INTAKE-FAN IN CROSSWIND
L. Lobuono¹, D. MacManus¹, R. Christie¹, L. Boscagli¹; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
This paper analyses the unsteady intake-fan interactions under crosswind conditions. The effect of unsteady crosswind speed is analysed together with the intake ground plane interaction and coupling between the intake and fan. The overall aim of the research is to identify the flow coherent structures and the unsteady mechanisms involved in the separation.
  11:30 12:00 13.4.5 KNOWLEDGE-BASED TURBINE DISK MODELING – A CONCEPTUAL DESIGN PROCESS CALIBRATED TO THE NASA ENERGY EFFICENT ENGINE
Patrick Wehrel¹, Jens Schmeink¹, Jannik Häßy¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
Rotating disks are essential components of every turbomachinery. Since the disks account for a significant portion of the total engine weight, turbomachinery disk design is crucial and has to be already considered in the early phase of conceptual design, which is a highly challenging task due to many uncertainties. Especially the tradeoff between disk mass and life time is a critical aspect that has to be handled carefully. In order to facilitate this task for engineers, this paper provides calibrated design parameters for turbine disks which are derived from the NASA Energy Efficient Engine (E3). Performance and geometry models are generated for the high- and low-pressure turbine of the NASA E3 and a conceptual disk design process is calibrated based on these models. The design process itself follows the methodology of knowledge-based geometry and mass estimation. Important results are the generation of suitable reference geometries as well as the determination and quantification of dimensionless parameter sets for disk parametrization. Moreover, blade and disk masses are calculated and a conceptual disk stress analysis is performed in order to provide knowledge-based safety factors.
Reserve Paper 13.4.R SURGE AND STALL AVOIDANCE CONTROL METHOD FOR A GAS TURBINE COMPRESSOR
Hoang-Nguyen: H. Nguyen, Viettel Aerospace Institute, Vietnam
14.4Hybrid Electric Regional Aircraft Concepts
Chair(s): G. Bezos OConnor
Track 14
05 - Propulsion
  09:30 10:00 14.4.1 STUDY OF HYBRIDISATION SCENARIOS FOR TURBOPROP AIRCRAFT IN THE GENERAL AVIATION SEGMENT
F. Lutz¹, J. Jézégou¹, M. Budinger², A. Reysset²; ¹ISAE-SUPAERO, France ;²INSA Toulouse, France
This paper explores the feasibility of the hybridisation of turboprop aircraft in the General Aviation segment. Because of the long lifetime of CO2 in the atmoshpere, designs using current electric technologies are investigated to assess the reductions in terms of cumulated emissions. Two aircraft and their most common routes are studied to obtain commercially realistic hybridised versions.
  10:00 10:30 14.4.2 INSTRUMENTATION OF A SUBESCALE GROUND EFFECT VEHICLE, VOLITAN, TO MEASURE FLIGHT PROPULSION EFFICIENCY
M. A. R Diaz¹, L. Souza¹, R. G. A da Silva¹, L. C. S. Goes¹; ¹Aeronautics Institute of Technology, Brazil
Recent advances in electronics and programming have stimulated science and industry to explore aviation projects. These include the ground-effect vehicles for energy-efficient flight near water surfaces. Brazilian startup Aeroriver is developing the Volitan for transportation on the Amazon. In this work, the instrumentation for data acquisition during measurements and flight tests is presented
  10:30 11:00 14.4.3 A SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ON THE ENDURANCE EQUATION FOR HYBRID-ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT
AMAN BATRA¹, ROBERT CAMILLERI¹, REIKO RAUTE, Dept. Ind. Elec. Eng. University of Malta, Malta; ¹INSTITUTE OF AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGIES (IAT), UNIVERSITY OF MALTA, Malta
Paper carries out sensitivity analysis on the proposed hybrid-electric endurance equation showing effects of coefficient of lift & drag, payload & empty weight, planform area, battery energy density, degree of hybridization, etc on endurance. Effects of these parameters are investigated as some values would improve in the future hence showing feasibility for operating a hybrid electric aircraft.
  11:00 11:30 14.4.4 DESIGN APPROACH FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC PROPULSION CONCEPTS OF MID-RANGE AIRCRAFT INCLUDING SUSTAINABLE AVIATION FUELS
K. Ziaja¹, D. Lieder², J. Göing², J. Friedrichs², F. di Mare¹; ¹Ruhr University Bochum, Germany ;²Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany
The aviation industry faces an urgent need to address the environmental impact of air traffic. This is underlined by the Flightpath 2050 agenda of policymakers and the aerospace industry, which has the ambitious goals of reducing CO2 emissions by 75 %, NOx emissions by 90 %, and noise emissions by 65% until 2050 compared to typical capabilities of new aircraft in 2000. Various technologies are promising solutions to tackle these goals; for example, efficient propulsion concepts, such as Distributed Hybrid Electric Propulsion (DHEP), allow the reduction or even elimination of pollutant emissions through full-electrical operation at ground levels (< 900 m). Another promising option is the use of Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) to reduce chemical emissions directly at the source.
This paper introduces a design approach for powertrains of mid-range aircraft based on the 0D in-house tool ASTOR for the thermodynamic cycle performance calculation of gas turbines. It has been adapted for on-design calculations and extended by a new combustion chamber model to enable the determination of combustion emissions of SAFs by using the tool EBSILON®Professional. The SAF models, based on a comprehensive review of existing SAF surrogate models, are implemented by an efficient tabulation method.
The powertrain model represents a two-spool gas turbine unit consisting of compressors and turbines for the low- and high-pressure spool side, as well as the combustion chamber. Appropriate boundary conditions are applied to consider a propeller-based DHEP concepts.
Subsequently, a Design of Experiments-based (DoE) design process is performed, which covers conventional Jet-A1 and chosen SAF fuels. The DoE results provide insights into power-specific fuel consumption (PSFC), the thermal efficiency and chemical emission composition (pollutant concentrations), offering a database enabling new assessments of air pollution at ground level or airports, respectively.
15.4Flight Control 1
Chair(s): T. Rogalski , Lee, C.
Track 15
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  09:30 10:00 15.4.1 APPLICATION OF CLUSTERING TECHNIQUES IN OPTIMISATION-BASED FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM CLEARANCE
P. Piprek¹, P.M. Dias¹, J. Tonti¹, D. Schwalb¹; ¹Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Germany
This paper presents the connection of clustering in an optimization-based clearance toolchain. The clustering is used to exclude already identified critical envelope areas, thus facilitating the exploration and potential to find further critical scenarios. The applicability in a fighter aircraft clearance is discussed.

  10:00 10:30 15.4.2 SELF-DRIVING AND MODEL-BASED EXTREMUM SEEKING CONTROL IN TIGHT FORMATION FLIGHT FOR FUEL SAVING
D.B. Rossato, Faculdade de Tecnologia SENAI, Brazil; K.H. Kienitz, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brazil
Presenter: Daniel Rossato, Faculdade de Tecnologia SENAI

Advances in Extremum Seeking Control are reviewed, with emphasis on the self-driving and model-based approach and highlighting Economic Model Predictive Control. Application to tight formation flight for fuel saving is discussed and convergence performance analysis is exemplified for a follower flying in the vortex of a leading aircraft.
  10:30 11:00 15.4.3 APPLICATION OF A MORE INTEGRATED TOTAL ENERGY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR IMPROVING AIRCRAFT AND ENGINE CONTROL EFFICIENCY
T. Giusti Degaspare, Embraer S.A., Brazil; K.H. Kienitz, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brazil
Presenter: Karl Heinz Kienitz, Instituto Tenológico de Aeronáutica

This article presents improvements obtained by the integration of flight and engine controllers in terms of control efficiency with the use of the More Integrated Total Energy Control System (MI-TECS) and highlights how an integrated design framework offers advantages for controller design when compared with conventional control approaches.
  11:00 11:30 15.4.4 FLYING V DIRECTIONAL FLIGHT CONTROL: AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
R. Vos, tu delft, Netherlands
The present paper shows how the addition of drag rudders can substantially improve the directional control power of the Flying V, particularly at high angle of attack. This is experimentally demonstrated through wind tunnel tests on a 4.6% scale model. Results show that drag rudders and 'normal' rudders can be used in parallel to satisfy the required control power of the Flying V.
  11:30 12:00 15.4.5 REENTRY TRAJECTORY DESIGN FOR DEFORMABLE HYPERSONIC VEHICLES BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK
Chuan kai Zhou¹, Zong-fu Luo¹, Tao Zhang¹; ¹SUN YAT-SEN UNIVERSITY, China
Flexible skin is a future trend in morphing aircraft. This study explores its application to hypersonic lifting bodies. Deformable shapes are modeled using parameterized equations(CST). Aerodynamic parameters are obtained through CFD. Relative optimal reentry trajectories are optimized using Gaussian Pseudo method. Results show advantages in specific mission scenarios.
Reserve Paper 15.4.R SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND EVALUATION METHOD OF HUMAN-MACHINE COLLABORATION IN FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
J. CHE¹, X. CHEN¹, S. CHE, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China; J. LI¹, Z. SUN¹; ¹Flight Automatic Control Research Institute, AVIC, China
Reserve Paper 15.4.R AILERON-FLAP-INTEGRATED ROLL CONTROL LAW BY OPTIMIZED CONTROL ALLOCATION FOR FLEXIBLE TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT
H. Wilke¹, G.C. Silva¹, F.J. Silvestre¹; ¹Technische Universität Berlin, Germany
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 15.4.R A MODEL CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR THE FORMATION CONTROL OF NANOSATELLITES IN LEO ORBIT
C. Santoro¹, S.R. Bassolillo, University of Naples Parthenope, Italy; A. Ferraro, University of Reggio Calabria Mediterranea, Italy; L. Blasi¹, I. Notaro¹; ¹University of Campania L. Vanvitelli, Italy
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 15.4.R MODELING AND FLIGHT CONTROL LAW DESIGN FOR A SEAPLANE DURING WATER SURFACE TAKEOFF
Y. Liu¹, Y.-H. Nong², X. Liu, Shanghai Aircraft Airworthiness Certification Center, China; Z.-H. Cheng², M.-X. Zhang¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China ;²AVIC General Huanan Aircraft Industry, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 15.4.R TRAJECTORY DESIGN FOR ASTEROID SAMPLE RETURN COMBINING BALLISTIC CAPTURE AND AEROBRAKING
Luo Zongfu¹, Lian Yijun, National University of Defense Technology, China; Zhang Chen, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Zhang Tao¹; ¹Sun Yat-sen University, China
16.4Future Maintenance Practices
Chair(s):
Track 16
11 - Operations and Sustainment
  09:30 10:00 16.4.1 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS DIAGNOSIS IN ELECTRIFIED AIRCRAFT
D. F. Migliore¹, G. D'Alessio², S. Caggese², A. De Martin², F. Acerra¹, M. Sorli², M. Fioriti²; ¹Leonardo S.p.A., Italy ;²Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This paper presents a comparative analysis of ML algorithms to assess the severity of fouling in heat exchangers as an enabler for Condition-Based Maintenance. A high-fidelity model of the Thermal Management System is employed to generate the required data for data-driven algorithms, simulating both healthy and degraded conditions.
  10:00 10:30 16.4.2 APPLICATION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING FOR AIRCRAFT DEFECT TRACKING IN MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS
M. J. Scott¹, O. Kirkpatrick¹, W. J.C. Verhagen¹, V. Kekoc, Defence Science and Technology Group, Australia; B. Teunisse, Capability Acquisition and Sustainment Group, Australia; J. Zhang¹, H. Fayek¹, P. Marzocca¹; ¹RMIT University, Australia
Current maintenance reports necessitate manual scrutiny to identify recurring defects across an aircraft fleet. Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods present an automated means to harness the potential of under-utilised maintenance reports. This paper applies NLP to two-year's worth of maintenance reports, and through in-depth analysis, unveils lead indicators for defects.
  10:30 11:00 16.4.3 TOWARDS PHYSICS-INFORMED NEURAL NETWORKS FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
L.J. Jilke, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
This study explores the uitlization of Physics-Informed Neural Networks (PINNs) in Structural Health Monitoring systems for ultrasonic guided wave (UGW) data of aircraft structures. PINNs offer a hybrid approach, combining data-driven and physics-based models, addressing challenges in accuracy and interpretability. The paper discusses opportunities and future applications of PINNs in UGW modeling.
  11:00 11:30 16.4.4 TOWARDS TRUSTWORTHY DATA-DRIVEN GAS TURBINE PROGNOSTICS
A. Apostolidis¹, S. Le Dantec, SIGMA Clermont, France; K.P. Stamoulis¹; ¹Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
This paper discusses the evolution of aircraft data recording, focusing on Aircraft Operational Data for prognostics. The importance of trustworthiness for data-driven prognostics is pivotal. This work uses real-world engine data for Exhaust Gas Temperature prediction, addressing challenges like missing data points, and explores solutions like KNN-imputation and Generalized Additive Model.
  11:30 12:00 16.4.5 WILDFIRE DETECTION USING DEEP LEARNING FOR UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS OPERATIONS
P. K. Jaisawal, ILT/TUHH, Germany
This paper addresses the problem of wildfire detection and monitoring by proposing deep learning based algorithms for UAV applications. The paper uses YOLOv8 to detects distant smoke on RGB image, while U-Net based sensor fusion of RBG and IR images to segments fire pixels for near distance applications. Experiments on public datasets and captured images demonstrate their effectiveness.
Reserve Paper 16.4.R FASTVIBE SW TOOL FOR RIDE-ALONG VIBRATION SURVEY ANALYSIS
S. Bianchi¹, F. Negroni¹, M. Riganti¹; ¹Leonardo Aircraft Division, Italy
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 16.4.R COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR LAUNCH METHODS
S Wildermuth¹, W Veraburenon¹, T Bellier¹, C Bil¹; ¹RMIT University, Australia
17.4Systems Safety Aspects
Chair(s):
Track 17
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  09:30 10:00 17.4.1 RESEARCH ON FATIGUE LIFE OF HEAT EXCHANGER BASED ON STRESS SIMULATION
L. Hu, Nanjing Engineering Institute of Aircraft Systems, China; Y. -L. Han, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
Presenter: Liang Hu, Nanjing Engineering Institute of Aircraft Systems

Finite element static analysis and computation have been carried out for some heat exchanger, strain testing has been made to confirm its risky area. Fatigue life has been calculated based on Miner Theory and S-N curves under constant amplitude loading in order to provide the feasible solution to engineering application.
  10:00 10:30 17.4.2 COMPARISON OF ELECTROCHEMICAL, SPR AND SAW SENSORS IN THE RISK MITIGATION FOR HYDROGEN LEAKS
O. Petrella¹, A. Martucci¹, P. Caruso¹, L. Travascio¹, A. Vozella¹; ¹CIRA, Italy
Presenter: Pasquale Caruso, CIRA

Current research worldwide is investigating potentialities, limitations and constraints due to the usage of hydrogen as a energy source. A thorough investigation is needed specially to mitigate risks to the environment and human health related to hydrogen usage. Indeed, hydrogen can be the cause behind various accidents leading to different risk scenarios, due to potential physical and chemical phenomena depending on specific environmental conditions. Some of the main risks can be: asphyxiation, freezing, shock waves from explosions, thermal risks from flame releases and combustion. However, these risks can be reduced by adopting specific mitigations and safety measures which can be identified since the design phase. Careful prevention and a detailed risk assessment, combined with an accurate analysis by monitoring sensors are absolutely necessary for the safe use of hydrogen systems.
For this purpose, monitoring sensors can support in managing safety issues of systems dealing with hydrogen usage. This work reports on the analysis carried out on the most suitable sensors for the risk mitigation in particular related to hydrogen leakage.
Three kinds of sensors have been analyzed and compared, including new generation sensors such as the Surface Plasmonic Resonance (SPR) and the Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. In particular the measurement range, the response time and selectivity are compared. Moreover, the uncertainty measurement will be evaluated and compared by means of simulations (MATLAB environment). The lower the measured uncertainty, evaluated by means of the simulations, the better the sensor will be considered.


  10:30 11:00 17.4.3 SENS4ICE EU PROJECT HYBRID ICE DETECTION ARCHITECTURES DEMONSTRATION RESULTS
C. W. Schwarz¹, C. Deiler¹, J. Lucke¹, T. Jurkat-Witschas¹, A. Orazzo², B. Thillays²; ¹DLR, Germany ;²Safran Aerosystems, France
The EU project SENS4ICE (GA no 824253) developed/ matured technologies for detection and discrimination of supercooled large droplets (SLD) icing conditions, including a hybrid approach combining direct sensing (atmospheric conditions/ ice accretion) with indirect aircraft performance-based detection. Icing wind tunnel and flight test results confirm successful technology demonstration.
  11:00 11:30 17.4.4 VIVRATION ANAYLYSIS AND INFLUENCING FACTOR STUTY OF HELICOPTER HYDRAULIC PIPELINNE
S HUANG¹, Y WANG¹, Y.-P. HUANG¹; ¹CHRDI, China
Helicopter hydraulic pipeline system is significant for the hydraulic system. In this paper, the law of helicopter hydraulic pipeline vibration response change with the relative parameters(support, fluid flow rate, pipeline wall thickness, etc.) is studied, And based on which, a typical pipeline located in rear rotor effect zone is optimized.
  11:30 12:00 17.4.5 FLIGHT TEST RESULTS FOR PERFORMANCE-BASED ICE DETECTION
C. Deiler, DLR, Germany
The performance-based (indirect) ice detection methodology is based on the changes of airplane flight characteristics under icing influence and key to a hybrid detection approach as core of the EU funded Horizon 2020 project SENS4ICE. The paper provides an overview on them developed indirect ice detection (IID) algorithm together with some exemplary results from the SENS4ICE flight test campaigns.
Reserve Paper 17.4.R OPTIMIZATION OF FAULT DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS STRATEGY FOR AIRCRAFT NOSE WHEEL STEERING SYSTEM
H.-Q. Qiu, Beihang university, China
1.5GSA - Aerodynamic Technology
Chair(s):
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  14:00 14:25 1.5.1 APPLICATION OF LAMINAR FLOW CONTROL FOR ENHANCED PERFORMANCE AND REDUCED EMISSIONS
J.D. Crouch, The Boeing Company, United States
Invited speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track
  14:25 14:50 1.5.2 RIBLETS IN AVIATION- FIRST EVER INDUSTRIALIZATION WITH AEROSHARK
J.-U. Mueller, Lufthansa Technik AG, Germany
The drag-reducing effect of riblets has been known for decades but has never been really used in aviation industry.
BASF and Lufthansa Technik (LHT) developed a material that meets all requirements and LHT then obtained a supplemental type certificate (STC) for a large-area wrap on a Boeing 777.
The presentation describes the development, certification, roll-out and the further outlook.


  14:50 15:15 1.5.3 Q&A - MINI PANEL
QA A,
Q&A - MINI PANEL
2.5X-57 (Mavris)
Chair(s):
Track 2
15 - Guest lectures
3.5Novel Design and Analysis 2
Chair(s): S. Bagassi
Track 3
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  14:00 14:25 3.5.1 DATA-DRIVEN AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION AND MULTI-FIDELITY DESIGN EXPLORATION USING CONDITIONAL DIFFUSION-BASED GEOMETRY SAMPLING METHOD
Aobo Yang¹, Jinouwen Zhang, Shanghai Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, China; Jichao Li, Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore; Rhea Liem¹; ¹Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR of China
Presenter: Aobo Yang, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Aerodynamic shape optimization plays a crucial role in designing efficient and high-performance aircraft. However, the computational cost associated with high-dimensional data often poses a challenge in achieving accurate and efficient optimization. In this study, we propose a multifidelity Bayesian Neural Networks (BNNs) framework tailored for high-dimensional data-driven aerodynamic shape optimization. The framework combines data from multiple fidelity sources to enhance estimation accuracy while reducing computational expenses. The BNNs are used to capture the inherent uncertainties in modeling the relationship between low- and high-fidelity data. They also provide quantified uncertainty measures to optimize shape predictions. We employ variational inference and Monte Carlo sampling techniques to train and estimate posterior distributions of the BNNs. The proposed framework is validated using a high-dimensional dataset, showcasing its capability in accurately optimizing aerodynamic shapes while accounting for uncertainty. The results demonstrate liem{substantial} improvements in both optimization accuracy and computational efficiency compared to traditional approaches. This multifidelity BNNs framework has the potential to further enhance the capability of aerodynamic shape optimization in the aerospace industry, especially in tackling higher-dimensional problems.
  14:25 14:50 3.5.2 LATENT SPACE CORRELATION FOR INTERPRETABLE AIRFOIL PARAMETERIZATION USING VARIATIONAL AUTOENCODERS
K. Swannet¹, C. Varriale¹, N.A.K. Doan¹; ¹Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
This study utilizes Variational Autoencoders (VAEs) to enhance airfoil design by improving latent space interpretability of geometric and aerodynamic features. It develops a comprehensive parameterization model, tackling dataset inconsistencies and broadening property extraction, aiming to offer an efficient, user-friendly solution for diverse engineering applications.
  14:50 15:15 3.5.3 RESEARCH ON MULTI-ATTRIBUTE DECISION MAKING AND VERIFICATION METHODS FOR SYSTEMS CONFRONTATION
Tong Yao¹, Luo Mingqiang¹, Cui Zhiyang¹, Liu Zhiqi¹, Ji Zhenpeng¹; ¹Beihang University, China
In response to the multi-attribute decision-making issues in aircraft design, a method based on system simulation for verification has been proposed. This method starts from the application dimension, providing reference standards for decision outcomes. Applying this method to the decision-making process of hypersonic aircraft design schemes has validated its effectiveness.
  15:15 15:40 3.5.4 AN EFFICIENT ONE-SHOT AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION METHOD USING SIMULAITONS WITH MOVING BOUNDARIES
L. Xu, China
A novel efficient one-shot aerodynamic optimization method based on forward automatic differentiation (FAD) of a lattice Boltzmann (LB) solver is proposed in this paper. In the new method, the usually iterative optimization process is creatively converted into a single flow simulation with moving boundaries.
4.5Hybrid Aircraft Power System
Chair(s): M. Padulo
Track 4
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  14:00 14:25 4.5.1 DUCTED HEAT EXCHANGER THERMAL AND AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION
E. J. Adler¹, A. H. R. Lamkin¹, J. R. R. A. Martins¹; ¹University of Michigan, United States
Ducted heat exchangers allow electric and fuel cell aircraft to efficiently reject waste heat. We use numerical optimization to automatically shape the duct and design the heat exchanger. The optimizer can exploit the duct and heat exchanger's coupled interaction to discover improvements that human designers may not find manually.
  14:25 14:50 4.5.2 ANALYZING THE IMPACTS OF SUSTAINABLE POWERTRAINS FOR SHORT-HAUL COMMUTER AIRLINES
Francesco Salucci¹, Nirmit Prabhakar¹, Dominik Karbowski¹; ¹Argonne National Laboratory, United States
We retrofitted an AVGAS-fueled 9-pax small commuter aircraft with three powertrains: electric, hybrid-electric, fuel cell hybrid-electric. The retrofitted aircraft will be employed to perform routes currently flown with the conventional version of the aircraft. For each fleet, we will estimate the amount of fuel, electric energy to recharge the batteries, and resulting well-to-wake CO2 emissions.
  14:50 15:15 4.5.3 LOCAL AIR QUALITY AND NOISE OPTIMIZATION OF A LARGE ASPECT RATIO WINGS WITH DISTRIBUTED HYBRID ELECTRIC PROPULSION
Rauno Cavallaro¹, Pablo Norczyk Simon¹, Andrea Cini¹; ¹Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain
Electrification of aircraft to improve the Local Air Quality and Noise is in the agenda of the EU policies to achieve the goals of climate neutrality.
An integrated approach, levering on synergies between new powertrain (distributed hybrid-electric propulsion) and airframe (large aspect ratio wings) technologies, in conjunction with new operations, is required to improve LAQN.

  15:15 15:40 4.5.4 POWER MANAGEMENT SUPPLY OPTIMIZATION FOR HYBRID-ELECTRIC REGIONAL AIRCRAFT
G. Palaia¹, K. Abu Salem¹; ¹Polytechnic of Turin, Italy
Presenter: Giuseppe Palaia, Polytechnic of Turin

This study deals with the optimisation of the power supply of a parallel hybrid electric powertrain. Specifically, the mission profile is discretised to determine the optimal power split to minimise fuel consumption. This approach serves as a precursor to advanced control techniques in hybrid-electric aircraft.
5.5Sustainable aviation 1
Chair(s): S. Ying
Track 5
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  14:00 14:25 5.5.1 BATTERY PERFORMANCE METRICS FOR LARGE ELECTRIC PASSENGER AIRCRAFT
R. de Vries¹, R. E. Wolleswinkel¹, D. Rosen Jacobson¹, M. Bonnema², S. Thiede²; ¹Elysian Aircraft, Netherlands ;²University of Twente, Netherlands
Recent studies show that large electric aircraft are feasible with significantly more near-term battery technology than previously thought. In this study we assess the battery performance metrics required for such aircraft and compare them to other electric aircraft and EVs, and investigate the battery production volumes required for different scenarios of market penetration of electric aircraft.
  14:25 14:50 5.5.2 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF A ZERO-EMISSION REGIONAL AIRCRAFT FOR ENHANCED SHORT-HAUL MOBILITY
L. Trainelli¹, C.E.D. Riboldi¹, Y.M. Khan¹, F. Salucci, Argonne National Laboratory, United States; G. Sirtori¹; ¹DAER, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Presenter: Lorenzo Trainelli, DAER, Politecnico di Milano

This paper discusses the conceptual design to define a design solution for a disruptive air transport vehicle, characterized by a radically new propulsion system guaranteeing zero emissions at aircraft level and by a unique operational mission: a multi-hop commuter for airport feeding and intercity commuting. The paper details the configuration selection and the preliminary sizing of the vehicle.
  14:50 15:15 5.5.3 ENERGY OPTIMIZATION AND FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS OF A MASTER-SLAVE MODE SOLAR-POWERED UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE
Xiangyu Wang, China; Miao Zhang, China; Jian Zhang, China; Zijian Zhang, China
To overcome reliability and payload capacity limitations in Solar-Powered UAV (SP-UAV), this paper proposes a master-slave mode SP-UAV inspired by combined UAV concepts. The study analyzes flight strategies with a focus on energy efficiency optimization and examines the viable design space. Additionally, the advantages of the master-slave mode SP-UAV over conventional SP-UAVs are discussed.
  15:15 15:40 5.5.4 ESTABLISHING THE DLR-F25 AS A RESEARCH BASELINE AIRCRAFT FOR THE SHORT-MEDIUM RANGE MARKET IN 2035
S. Wöhler¹, J. Häßy¹, V. Kriewall, TUHH, Germany; ¹DLR, Germany
Aim of this study is to establish a short-medium range research baseline aircraft with a respective technology scenario in 2035 as part of the LuFo project VirEnfREI for the Clean Aviation programme, research programmes such as the German Luftfahrtforschungsprogramm (LuFo) and Horizon Europe, to compare and benchmark disruptive technologies to a meaningful conventional aircraft configuration.
6.5Hypersonic Aerodynamics 2
Chair(s): G. Pezzella , Gao, Z.
Track 6
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  14:00 14:25 6.5.1 AERODYNAMIC AND PROPULSIVE ASSESSMENT OF AN EXPERIMENTAL HYPERSONIC SCRAMJET SYSTEM
F. Cascone¹, P. Roncioni¹, O. Russo¹, M. Marini¹, S. Di Benedetto¹, M. Albano², R. Bertacin², G. Ranuzzi²; ¹CIRA, Italy ;²ASI, Italy
Presenter: Pietro Roncioni, CIRA

This paper explores the aerodynamic analysis of a Hypersonic Scramjet System in a national research project co-funded by CIRA and ASI. The system includes a winged rocket-based launch vehicle and a Scramjet Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle (SHEV) designed for leveled hypersonic flight. The study aims to validate key technologies for hypersonic flight, focusing on aerodynamic balance and efficiency.
  14:25 14:50 6.5.2 STABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF CROSSFLOW MODES IN HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYER WITH EXPANSION CORNER
P. Lu¹, Y. Xi¹, J. Sun¹, S. Fu¹; ¹Tsinghua University, China
The expansion corner is a common feature on hypersonic vehicles, which has a significant impact on transition. This study investigates how the expansion corner affects instabilities of Mach 6 swept wing boundary layer flows. Results show that the expansion corner increases the growth rate of the most unstable stationary crossflow mode in this case.
  14:50 15:15 6.5.3 NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF HYPERSONIC FLOWS
C.-S. Dikmen¹, M.-N. Yüksel¹, M. Yumusak¹; ¹Roketsan, Turkey
The aerothermodynamic effects of high-enthalpy hypersonic flows are considered as vital for hypersonic flow studies. The change between perfect gas flow and chemically reacting flow at hypersonic Mach numbers may be detrimental; therefore, analysts and designers should carefully investigate these changes starting from the basic test geometries. A series of CFD runs are executed using a cylindrical geometry and a double-cone geometry. The results do not only demonstrate the effect of thermochemical changes on the flow field but also how two commercial flow solvers such as ANSYS Fluent and METACOMP CFD++ perform under similar numerical conditions. It is clear that ignoring mentioned effects at critical locations may not be acceptable and flow properties just around the surface of the object and surface loadings may be missed.
  15:15 15:40 6.5.4 DES OF HYPERSONIC SHOCK-WAVE/BOUNDARY-LAYER INTERACTIONS ON HIFIRE-1 AXISYMMETRIC CONE-CYLIDER-FLARE
RO Bura, Republic Indonesia Defense University, Indonesia; A Riyadl, National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia
Presenter: Romie Bura, Republic of Indonesia Defense University

In the present work, the turbulent Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions (SWBLIs) over a geometry model of HIFiRE-1 Axisymmetric Cone-Cylinder-Flare with a ramp angle of 7 and 33 degrees were analyzed. Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) and k-? turbulence models were used and the simulation results were compared to the experimental result of HIFiRE-1 ground test studies.
7.5Aerodynamics of Rotary wing and VTOL
Chair(s): L. Manfriani
Track 7
03.2 - Experimental Aerodynamics
  14:00 14:25 7.5.1 ANALYSIS OF AN ELECTRICAL-POWERED-DUCTED-THRUST VECTORING-FLAP
Volker P.W. Gollnick¹, Jannis Luehrmann¹, Felician Danquah¹, Arno Semke¹, Thomas Mueller¹, Jens Thoeben¹; ¹Hamburg University of Technology, Germany
The Lilium-Jet is fascinating aviation community. However only a few technical information is available, the research question is about a better understanding of the design concept. An experimental study about the behaviour of the Ducted Fan Flap wing concept is presented. The experimental approach and achieved results are presented. A summary and perspective of the next steps is given.
  14:25 14:50 7.5.2 AERODYNAMIC INTERACTION EFFECTS OF TILTROTOR EVTOL AIRCRAFT
C. Moreira, Technical University of Munich, Germany
A wind tunnel model was specifically designed for investigating wing-propeller aerodynamic interactions of eVTOL aircraft including vectored thrust mechanisms. This work describes the model and offers time-resolved load and pressure data, as well as PIV images of the wake, for wing-propeller configurations considering various propeller tilt angles between 0 and 90 degrees.
  14:50 15:15 7.5.3 PIV AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES ANALYSIS OF A HELICOPTER OPERATING AROUND A BUILDING BY WIND-TUNNEL EXPERIMENTS
Rafael Bardera¹, Juan Carlos Matias Garcia¹, Estela Barroso Barderas¹; ¹Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Spain
This study analyses the aerodynamic interaction between a cube-shaped building and helicopter. The results are provided by a 1:100 scaled models tested in wind-tunnel and include measurements of aerodynamic mean forces, moments, fluctuations and flow visualizations with Particle Image Velocimetry when the helicopter is hovering in multiple positions close to the building.
  15:15 15:40 7.5.4 EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON THE AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF A CONTRA-ROTOR SYSTEM
Z. Chen, China
Due to the recent advancements in electric propulsion drives and their application on the Mars helicopters, contrarotating propulsion systems have emerged as a promising solution. These systems offer aerodynamic advantages by efficiently recovering a significant portion of the slipstream rotational energy that would otherwise be lost when using conventional screw propeller systems; therefore, it is necessary to determine the most optimal combination of possible propulsion system components for a given mission profile.
This paper presents an investigation on the aerodynamic performance of a contra-rotor system at high altitudes through both experimental and numerical methods. All experimental research was conducted at the NanJing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (NUAA) High-Altitude Research Facility. The High-Altitude Simulator has an inner diameter and height of 800mm and 2000mm, respectively. It can simulate atmospheric density and pressure at an altitude of 30-50 kilometers. Computational research was conducted using a steady RANS CFD code with multiple meshes to investigate the sensitivity of computational modeling to contra-rotors. Based on the experimental results, the collective pitch angle effects and Reynolds number effects on the lift-drag characteristics and efficiency of the single/contra-rotor system are investigated during the hovering process with Reynolds number ranging from 15,000 to 50,000 (using the chord and speed at 75% of the blade radius) and tip speed ranging from 35m/s to 75m/s. The aerodynamic measurement results of coaxial rotor show that the thrust reduction of lower blade under the influence of upper blade is up to 40%.

Reserve Paper 7.5.R EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF LAMINAR SEPARATION BUBBLE BEHAVIOUR ON ROTARY WING AT LOW-REYNOLDS NUMBER
G. Longobardo, Università degli studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy
8.5Airframe Aerodynamics 2
Chair(s):
Track 8
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  14:00 14:25 8.5.1 EVALUATING INSTALLATION EFFECTS IN SEMI-SPAN WIND TUNNEL EXPERIMENTS USING CARTESIAN-GRID-BASED FLOW SOLVER UTCART
Y. Tamaki¹, Y. Yokoyama¹, T. Imamura¹; ¹The University of Tokyo, Japan
The model installation effects in the semi-span wind tunnel experiment stall characteristic of the CRM-HL configuration are investigated based on RANS-based CFD analyses using the Cartesian-grid-based flow solver UTCart. The results show that both the floor boundary layer and peniche (standoff) affect the flow separation at the inboard sections.
  14:25 14:50 8.5.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL LIQUID HYDROGEN TANK INTERFERENCE DRAG
C. Graham¹, R. E. Perez¹; ¹Royal Military College of Canada, Canada
As the aviation industry moves to reduce greenhouse gas emissions liquid hydrogen fuel has been suggested as a solution. One major hurdle to the adoption of hydrogen aircraft is storing adequate fuel for long flights. This paper investigates the size and positional effects of wing-mounted external hydrogen fuel tanks.
  14:50 15:15 8.5.3 WIND TUNNEL ANALYSIS OF A SPACE RE-ENTRY VEHICLE AT LOW-SPEED CONDITIONS
Nicolina Montella, University of Campania/ CIRA, Italy; Gareth A. Vio, The University of Sydney, Australia; Luigi Iuspa¹, Andrea Aprovitola¹, Giuseppe Pezzella, University of Campania , Italy; Antonio Viviani¹; ¹University of Campania, Italy
Presenter: Nicolina Montella, Università degli Studi della Campania "L. Vanvitelli" / CIRA

This paper deals with the low-speed wind tunnel analysis of six Crew Return Vehicle aeroshapes for Low Earth Orbit support services, compatible to landing conditions. Multi-disciplinary Optimization methodologies are used to design the optimal architecture. In particular, the proprietary Skeleton-based Integral Soft Object methodology is exploited to built the different vehicle aeroshapes.
  15:15 15:40 8.5.4 FINITE-STATE AEROELASTIC MODELLING OF MORPHING WING THROUGH UNSTEADY LIFTING-LINE THEORY
R. Giansante¹, G. Bernardini¹, M. Gennaretti¹; ¹Roma Tre University, Italy
A state-space aeroelastic formulation for the study of morphing wings is presented. It is based on an Unsteady Lifting-Line theory model for the prediction of the aerodynamic loads, which is coupled with a structural dynamics model to obtain a model suitable for aeroelastic stability analysis and aeroservoelastic applications.
Reserve Paper 8.5.R SPARSE RECONSTRUCTION OF SURFACE LOADS ON AIRCRAFT USING POD AND RBFNN
X Jia¹, C Gong¹, C Li¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
9.5UAVs
Chair(s):
Track 9
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  14:00 14:25 9.5.1 A BIO-INSPIRED ADAPTIVE FORMATION ARCHITECTURE BASED ON MULTI-AGENTS WITH APPLICATION TO UCAV SWARM
W.J. Wang, Chinese Aeronautical Establishment, China
This paper proposes an architecture to solve the problem of adaptive formation and system stability of UCAV swarm when it performs some comprehensive military tasks. This architecture uses different bionic mechanisms to deal with corresponding types of military tasks, and realizes cooperation in tasks by observing the actions of neighbouring individuals and making independent decisions.
  14:25 14:50 9.5.2 MULTI SENSOR AND MULTI TASK ALLOCATION BASED ON IMPROVED WHALE OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM
B.-Y. YUAN¹, S.-Z. ZHANG¹, B.-W. WANG, School of Electronic and Information, Northwestern Polytechnica, China; K.-Z. ZHANG, School of Electronic and Information, Northwestern Polytechnical, China; ¹College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National Universit, China
In response to the collaborative detection problem of UAV formations in cluster operations, this paper constructs an optimization model with detection benefits and detection costs as the objectives based on task priority, and designs an improved whale optimization algorithm to solve the model. Firstly, an elite population initialization based on multiple constraint conditions was proposed, and secondly, an improved method for updating whale individual positions was proposed by combining model characteristics. Subsequently, a local search strategy was designed to enable the algorithm to escape from local optima. Finally, the algorithm provides a set of non dominated solution sets for problem solving, allowing for the selection of more reasonable optimal solutions based on actual needs. On the one hand, the simulation experiment verified the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in solving task allocation problems, and on the other hand, compared with other intelligent optimization algorithms, the improved whale optimization algorithm obtained a higher quality non dominated solution set, indicating that the algorithm has certain advantages.
  14:50 15:15 9.5.3 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF POWER CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR THE HYBRID-ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEM OF A LIGHTWEIGHT FIXED-WING UAV
G. Di Rito¹, A. Suti¹; ¹University of Pisa - Dept. of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Italy
Presenter: Gianpietro Di Rito, University of Pisa - Dept. of Civil and Industrial Engineering

The design of power control strategies for hybrid electric propulsion system of lightweight fixed-wing UAVs for long-endurance surveillance missions is proposed. The UAV electric generator is temporarily switched into motor operation, up to reduce the power delivered by the ICE and to avoid its temperature rise. The strategies, based on dynamic decoupling techniques, limit the engine temperature during climb and optimize its efficiency during cruise.
  15:15 15:40 9.5.4 DEVELOPMENT OF UAVS/DRONES EQUIPPED WITH THERMAL SENSORS FOR THE SEARCH OF INDIVIDUALS LOST UNDER RUBBLE
J. A. Herrera Velasco, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico; H. S. Delgado Guevara, UNAM, Mexico
In response to the rising frequency of disasters, this abstract explores the development of UAVs with thermal sensors for efficient search and rescue operations in collapsed structures. Emphasizing the importance of thermal sensors, the text discusses challenges, such as dust interference, and proposes solutions. Additionally, it outlines the role of drones in debris removal and supply delivery, emphasizing collaboration with human rescue teams to maximize effectiveness and support survivors in inaccessible areas.
10.5Damage
Chair(s):
Track 10
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  14:00 14:25 10.5.1 VIBRATION OF COMPOSITE SHELLS OF REVOLUTION USING EQUIVALENT SINGLE LAYER AND LAYER-WISE APPROACHES
E. Carrera , Politecnico, Italy; V. Zozulya, iMex, Ukraine
Shells of revolution are widely used in aviation. Numerical solutions of these structures are very difficult to obtain due to the complex nature of the differential equations governing their static and dynamic behaviour. An approach to solving problems of vibration of composite multiplayer shells of revolution is proposed. The theory and the resulting equations are based on Carrera unified formulation.
The resulting equations can be used for vibration analysis and calculation of the stress-strain state, as well as for modeling thin-walled structures used in science, engineering, and technology. The resented results of calculation can be used as reference examples for finite element analysis of higher order composite laminates plates and shells.
Shells of revolution are widely used in aviation. Numerical solutions of these structures are very difficult to obtain due to the complex nature of the differential equations governing their static and dynamic behavior. An approach to solving problems of vibration of composite multilayer shells of revolution is proposed. The theory and the resulting equations are based on Carrera's unified formulation.
The resulting equations can be used for vibration analysis and calculation of the stress-strain state, as well as for modeling thin-walled structures used in science, engineering, and technology. The resented results of calculation can be used as reference examples for finite element analysis of higher order composite laminates plates and shells.


  14:25 14:50 10.5.2 DAMAGE TOLERANCE OF A CURVED COMPOSITE STIFFENED PANEL FABRICATED BY AN OUT OF AUTOCLAVE – LIQUID RESIN INFUSION PROCES
D. Fanteria¹, L. Boni¹, F. Romano, 2CIRA S.C.p.A., Italian Aerospace Research Centre, Italy; ¹University of Pisa, Italy
This paper presents the results of tests conducted on a curved stiffened panel to evaluate its damage tolerance capabilities. The panel was made from dry carbon preforms using Liquid Resin Infusion (LRI) followed by an Out-of-Autoclave curing. Non-linear Finite Element analysis results are also presented and compared to the measurements. Research funded by H2020 Clean Sky 2 JU (GA 807089).
  14:50 15:15 10.5.3 NUMERICAL TOOLS FOR SLOW-GROWTH APPROACHES TO DAMAGE TOLERANT COMPOSITE AERONAUTICAL STRUCTURES
M. Khella¹, S. Ghiasvand¹, P. Ballarin¹, F. Panzeri¹, S. Piacquadio¹, A. Airoldi¹; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Presenter: Maikel Khella, Politecnico di Milano

The activities presented are aimed at integrating in the same numerical approach both the prediction of the residual strength of a composite structural detail in the presence of damage and the evaluation of the crack growing rate under cyclic loading, so to represent a valuable tool for the design of damage tolerant composite aircraft and rotorcraft structures
  15:15 15:40 10.5.4 INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF DELAMINATION-INDUCED FRICTIONAL CONTACT ON THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF LAMINATE STRUCTURES
S. Kiasat¹, A.S. Nobari, Aeronautics Engineering Department, Imperial College, United Kingdom; Matteo Filippi¹, E. Carrera¹; ¹POLITECNICO DI TORINO, Italy
Presenter: Matteo Filippi, POLITECNICO DI TORINO

The objective of this study is to further investigate the relation between modal damping and interlaminar delamination, aiming to establish modal damping as a reliable and effective damage index for detecting and assessing the presence and severity of delamination in laminated structures. The findings of this research are expected to contribute to the development of improved damage detection techniques, design strategies, and mitigation approaches for enhancing the performance and durability of laminate structures. By gaining insights into the friction-damping mechanism and its impact on the overall dynamic response, this study aims to provide valuable knowledge for engineers and researchers working on non-destructive damage detection methods (especially delamination) in laminated structures.
Reserve Paper 10.5.R WEAR EVOLUTION AND ITS INFLUENCE OF PYRAMIDAL STRUCTURED ABRASIVE BELTS CONSIDERING MACRO AND MICRO CUTTING BEHAVIOR
Yingjie Liu¹, Wenxi WANG¹, Jing Zhao¹, Yuanhanxu Song¹, Lai Zou¹; ¹Chongqing University, China
Presenter: Wenxi WANG, Chongqing University
11.5Experimental aeroelasticity 2
Chair(s):
Track 11
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  14:00 14:25 11.5.1 STUDY OF AEROELASTIC PROBLEM OF RUDDER SYSTEM WITH ELECTRIC ACTUATOR AND STRUCTURAL NONLINEARITIES
W. Qian, Daian University of Technology, China; W. - Z. Feng, Dalian University of Technology, China
Stiffness of actuator is important for the aeroelastic behavior of rudder system which impacts the design of all-movable control surface of an aircraft. However, the conventional aeroelastic analyzing method took the supporting stiffness of a rudder system as a constant consciously or unconsciously, which led to mistakes in predicting the aeroelastic property of all-movable control surface. In this paper, the aeroelasticity problem for a complete rudder system with actual electric actuator and structural nonlinearities (e.g. free-play and friction) are studied. A Simulink model for a rudder system considering electromechanical part of actuator, elastic part of wing structure as well as free-play and friction nonlinear parts in the drive link is established. Through this model, the aeroelastic property of the all-movable control surface with rudder system can be obtained by time-domain simulation. Meantime, a test model with actual electric actuator is designed and manufactured, nonlinear dynamic test is carried out for estimation of nonlinear parameters including free-play angles and friction coefficients. Finally, the time-domain simulation results and dynamic test results are compared with each other for validating effectiveness of the established model. This paper gives a methodology for studying the aeroelastic property of rudder system supported by practical mechanism.
  14:25 14:50 11.5.2 NOVEL TEST RIG TO DEMONSTRATE A MULTI-FUNCTIONAL FLAP MECHANISM OFFERING A SECOND DEGREE OF FREEDOM
J.R. Docter¹, H. Pijlman¹, D. de Wit², J. Vervliet², J. Katarzynski¹, R. Postma¹, K.-J. Bisschop¹, J. Vroon¹; ¹NLR, Netherlands ;²Asco Industries, Belgium
Presenter: Hermen Hermen, NLR

This paper describes test development, demonstration and result correlation of a simplified but representative Multi-Functional Flap Mechanism (MFFM) in a novel test rig at Royal NLR. The objective is to demonstrate that the MFFM can rotate at a speed of 60 degrees per second in retracted, take-off and landing flap positions, considering intact, actuator failure and jamming cases. During the rotation, aero loads will be simulated by mechanical springs and wing bending will be simulated by hydraulic actuation on the station supports. In addition, the effect of flap skew on actuator loading is assessed and compared with analytical results.

Furthermore a flexible tube test setup is developed to demonstrate the durability of the flexible hydraulic tube under harsh environmental and loading conditions. The tube should be able to withstand 27000 flight cycles under a pressure of 350bar without rupturing or breaking at temperature conditions of -55°C including combination with hydraulic contamination.

  14:50 15:15 11.5.3 GUST LOAD ALLEVIATION IN A SCALED UAV DEMONSTRATOR
Alexander Herwig¹, Matthias Haupt¹, Tristan Brack¹, Jorge Bustamante¹, Sebastian Heimbs¹; ¹Cluster of Excellence SE²A – Techniche Universität Braunschweig, Germany
The feasibility of an active and passive gust load alleviation (GLA) approach for flexible wings is assessed in a scaled flight model. The active GLA uses flaps to cancel out eigenmodes. The passive GLA uses a non-linear structural deformation of the wing box forming a flared hinge. The similitude is assessed by static tests and the natural frequencies measured in ground vibration tests.
  15:15 15:40 11.5.4 REDUCED ORDER MODELLING OF UNSTEADY AERODYNAMICS FOR GROUND FLUTTER TEST SYSTEM
Wei-Zhe Feng¹, Jia-He Zhang¹, Zhi-Hai Liang¹, Wei Qian¹; ¹Dalian University of Technology, China
Presenter: Wei-Zhe Feng, Dalian University of Technology

Ground Flutter Test (GFT) technique is a recently developed flutter test technique for carrying out flutter test on full scale aircraft configures based on GVT devices and an efficient Reduce Order Model (ROM) of unsteady aerodynamics. The key techniques of GFT system are the loading of equivalent unsteady aerodynamic force by using electromagnetic shakers and the convergence of continuously distributed aerodynamic force into equivalent concentrated forces. In this paper, an equivalent ROM of unsteady aerodynamic force on several concentrated points are developed based frequency domain unsteady aerodynamic theory and surface spline interpolation technique. The genetic optimization algorithm is used to search the optimized location of concentrated points for the best fits of equivalent unsteady aerodynamic forces. Then, the minimum state method in rational function fitting is used to transform the frequency domain ROM of aerodynamic force into time domain. A real-time simulation of GFT system is carried out based the presented ROM model and Simulink units of other physical devices used in GFT system. Flutter phenomenon appears in flutter test using GFT system. The frequency domain and time domain validation of equivalent unsteady aerodynamics are carried out using equivalent unsteady aerodynamics for flutter calculation. The results show that frequency domain error does not exceed 5% and the time domain error does not exceed 8%. Which validates correctness of the present method.
Reserve Paper 11.5.R EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF THE DYNAMIC FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF A 1:8 SCALE SEAPLANE USING A LASER DOPPLER VIBROMETER
F. Lovero¹, G. Biggi¹, S. Lombardi¹, M.A.C. Costa¹, V. Amore¹, E. Cestino¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 11.5.R EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON THE AEROSPACE COMPOSITE-METAL JOINTS
R. Hou¹, B.-T. Wang, Department of Strength Design, The First Aircraft Institute of A, China; Z.-X. Zhu¹, W.-C. Gao¹; ¹Department of Astronautical Science and Mechanics, HIT, China
12.5Structural Design and Optimization 2
Chair(s):
Track 12
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  14:00 14:25 12.5.1 AEROELASTIC ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF HIGH ASPECT RATIO STRUT-BRACED WING AIRCRAFT
E. Roncolini¹, F. Toffol ¹, S. Ricci¹; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Carbon-based fuels released CO2 is identified as the main responsible for climate change. Several initiatives have been proposed in EU to limit the usage of these fuels, such as the Clean Sky 2 U-HARWARD project. One of the tasks was to study a promising unconventional configuration: the Strut-Braced Wing (SBW). Particular attention must be posed on its design.
  14:25 14:50 12.5.2 DYNAMIC BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF THIN-SHELL COMPOSITE STRUCTURES BASED ON ISOGEOMETRIC ANALYSIS
Huihui Qiu¹, Yujie Guo¹, Zhenyu Guan¹, Haotian Zhu¹, Yukai Pan¹; ¹Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
A comprehensive framework for the dynamic buckling analysis of composite shell structures has been proposed based on isogeometric analysis. The influences of cut-outs, the amplitude and duration of step pulse load are studied. In particular, the geometric imperfections can be reconstructed and naturally incorporated into the IGA framework due to the unified NURBS basis adopted.
  14:50 15:15 12.5.3 EFFICIENT AEROSTRUCTURAL DESIGN OPTIMIZATION COMBINING GRADIENT-ENHANCED KRIGING WITH COUPLED ADJOINT METHOD
Hong-Jiang Guo, China; Zhong-Hua Han, China; Chen-Zhou Xu, China; Ke-Shi Zhang, China; Wen-Ping Song, China; Jia-Qi Luo, China
An aerostructural analysis code including the coupled adjoint analysis module is developed, then the efficiency and global performance of aerostructural design optimization are improved by combining GEK model with the coupled adjoint method.
  15:15 15:40 12.5.4 DESIGN CONCEPT FOR STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS MANUFACTURED FROM COMPOSITE MATERIAL APPLIED BETWEEN PRIMARY STRUCTURES
G. C. Fonseca, Embraer S/A - Engineering and Technology Center - MG, Brazil
Presenter: Giovane Cássio Fonseca, Embraer

The objective of this work is to provide a general approach to the design of connection elements between primary structures manufactured in thick laminated composite material, considering all stages of the integrated product development process (IDP), approaching the manufacture of the primary part, the assembly of the parts, design of manufacturing tooling, and an evaluation of the design product in terms of design concepts for manufacturing and assembly. A structural calculation approach for the part will also be considered, as it is an important part of the process.
The proposal of this work will be present the process considering the global conditions of conception of the part in terms of design, manufacturing of the part and tooling, assembly of parts with the concept of DFMA (design for manufacturing and assembly) applied in all cycle of the integrated product development process to the certified aeronautical product in a aeronautical industry.
13.5Propellers, Fans, Compressors 2
Chair(s): S. Bianchi
Track 13
05 - Propulsion
  14:00 14:25 13.5.1 A MOMENTUM-INTEGRAL METHOD TO CALCULATE WINDAGE LOSSES ON A ROTATING DRUM WITH SUPERPOSED FLOW
Haotian Tuo¹, Peng Liu¹, Shuiting Ding¹, Tian Qiu¹, Chuankai Liu¹, Ronghui Cheng, AECC Shenyang Engine Research Institute, China; ¹Research Institute of Aero-Engine, Beihang University, China
In order to evaluate the windage losses of the rotating drum in aero-engines, a Von Karman-type momentum-integral method is presented. A 1/7th power law for the velocity profile is assumed. Comparison results showed that the moment coefficient’s discrepancy between the theoretical solution and the CFD method is less than 10% for Rossby numbers ranging from 0.1 to 1.
  14:25 14:50 13.5.2 AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION OF HIGH-ALTITUDE PROPELLER COMBINED WITH MACHINE LEARNING METHODS
D. Li¹, Z. Ge¹, R. Cui¹, L. Yang¹, C. Wei¹; ¹AVIC Aerodynamics Research Institute, China
This paper presents an optimization combined with machine learning methods at high subsonic and low Reynolds number condition, in order to improve the aerodynamic efficiency of an E387-based HALE UAV propeller at design point. The machine learning methods are coupled into the propeller analysis and optimization process to keep a good balance between efficiency and accuracy.
  14:50 15:15 13.5.3 AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF BLADELESS DUCTED FAN BASED ON EJECTION EFFECT WITH DIFFERENT DESIGN VARIABLES
Kai Han, China; Shilong Yu, China; Junwei Huang, China; Junqiang Bai, China; Yasong Qiu, China
this study employs numerical simulation methodologies to scrutinize the aerodynamic performance and flow mechanisms of bladeless ducted fan based on ejection effect. The investigation assess the bladeless ducted fan thrust characteristics and the ensuing alterations in wing aerodynamic performance following the integration of the bladeless ducted fan.
  15:15 15:40 13.5.4 NASA’S EFFICIENT QUIET INTEGRATED PROPULSORS (EQUIP) TECHNICAL CHALLENGE
Cliff Brown¹, Jessica Reinert¹, David Stephens¹, Ercan Dumlupinar¹; ¹NASA, United States
Advances in aircraft propulsor technology - ducted and unducted fans - are key to creating a sustainable aviation future but increasing efficiency comes with challenges. NASA's Efficient Quiet Integrated Propulsor (EQuIP) Technical Challenge (TC) will advance performance, aeromechanics, and acoustics for next-generation propulsor technology in relevant flow environments.
Reserve Paper 13.5.R THE PRELIMINARY COUPLING EFFECT OF AN INTEGRATED SELF-SUPERCHARGED PROPULSION SYSTEM
Xiangwen Xiong, International WYNNBEAR Advanced AeroTech Innovation, The US/CHN, United States
14.5Pedagogy in Education
Chair(s):
Track 14
14 - Education and Training
  14:00 14:25 14.5.1 TRANSFORMATIVE PEDAGOGY: CO-TEACHING COURSE CLUSTERS THROUGH COMPETITIVE TEAM DESIGNS FOR INNOVATIVE TALENT DEVELOPMENT
M. LUO¹, H. LIU¹, X. ZHANG¹, Z. CUI¹; ¹Beihang University, China
Presenter: ZHIYANG CUI, Beihang University

This study emphasizes improving students' systematic learning and practical perspectives through co-teaching course clusters and competitive team design. It aims to tackle time wastage resulting from similarities across courses, ensuring efficient teaching hour utilization and a seamless connection between the phases of "learning" and "application".
  14:25 14:50 14.5.2 LESSONS LEARNED FROM PROJECT BASED TEACHING IN AEROSPACE AT CHALMERS
Isak Jonsson¹, Carlos Xisto¹, Valery Chernoray¹, Alexandre Capitao Patrao¹; ¹Chalmers University Of Technology, Sweden
This paper shares experiences from project based learning (PBL) in aerospace engineering courses at Chalmers University. It focuses on a case study where students design, simulate, and test a UAV propeller. The paper discusses student and instructor feedback, the pros and cons of PBL in this context, and offers future improvements and suggestions.
  14:50 15:15 14.5.3 INTEGRATING UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS INTO THE INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CURRICULUM
O. D. Dantsker, Indiana University, United States
Recently, two experiential learning courses on unmanned aerial systems enhanced the Intelligent Systems Engineering curriculum. Specifically, “Autonomous Sports” to focus on integrated vehicle design and development of lighter-than-air vehicles and “Unmanned Aerial Systems” to introduce UAS in a lecture-lab format where students develop autopilots and integrate them into unmanned aircraft.
  15:15 15:40 14.5.4 DLR DESIGN CHALLENGE WINNERS - STUDENT DESIGN COMPETITION
S. Müller¹, L. Kugler¹, C. Niro, German Aerospace Center (DLR) , Germany; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
This paper provides an insight into this year’s DLR Design Challenge winning concept. Students are asked to design a future aircraft for operation on European regional routes in 2050. The aircraft are optimized for economical and energy efficiency and an open design space ensures a variety of revolutionary and innovative aircraft concepts.
The results will be presented by the winning team.
15.5Flight Control 2
Chair(s):
Track 15
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  14:00 14:25 15.5.1 A GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR TRAJECTORY GENERATION OF ENGINE-OUT TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT
Jason Gauci, University of Malta, Malta; Brian Zammit, Malta; Marlon Galea, Malta
This paper proposes a Genetic Algorithm for the trajectory generation of engine-out transport aircraft. The algorithm finds a feasible glide path – between the initial aircraft position and the landing site – which accounts for the aircraft’s turn performance and is capable of absorbing any excess energy to ensure that the aircraft reaches the landing site at the right height and speed.
  14:25 14:50 15.5.2 A COMPARSION OF TRAJECTORY GENERATION ALGORITHMS FOR A TERRAIN FOLLOWING FLIGHT
H. Lee¹, S. Lee¹; ¹Korea Aerospace University, South Korea
In military aviation, Terrain Following plays a crucial role, offering the capability for aircraft to fly close to the ground to minimize the risk of detection by enemies. In this paper, Terrain Following trajectory generation algorithms are compared in two-dimensional space using simulation data of several flight scenarios.
  14:50 15:15 15.5.3 TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION FOR LONG-RANGE AIR-LAUNCHED GLIDING VEHICLES USING CONVEX PROGRAMMING
C.G. Jung¹, C.H. Lee¹, M.J. Tahk¹; ¹Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology(KAIST), South Korea
In this paper, trajectory optimization for long-range air-launched gliding vehicles using convex programming is proposed. The dynamics is reformulated to compact form and converted to SOCP problem. Furthermore, the robust convergence is accomplished using the adaptive trust-region method. The proposed method demonstrated rapid and stable convergence of SCP with a crude initial guess.
  15:15 15:40 15.5.4 ATTITUDE CONTROL DESIGN FOR A FLYING-CRAWLING INTEGRATED FLAPPING-WING MICRO AIR VEHICLE
Z.-Y. Yuan¹, W.-Y. Yang¹, J.-X. Xuan¹; ¹nwpu, China
This paper introduce the dynamic modeling and attitude control design of a flying- crawling integrated bionic flapping-wing micro air vehicle, enhancing its overall flight performance.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 15.5.R FAST LINEAR COVARIANCE METHAD FOR UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS USING PSEUDOSPECTRAL COLLOCATION
C.-Z Zhou, Zhejiang University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 15.5.R OPTIMAL APPROACH AND DEPARTURE TRAJECTORIES WITH NOISE IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR AN AIR MOBILITY QUAD-ROTOR
C Varriale¹, F Yunus¹, M Snellen¹; ¹Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
16.5Collaborative and Other UAV Operations
Chair(s): C. Doll , Watanabe, Y.
Track 16
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  14:00 14:25 16.5.1 MULTI-AGENT REINFORCEMENT LEARNING APPROACH FOR COLLABORATE UAVS MISSION PLANNING IN MUM-T SCENARIO
B Moon, South Korea
This paper introduces a novel framework employing MARL to assist operators in decision-making for mission planning within the intricate domain of MUM-T scenarios. Our approach evaluates mission effectiveness and generates optimal courses of action for diverse mission objectives, enhancing the decision support capabilities in complex operational environments.
  14:25 14:50 16.5.2 ADVANCED SOLUTIONS AND CHALLENGES IN MULTI-DRONE SYSTEMS FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE MISSIONS
E. D Amato, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, Italy
This paper reviews literature on developing a diverse multi-drone system for search and rescue within the framework of the project "CHeMSys: Cooperative Heterogeneous Multi-drone System for disaster prevention and first response." Emphasis is placed on analyzing recent findings regarding unresolved technical challenges in the field.
  14:50 15:15 16.5.3 INCREMENTAL NONLINEAR DYNAMIC INVERSION CONTROLLER FOR A FLYING WING OPERATED WITHIN AN AIRBORNE WIND ENERGY SYSTEM
Dominik Felix Duda¹, Hendrik Fuest¹, Julian Müller¹, Tobias Islam¹, Dieter Moormann¹; ¹RWTH Aachen Unitversity, Germany
Within this paper, a controller for the translational motion of a flying wing based on Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion is presented. Operated within an Airborne Wind Energy system, this approach allows the necessary multi-axial maneuvers such as the yaw-roll transition from propeller-borne flight to wing-borne flight.
Reserve Paper 16.5.R HAWK-INSPIRED COOPERATIVE ENCIRCLEMENT GUIDANCE OF FIXED-WING UAV SWARM WITH LIMITED COMMUNICATION IN THREAT SCENARIO
B.-Y. Qin¹, D. Zhang¹, S. Tang¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
17.5Displays and Assistance Systems
Chair(s):
Track 17
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  14:00 14:25 17.5.1 ENHANCED AIRCRAFT TAKEOFF/LANDING SAFETY USING DEEP LEARNING MODELS IN RUNNING ASSISTANCE SYTEM
Nan Lao Ywet¹, Aye Aye Maw¹, Jae Wook Han¹, Jae-Woo Lee¹; ¹Konkuk University, South Korea
This study introduces an innovative Takeoff/Landing Safety Runway Control Assistance System that employs advanced deep learning techniques. The primary objective of this system is to enhance precision and safety during critical flight stages by providing precise guidance through a sophisticated Artificial Intelligence framework. By precisely processing data, the system enhances situational awareness, predicts obstacle trajectories, and facilitates proactive risk avoidance. Leveraging the YOLO and LSTM models further fortifies the safety precautions during takeoff and landing. Moreover, this study emphasizes the importance of building trust in runway control station operations through a thorough review and strategic application of data, optimizing decision-making processes, operational techniques, and overall control center efficiency. The comprehensive system in this study aims to significantly reduce operator stress, ensure safety, enhance service satisfaction, and mitigate risks in hazardous aviation situations.
  14:25 14:50 17.5.2 NONLINEAR BEHAVIOR IN AIRCRAFT FUEL GAUGE READINGS: AN EXPLORING ANALYSIS
A. D: Di Marzo, UNiversity of São Paulo, Brazil
Fuel level gauge in aircraft is a challenging matter, once the aircraft’s movements affect
its measurement. In this context, this study addresses a detailed analysis of simulated
results from a computational tool specifically developed to study aircraft fuel systems.
The tool simulates fuel sensor readings across various aircraft attitudes and fuel levels.
This analysis highlights the high nonlinearity of these signals in different. The objective
was to explore the relationship between the sensor readings, aircraft orientation, and fuel
volume. The dataset consisted of simulated readings from eight capacitive sensors placed
at different locations inside an aircraft fuel tank. Each row in the dataset represented a
specific combination of aircraft attitude (yaw, pitch, roll) and a “cut” (or cross-section)
of the fuel tank, simulating a particular fuel volume. The sensors’ readings at each cut,
correlated with the simulated fuel volume and aircraft attitude, provided valuable insights
into the relationship between these variables, revealing a complex nonlinear interaction.
Contour plots were generated to visualize each sensor’s readings at different pitches and
rolls, and a polynomial regressions surface was fitted to understand the trends in the
sensor readings. A detailed statistical analysis was conducted to quantify the coefficients
and significance of pitch and roll angles and their interactions, as well as a Normalized
Sensitivity Matrix (NSM) was used to analyze the sensitivity of the multiple sensors to
changes in attitude angles, providing insights into how sensors respond to the attitude
variations and their relative sensitivity. Each sensor responded differently to pitch, roll,
and yaw variations, providing essential information for sensor positioning and system
design. This analysis lays the foundation for further research in aircraft fuel measurement
and sensor optimization.
  14:50 15:15 17.5.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THRUST CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SPACECRAFT’S DOCKING MANEUVER
H. Lee¹, H. Lee¹, S. Lee¹; ¹Korea Aerospace University, South Korea
The rendezvous/docking technology between spacecraft is a crucial aspect of performing orbital servicing missions. This paper proposes the design process for the thrust control system, followed by the simulation of the docking control system. The thrust control system could be applied to various space missions such as satellite repair, fuel replenishment, space debris removal, and space tourism.
1.6GSA - Structures and Manufacturing
Chair(s):
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  16:00 16:30 1.6.1 NASA HI-RATE COMPOSITE AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING (HICAM) PROJECT OVERVIEW
R. D. Young, NASA, United States
Invited speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track
  16:30 17:00 1.6.2 SUSTAINABLE HIGH RATE COMPOSITE MANUFACTURE
P C Crothers, Boeing Aerostructures Australia, Australia
Future air vehicles will be dominated by composite materials to achieve performance targets. However, there are many challenges to overcome in achieving affordable production systems that can produce at high rates at aerospace standard. This presentation will cover the economic and technical challenges including material, process, automation, digital systems, and sustainability.

2.6AFC Demonstrators
Chair(s):
Track 2
15 - Guest lectures
  16:00 16:30 2.6.1 AFC FLIGHT-DEMONSTRATOR X-65 PROGRAM OVERVIEW
M.L. Post, DARPA/TTO, United States
AFC Flight-Demonstrator Panel-3 Invited Session
3.6Design of Sustainable Aircraft 1
Chair(s): K. Rinoie
Track 3
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  16:00 16:30 3.6.1 EU IMPACT MONITOR PROJECT - OVERVIEW AND APPROACH
Prajwal Shiva Prakasha¹, Patrick Ratei¹, Michel Van Eenige¹, Thierry Lefebvre, The French Aerospace Lab, France; Marko Alder¹, Utkarsh Gupta, Cranfield University , United Kingdom; Mario Antonio Solazzo, CIRA, Italy; Bjoern Nagel¹; ¹German Aerospace Center - DLR, Germany
EU Impact Monitor Project deliver a coherent and holistic framework and toolbox that aim to become the reference choice for technology and policy assessment of the environmental-, economic- and societal-impact of European aviation R&I. Bolstered by its profound knowledge and multidisciplinary expertise, a consortium consisting of 10 research establishments and academic institutes develop this framework and toolbox by advancing credible and successfully-applied approaches beyond state of the art.

The paper shares the results and approach of EU Impact Monitor Project: The collaborative framework (analysis tools/models coming from different organizations) and assessment results will be demonstrated for 3 use cases. Each demonstration the multilevel assessment capability considering, one or multiple levels - Aircraft, Airport/ATM and Air Transportation System level

Use Case 1 (UC1): Advanced Propulsion System; Long- and Short-Range Aircraft with Aircraft level evaluation
Use Case 2 (UC2): Continuous Descent Operations; Aircraft and Airport (1 day) level assessment
Use Case 3 (UC3): Sustainable Aviation Fuel; Airport, Airport and Airt Transport System Level assessment

The sensitivity, tradeoff is demonstrated via a user-friendly Dashboard.

  16:30 17:00 3.6.2 MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF INNOVATIVE REGIONAL AIRCRAFT WING CONFIGURATIONS FOR OVERALL AIRCRAFT DESIGN
R Jan¹, S Delbecq¹, E Benard¹; ¹ISAE-Supaero, France
This article compares the performance of a short-haul aircraft in two different configurations: a conventional configuration, such as the ATR72, and an innovative architecture involving distributed propulsion. Both configurations involve complex aerodynamic and aeroelastic phenomena that must be considered in the design process. To this end, ASWING, an aeroelastic analysis software package, has been coupled with FASTOAD, an aircraft design and optimization tool. This paper presents the methodology for experimentally validating the various tools and their use on the two architectures to determine which is the most promising.
  17:00 17:30 3.6.3 IDENTIFICATION OF THE IMPACT OF BLOWING ON THE AERODYNAMIC MODEL OF AN AIRPLANE WITH DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC PROPULSION
S. Cacciola¹, L. Bottà¹, C.E.D. Riboldi¹, L. Trainelli¹; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy
This work deals with the identification of the aerodynamic properties of the SwitchMaster, a scaled Distributed Electric Propulsion demonstrator (DEP) aircraft with the final aim of modeling the impact of propeller blowing on the stability and control derivatives of the entire airplane. The demonstrator was designed and built at Politecnico di Milano to demonstrate the possible combination of distributed electric propulsion (DEP) configuration and different propulsive control logics that allow replicating in-flight behavior of a single-engine or a twin-engine airplane.
  17:30 18:00 3.6.4 MULTIDISCIPLINARY PRELIMINARY DESIGN PROCESS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC SEAPLANE
M Tuccillo¹, P Della Vecchia¹; ¹University of Naples Federico II, Italy
The sensitivity towards environmental aspects in aviation drove the application of novel powertrain configurations to reduce the fuel consumption and emissions. The paper present a multidisciplinary design process to evaluate the reduction of burnt fuel and emissions of a future hybrid-electric seaplane concept for two time horizons with increasing technological levels.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 3.6.R TRANSLATING THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DESIGN OF FUTURE AIRCRAFT
L. Paletti¹, L. Boggero¹, G. Wende¹, B. Nagel¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
Presenter: Ligeia Paletti, German Aerospace Center (DLR)
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 3.6.R PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT BETWEEN DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND NOVEL AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATIONS
J. L. C Chan¹, Y Sun¹, H Smith, Cranfield University , United Kingdom; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
4.6LH 2 Aircraft System
Chair(s): B. Nagel
Track 4
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  16:00 16:30 4.6.1 EXPLORATION AND EVALUATION OF A KNOWLEDGE-BASED ENGINEERING APPROACH FOR LH2 TANK IN EXISTING FUSELAGE
N Bhargav¹, V Elangovan¹, C Hesse², P Satwan², R. C. Munjulury, Linköping University, Sweden; ¹Linköping University/DLR, Germany ;²Institute for System Architectures in Aeronautics, DLR, Germany
This paper introduces an initial analysis conducted on an aft-type liquid hydrogen tank setup, exploring different cabin definitions and tank configurations. Additionally, it delves into an investigation of the utilization of a web application to depict a Knowledge-Based Engineering (KBE) application that was developed. As aviation technology advances towards a more sustainable future, there is a growing desire for innovative concepts toachieve zero emissions and sustainability goals. In pursuit of this goal, a preliminary study is conducted that encompasses the assessment of stability factors such as the center of gravity and static margin, along with an exploration of the range achievable when utilizing liquid hydrogen as a fuel source. For the analysis, a virtual cabin design tool used, known as Fuselage Geometry Assembler (FUGA) provides a digital model of the cabin of both single and twin-aisle configurations of commercial aircraft. The information on aircraft characteristics is provided to FUGA using Common Parametric Aircraft Configuration Schema (CPACS). CPACS coupled with FUGA provides the user with a consistent model of aircraft and cabin design. For ease of usage and better visualization of information from FUGA, a web-based application through Flask is hosted for FUGA. This enables the user to access the FUGA tool without the need to install the tool on their devices.
  16:30 17:00 4.6.2 INCREMENTAL TRADE-OFF STUDY OF A HYDROGEN FUEL CELL-BASED PROPULSION SYSTEM USING MDAO TECHNIQUES
R. di Giuseppe, ISAE-Supaero, SafranTech, France; S. Delbecq¹, V. Pauvert, SafranTech, France; V. Pommier-Budinger¹; ¹ISAE-SUPAERO, France
A fuel cell based propulsion system is a possible solution to reduce the carbon footprint of the aviation sector. The study proposes an incremental trade-off design approach to minimize the mass of a system composed of a fuel cell stack, an air compressor, a heat exchanger, and an electric motor. The methodology involves identifying the design variables, the couplings, and formulating a multipoint optimization problem.
  17:00 17:30 4.6.3 METHODOLOGIES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SIZING OF HYDROGEN-POWERED AIRCRAFT AND THEIR CORRESPONDING AIRPORT INFRASTRUCTURES
L. Trainelli¹, C.E.D. Riboldi¹, G. Sirtori¹; ¹DAER, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
This paper illustrates two methodologies that assess the feasibility, cost and performance of a future commercial aviation system based on hydrogen as energy source. The first concerns the preliminary sizing of a hydrogen-powered aircraft based on mission and certification requirements. The second performs the optimization of the preliminary sizing of airport hydrogen refueling infrastructure.
  17:30 18:00 4.6.4 CFD STUDY OF AIR SUPPLY SYSTEM FOR COOLING OF A HYDROGEN POWERED UNMANNED SEAPLANE AND REDUCTION OF THE RESULTING DRAG
F. Giargia, Politecnico di torino, Italy; F. Bustos Ortega¹, A. Marsano¹, G. Santarella¹, S.G. Soundararajan¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
The purpose of the paper is to determine the best design for an air supply system of a hydrogen powered
long-range seaplane "S55 HERA" using the CFD solver Star-CCM+ and the desired
result is to obtain the configuration that produces the least possible aerodynamic drag, so different design configurations will be compared in terms of airflow.
5.6Sustainable aviation 2
Chair(s): S. Ying
Track 5
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  16:00 16:30 5.6.1 INTEGRATED SIZING OF AN ELECTRIFIED TILT-WING AIRCRAFT FOR VERTICAL AND CONVENTIONAL TAKEOFF AND LANDING
A. A. Mishra¹, B. Kunwar¹, I. Chakraborty¹; ¹Auburn University, United States
This paper presents an integrated methodology for sizing a tilt-wing aircraft with all-electric, hybrid-electric, and turbo-electric propulsion system architectures which is capable of both vertical and conventional takeoff and landing. The workflow includes explicit evaluation of both stability and controllability constraints to ensure acceptable dynamic stability and adequate control authority.
  16:30 17:00 5.6.2 IMPACT OF WELL-TO-TANK EFFICIENCY AND EMISSIONS ON HYBRID AIRCRAFT DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
M. Blandino¹, M. M. Molinari¹, J. Liberatori¹, P. P. Ciottoli¹, R. Malpica Galassi¹; ¹Sapienza Università di Roma, Italy
We present a general framework for the design of sustainable hybrid aircraft which pursues minimal renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions, taking into account the complete well-to-wake energy route. The design methodology is applied on a hybrid SAF/electric regional aircraft. Polynomial Chaos Expansion is employed to efficiently build stochastic optimal designs.
  17:00 17:30 5.6.3 MASS AND POWER ESTIMATIONS IN PRELIMINARY FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN
S. M. Lübbe¹, M. Schäfer¹, O. Bertram¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
Statistics based estimation methods for preliminary system sizing are limited in covering multifunctional flight control systems (FCS) with load alleviation function.
We demonstrate and examine improved system analysis methods for FCS of future aircraft, that enable evaluation of mass and power implications caused by increased functional extent on the example of the DLR-internal project oLAF.
6.6Numerical Methods in Aerodynamics
Chair(s): J. Coder , Dagan, Y.
Track 6
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  16:00 16:30 6.6.1 ENHANCING EFFICIENCY FOR UNSTEADY CFD COMPUTATIONS IN AERONAUTICS
M. Carlsson¹, P. Eliasson¹, P. Weinerfelt¹; ¹Saab, Sweden
Presenter: Magnus Carlsson, SAAB AB

SSAAB has developed a fully implicit approach for aeronautical CFD applications. We present further developments to reduce the computing time for unsteady problems by enhancing the implicit scheme to 1) speed up the rate of convergence and 2) to avoid unsteady calculations e.g. for dynamic derivatives by solving a linear system of equations. Basic and realistic applicaitons are presented.

  16:30 17:00 6.6.2 WAKE INTERACTION OF TANDEM WINGS WITH A VORTEX PARTICLE METHOD
A DiMaggio, Auburn University, United States
This paper describes the ongoing development of a hybrid vortex particle-potential flow method which is aimed at expanding the use of mid-fidelity tools to the genre of fully separated flows. The primary flow field of interest for this work is the tandem wing in which at least one of the wings is at a sufficiently high incidence angle to induce bulk separation.
  17:00 17:30 6.6.3 ANALYSIS OF THE R FAMILY OF LIMITERS APPLIED TO HIGH-ORDER FR/CPR SCHEMES FOR THE SIMULATION OF SUPERSONIC FLOWS
F. B. Oliveira, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Brazil; J. L. F. Azevedo, Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco, Brazil; Z. J. Wang, University of Kansas, United States
The present investigation assesses the feasibility of a novel family of flux limiter formulations to be used with high-order FR/CPR schemes to simulate supersonic air flows typical of aerospace applications, compared to other well-established formulations currently available in the literature.
  17:30 18:00 6.6.4 A HIGH-PRECESION PSEUDO ARC-LENGTH METHOD WITH POSITIVE VALUE PRESERVATION PROPERTIES BASED ON TV SPLITTING
Chentao Wang Wang, Chinese Aeronautical Establishment, China
This paper aims to construct a flux scheme with high-resolution and robust numerical stability. The main work includes: (1) proposed a TV splitting scheme based on the complex arc-length coordinate systems. By decomposing the flux vector into convective flux and pressure flux, the TV splitting is extended from the fixed grid to the complex coordinate system; (2) Mapping non-physical space to arc-length space through coordinate transformation facilitates the construction of high-precision numerical scheme; (3) The calculation results show that the solver constructed in this paper not only has higher accuracy but also effectively overcomes numerical instability in strong shock wave simulation. The application of the numerical format constructed in this paper to complex flow problems such as compressible turbulence, as well as the development of solvers on three-dimensional spatial and unstructured grids, it is worth further research in the future.
Reserve Paper 6.6.R COMPARATIVE CFD STUDY OF CONTRA-ROTATING CO-AXIAL PROPELLER USING DIFFERENT NUMERICAL MODELS
F.G. Giargia, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
7.6High speed flows
Chair(s):
Track 7
03.2 - Experimental Aerodynamics
  16:00 16:30 7.6.1 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE DLR-F23 CONFIGURATION AT TRANSONIC SPEEDS USING FAST-RESPONSE PRESSURE-SENSITIVE PAINT
P. Hartl¹, M. Ritschel¹, M. Braune¹, H. Mai¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
High agility aircraft configurations are designed to cover a wide range of flight maneuvers, from supersonic performance to high maneuverability at subsonic speeds. The DLR-F23 configuration, consisting of a low aspect-ratio triple-delta-wing planform, was investigated with a focus on vortical flow physics. Fast-response pressure sensitive paint was applied to investigate unsteady flow phenomena.
  16:30 17:00 7.6.2 ASSESSING THE SONIC BOOM OF A FULL-SIZE AIRCRAFT FROM FREE FLIGHT TESTS ON A SUB-SCALE MODEL
Giovanni Fasulo¹, Luigi Federico¹; ¹Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA), Italy
Since the cost of conducting flight tests is proportional to the size and weight of the aircraft, the use of sub-scale models to characterize the sonic boom of the full-scale aircraft is a more desirable option. For this purpose, considerable effort has been devoted to defining a hybrid scaling concept for the sonic boom, combining Whitham's theory, free-flight tests, and a propagation model.
  17:00 17:30 7.6.3 EFFECT OF FREESTREAM DISTURBANCES ON BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION IN HYPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL
Jisen Yuan¹, Shenghao Yu¹, Zhansen Qian¹; ¹AVIC Aerodynamics Research Institute, China
The effect of freestream disturbances on hypersonic boundary layer transition is studied based on two hypersonic wind tunnels in AVIC Aerodynamics Research Institute
  17:30 18:00 7.6.4 ELECTRIC FIELD MEASUREMENT IN GLOW DISCHARGE PLASMA INTERACTING WITH SHOCK WAVE IN HYPERSONIC FLOW
Nghia Cao Van¹, Hajime Itoh¹, Makoto Mizoguchi¹, Atsushi Uenaka¹; ¹National Defense Academy of Japan, Japan
We investigated the impact of a probe on a glow plasma in a floating probe method used in a hypersonic flow. Considering the change in the cross-sectional area of the positive column suggests that the electron density in front of and behind the shock wave appear to be the same, which leads to the uniform reduced electric field along the positive column whose cross-sectional area is uniform.
Reserve Paper 7.6.R DESIGN OF A HIGH ENTHALPY HYPERSONIC NOZZLE FOR “GHIBLI” PLASMA WIND TUNNEL
Daniele Guida¹, Smoraldi Antonio¹, A Schettino, C.I.R.A., Germany; ¹CIRA Italian Aerospace Research Centre, Italy
8.6Aerodynamics of Propulsion System Integrations
Chair(s):
Track 8
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  16:00 16:30 8.6.1 SIMULATION OF AN INSTALLED PROPELLER BY MEANS OF STEADY AND UNSTEADY BODY-FORCE MODELING
H. Pantel¹, F. Falissard¹, G. Dufour, ISAE-SUPAERO, France; ¹ONERA, France
Assessment of the actuator line body force method for a propeller. The results are compared to URANS blade-resolved computations, lifting line computations, and steady body force computations. The simulations include an isolated propeller case and and installed case on a wing.
  16:30 17:00 8.6.2 EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF SLIPSTREAM DEFORMATION FOR AN INSTALLED DISTRIBUTED PROPELLER CONFIGURATION
R.R. Duivenvoorden¹, F. do Nascimento Monteiro¹, T. Sinnige¹; ¹Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
In this paper, we show experimental measurements of total pressure behind a distributed propulsion wing, thereby visualising the deformation of the slipstreams. We compare with similar experiments with only a single propeller installed. Furthermore, we analyse the effects of relative blade phase angle between propellers in the distributed configuration.
  17:00 17:30 8.6.3 AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE AND INTERACTION EFFECTS OF AN OVER-THE-WING DISTRIBUTED-PROPELLER SYSTEM IN CRUISE CONDITIONS
R. de Vries¹, T. Sinnige¹, L. L. M. Veldhuis¹; ¹Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
This study investigates the aero-propulsive performance of an over-the-wing distributed propulsion (OTWDP) system, and assesses how it depends on various operating conditions. A combined experimental/numerical approach is taken. The lower-order numerical model matches experimental results for cruise-like conditions, and is used to assess different lift, thrust, and blade-pitch settings.
  17:30 18:00 8.6.4 ASSESSMENT OF ACTUATOR METHODS FOR THE AERODYNAMIC STUDY OF LARGE ASPECT RATIO AIRCRAFT WITH DISTRIBUTED PROPELLERS
B Jones, University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom
The aerodynamics of the SBW-DHEP configuration is here studied with methods having different levels of fidelity. The present analysis will allow therefore selecting the most appropriate method during the conceptual and preliminary design phases of SBW-DHEP aircraft where little experience is currently available as opposed to more conventional wing and tube configurations.
Reserve Paper 8.6.R ON THE INFLUENCE OF PROPELLER MODELLING STRATEGY FOR INTERACTIONAL AERODYNAMICS
Zhuoneng Li¹, Vadim Maltsev¹, Amir Aval Modarres¹, Andrea Da Ronch¹; ¹University of Southampton, United Kingdom
Reserve Paper 8.6.R OPERATIONAL LIMITS ASSESSMENT FOR HIGH-ALTITUDE LONG-ENDURANCE UAVS CONSIDERING PROPELLER ICING EFFECT
Y.H. Kim, South Korea; J.H. Shin, South Korea; C.J. Woo, South Korea; C.K. Son, South Korea; K.J. Yee, South Korea
9.6AAM 3 - Vertiports
Chair(s):
Track 9
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  16:00 16:30 9.6.1 COMPARING THE CAPACITY OF DIFFERENT VERTIPORT TOPOLOGIES USING DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION
Eva Wille, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
Presenter: Eva Wille

Vertiports are considered to be a major barrier to UAM adoption. Vertiport capacity depends on the size and topology of the vertiport as well as on the operational conditions. This work presents a discrete event simulation framework to analyze the vertiport capacity for different infrastructure and operational scenarios.
  16:30 17:00 9.6.2 DEMAND CAPACITY BALANCING FOR URBAN AIR MOBILITY USING MULTI-AGENT SIMULATION
G Sato, Electronic Navigation Research Institute, Japan
This study proposes the new concept of demand capacity balancing (DCB) based on the multi-agent system for urban air mobility. It is assumed the future distributed urban air traffic management. We develop the multi-agent DCB and simulate various situations by varying some parameters. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the multi-agent DCB and provide a benchmark for DCB development.
  17:00 17:30 9.6.3 DESIGN OF A UAM GROUND INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK WITH RESPECT TO MAINTENANCE CAPACITY REQUIREMENTS
Majed Swaid, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany; Stephanos Papakonstantinou¹, Daniel Kloock-Schreiber¹, Volker Gollnick¹; ¹Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Germany
Previous research established a method for calculating vertiport capacity requirements, emphasizing efficient fleet generation and operational optimization. This study builds upon that work by incorporating maintenance cycles for each fleet vehicle. Its primary goal is to identify necessary maintenance capacity and its distribution across a UAM vertiport network, based in Hamburg City, Germany.
  17:30 18:00 9.6.4 AIRPORT INFRASTRUCTURE SIZING FOR A REGIONAL ELECTRIC AVIATION NETWORK
F. Vehlhaber¹, M. Salazar¹; ¹Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands
This work introduces a framework for the sizing of a system for on-site energy generation and storage in support of electric flight operations for a regional aviation network. Specifically, it shows how the properties of the flight network can be leveraged for strategic sizing, highlighting airport specific requirements that arise from considering the air transport and energy system as a whole.
10.6NDT / Optimization
Chair(s):
Track 10
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  16:00 16:30 10.6.1 CLAMP CONTROL IN BOLTED JOINTS WITH ULTRASONIC-ANGLE STRATEGY
R. P. Mendonca, Embraer S.A., Brazil
The objective of this study is to demonstrate the use of an ultrasonic system in a new strategy for applying torque to joints that require clamp precision. This study will demonstrate the application of ultrasonic systems associated with angle control strategies, which generates a new torque strategy with great clamp accuracy within ±5%.
  16:30 17:00 10.6.2 STIMULATED THERMOGRAPHY AS NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING TO ASSESS THE STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF AERONAUTICAL COMPONENT IN CFRP.
G. Masciopinto¹, E. D'Accardi¹, D. Palumbo¹, U. Galietti¹; ¹Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy
Presenter: Umberto Galietti, Polytechnic University of Bari

Composite materials are widely used in aeronautical structures. During manufacturing and service conditions, these materials need to be inspected to characterize the presence of defects. In this work, an experimental study was carried out to assess the capability of different stimulated thermographic techniques in detecting delamination and resin pocket in aeronautical components made in CFRP.
  17:00 17:30 10.6.3 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF PROCESS-INDUCED DEFORMATIONS AND STRESSES IN AERONAUTICAL COMPOSITE COMPONENTS
R. Masia¹, M. Petrolo¹, E. Zappino¹, N. Zobeiry, University of Washingthon, United States; E. Carrera¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This work investigates process-induced residual deformations in spars, examining factors such as spring-in angles, deformations, and the distribution of 3D stresses throughout the thickness of these components. The research utilizes one-dimensional, higher-order, layer-wise theories derived from the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF) to overcome time-consuming simulations for such structures.
  17:30 18:00 10.6.4 CONCURRENT TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF CROSS-SECTION TOPOLOGY AND FIBER ORIENTATION FOR ROTATING COMPOSITE BEAMS
Y.-F. Luo¹, M.-L. Hao¹, X. Li¹, Q.-H. Li¹; ¹Shandong University, China
Due to coriolis and centrifugal forces, dynamic of the rotating aircraft structure is changed. In this paper, a new topology optimization method for simultaneously optimizing the cross-section topology and fiber orientation for the rotating composite beams is developed. The application in helicopter rotor is shown to illustrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Reserve Paper 10.6.R ELASTIC-PLASTIC SEMI-ANALYTICAL METHOD AND OPTIMIZATION FOR ARBITRARY SHAPE SURFACES OF SCARF REPAIRED COMPOSITES
Y Liu¹, B Liu¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reserve Paper 10.6.R WEIGHT OPTIMIZATION AND STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE POD BASED ON T300/QY9611 CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE
Z.-C. Dong¹, X.-M. Li, AVIC·Leihua Electronic Technology Research Institute, China; H.-Y. Huang¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
11.6Adaptive and Morphing Aircraft
Chair(s):
Track 11
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  16:00 16:30 11.6.1 DESIGN AND TEST OF A MORPHING LEADING EDGE FOR A LARGE-SCALE CIVIL AIRCRAFT
Z. Wang, Beihang University, China
The climate change has asked the aviation industry to decrease its emissions of greenhouse gases. With the aerodynamic shape adaptability, morphing leading edges have great potential in the application of laminar flow wing and is beneficial to green aviation. As most of the current morphing leading edge is still focus on laboratory demonstration, this paper developed a three-dimensional full-scale morphing leading edge physical prototype for a large-scale civil aircraft. The final test results show that the developed morphing leading edge can be morphed into its target shape smoothly and precisely and validate the effectiveness of the design approach.
  16:30 17:00 11.6.2 AEROELASTIC STABILITY ANALYSIS OF CAMBER MORPHING WING
S. M. Masanam, IIT MADRAS, INDIA, India
Camber morphing wings use variable stiffness structures to enhancing the performance of aircraft. These time varying stiffness induce parametric instabilities in the wing. In this work, the combination type parametric instability of a binary wing is studied with a generalized harmonic balancing method and the results show stability can be enhanced for certain combination of stiffness variation.
  17:00 17:30 11.6.3 MULTI-OBJECTIVE DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A MORPHING AILERON FOR A HYBRID ELECTRIC REGIONAL AIRCRAFT
A. De Gaspari¹, V. Cavalieri¹, M. Corti¹, Sergio Ricci¹; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy
This paper presents the design optimization of a morphing aileron demonstrating that these types of devices can exploit their multiple design degrees of freedom to simultaneously achieve several design objectives. The developed morphing aileron has proven to provide better performance than its traditional hinged counterpart both from the aerodynamic point of view and the required actuation force.
  17:30 18:00 11.6.4 ADAPTIVE WING FLUTTER SUPPRESSION BY MEANS OF MULTIPLE TRAILING EDGE CONTROL SURFACES - A COMPARATIVE STUDY
G Mantegna¹, A Esposito¹, C Orlando¹, A Alaimo¹, C. R. Vindigni¹; ¹Kore University of Enna, Italy
This work explores the possibility of using multiple ailerons-like control surfaces to suppress wing flutter vibrations by means of adaptive control systems. A comparison between single and double ailerons configuration is discussed from both the control system and structural behavior point of view.
Reserve Paper 11.6.R DESIGN OF A BODY FREEDOM FLUTTER FLIGHT MODEL WITH CONVENTIONAL CONFIGURATION
Xinhai Tian¹, Yingsong Gu¹, Zhichun Yang¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 11.6.R MODELING AND VALIDATION OF MORPHING WING TRAILING EDGE BASED ON ZERO POISSON\\\\\\\'S RATIO HONEYCOMB
S.-Y. Sun¹, H.-Z. Wang¹, R. Yang¹, W. Qian¹; ¹Dalian University of Technology, China
12.6Structural Design and Optimization 3
Chair(s):
Track 12
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  16:00 16:30 12.6.1 AEROSERVOELASTIC MULTI-DISCIPLINARY DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF HYDROGEN-POWERED AIRCRAFT
F. Mastroddi, Dept. of Mech. and Aeros. engi. - Sapienza University, Italy
This paper presents a multi-disciplinary design optimization strategy for future LH2-powered aircraft encompassing different disciplines like aeroelasticity, flight dynamics and hydrogen storage. Novelty of this work is the evaluation of pressure collapse in cryogenic tanks given aircraft accelerations via the use of reduced order models based on Neural Network.
  16:30 17:00 12.6.2 ADVANCED MULTIDISCIPLINARY DESIGN OF NEXT-GENERATION REGIONAL GREEN AIRCRAFT
Luca Pustina¹, R. Malpica Galassi¹, Matteo Blandino¹, Franco Mastroddi¹; ¹Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
In the design of innovative green aircraft, considering the interplay among various disciplines is crucial. In this work an innovative approach, employing asymmetric subspace optimization, integrates structural dynamics, aerodynamics, innovative propulsion system analysis, and flight dynamics. Numerical results on a regional aircraft validate the proposed methodology.
  17:00 17:30 12.6.3 OPTIMIZATION OF COMPOSITE WING STRUCTURE FOR TILT-DUCT AIRCRAFT CONSIDERING DISCRETE AND CONTINUOUS DESIGN VARIABLES
S.-R. Xu, China; Y.-T. Zhang, China; J.-F. Zhang, China; Y Zheng, China; Y.-L. Liu, China
This paper focuses on designing and optimizing a composite wing structure for tilt-duct aircraft, involving discrete and continuous design variables. The study is based on a reference aircraft with four tilt-ducts. The optimization process has two phases?The primary goal is to select a structural layout during forward flight and VTOL, minimizing mass while meeting design constraints.
  17:30 18:00 12.6.4 OPTIMISATION-BASED SURROGATE MODEL FOR MASS ESTIMATION OF LARGE ASPECT RATIO WINGS WITH DISTRIBUTED HYBRID PROPULSION
Fernandes de: F. Carvalho, Universidad Carlos III, Spain
This work introduces a surrogate model for precise prediction of aircraft structural mass in high aspect ratio strut-braced wings with distributed hybrid electric propulsion. The novelty lies in combining the mass estimation accuracy provided by a GFEM size optimization with the flexibility of a surrogate model suitable for computationally efficient integration into MDAO methodologies.
13.6Propellers, Fans, Compressors 3
Chair(s): R. Thomas
Track 13
05 - Propulsion
  16:00 16:30 13.6.1 GRADIENT-BASED OPTIMIZATION OF AN AXIAL COMPRESSOR UNDER INLET DISTORTION USING BODY-FORCE MODELING
Cyril Dosne¹, Raphaël Barrier¹, Sébastien Bourasseau¹, Marco Carini¹, Antoine Dumont¹, Jacques Peter¹; ¹ONERA, France
An assessment of the body-force capabilities for axial compressor design under inlet distortion is proposed, using the novel adjoint body force tool recently implemented. Then, several optimizations - first under radial then under a full annulus BLI alike distortion - are conducted to demonstrate those capabilities, and to evaluate the adjoint body-force limitations.
  16:30 17:00 13.6.2 LOW ENERGY CONSUMPTION DESIGN METHOD AND STRATEGY FOR HIGH-ALTITUDE PROPELLERS BASED ON FLIGHT PROFILE
Miao Zhang, China; Jun Jiao, China; Yin Wang, China; Jian Zhang, China; Zijian Zhang, China
This paper proposes two different strategies and utilizes the Co-Kriging surrogate model to perform a multi-point design of high-altitude propellers. The results indicate that the strategy, which focuses on minimizing the total energy consumption throughout the flight profile, proves to be more effective in reducing the overall energy consumption of solar-powered UAVs.
  17:00 17:30 13.6.3 EFFECT OF POPULAR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES ON THE PERFORMANCE AND ACOUSTICS OF UAV PROPELLERS
J. García-Tíscar¹, P. Quintero¹, F.N. Ramírez¹, A. Cremades, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; ¹Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
UAV noise is a major showstopper. Also, performing field replacement of propellers using additive manufacturing (AM) is of increased interest. In this work, we analyze experimentally the noise and performance of the same propeller manufactured through popular AM techniques, and also perform numerical experiments to isolate the effect of different parameters related to AM.
  17:30 18:00 13.6.4 TRANSONIC SHOCK BUFFET INDUCED AERODYNAMIC MISTUNING IN AN AXIAL FLOW FAN
K. V. Venkatraman, Indian Institute of Science, India
Transonic buffet, or transonic shock oscillations due to shock induced boundary layer separation, gives rise to time varying pressure fluctuations on gas turbine fan and compressor blades that trigger buffeting or blade vibration. Numerical URANS simulations on a full annulus model of a transonic axial flow fan---the NASA rotor 67---shows shock oscillations at two different operating points. Significant hysteresis in blade loading is also observed during shock buffet. The buffet frequency is lower than the first natural frequency of the blade at the design speed of the fan. Structural dynamic response to the unsteady loading at design mass flow is a dominant flexural mode with a component of twist at the buffet frequency giving rise to a circumferential deformation associated with a mis-stagger. This buffet-induced aerodynamic mistuning can influence the aerodynamic performance, aeroacoustic behavior, aeromechanical stability, and high cycle fatigue life of the fan.
14.6Attainability of Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Chair(s): G. Bezos OConnor
Track 14
05 - Propulsion
  16:00 16:30 14.6.1 SAFETY-DRIVEN BASELINING OF HYBRID ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT ELECTRCAL POWER SYSTEM ARCHITECTURES
K. Fong¹, P. Norman¹, C.E. Jones¹; ¹University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom
Existing approaches to electrical power system (EPS) design for electrical propulsion aircraft assume a starting point with a comprehensive set of baseline requirements. This paper presents a safety-driven methodology to capture baseline requirements for a new concept aircraft with minimal initial design criteria, and translation of these requirements into a resilient EPS architecture solution.
  16:30 17:00 14.6.2 EVALUATION AND SIMULATION OF PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC PROPULSION WITH REAL FLIGHT DATA
H Murphy¹, C Gallagher¹, C Stuart¹, S Spence¹, S Fitzgerald, Ryanair DAC, Ireland; ¹Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
The research explores the feasibility and potential fuel savings of parallel hybrid (PH) electric aircraft for short-haul commercial aviation using real flight data, aiming to reduce carbon emissions / / alleviate supply pressures on SAF. Validated PH propulsion models incl. current state of the art (SoA) and 2035 projected levels are simulated and investigated. Findings indicate limitations for current SoA but potential benefits of up to 12.7% fuel burn savings in the middle-range (~500nmi) using 2023 projected technology.
  17:00 17:30 14.6.3 PROJECTION OF KEY COMPONENT FIGURES OF MERIT FOR OVERALL ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRIC FLIGHT SCENARIOS
A. Link¹, S. de Graaf¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
This study connects projections for component development with aircraft range predictions. It highlights the increasing potential of electrified propulsion from 2025 to 2070 under two different development scenarios. It identifies key contributors, such as fuel cells and TMS, whose improvements in key component performance figures of merit significantly enhance predicted aircraft ranges.
  17:30 18:00 14.6.4 AIRPORT CHARGING SYSTEM DESIGNS AND POWER MANAGEMENT FOR MEGAWATT-LEVEL CHARGING OF BATTERY-ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT
J Hellgren¹, H Alfredsson¹, M Persson¹; ¹RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden
Presenter: Jonas Hellgren, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Introducing commercially viable air traffic using battery-electric aircraft (EA) necessitates the creation of high-power charging solutions and robust airport infrastructure. This study assesses megawatt-level charging system designs and power management strategies, as a foundation for future implementation. These essential measures prevent airport infrastructure from impeding the adoption of EA.
15.6Flight Modeling and Simulation
Chair(s): T, Grabowski
Track 15
06.1 - Flight Dynamics and Control (Control & Modelling)
  16:00 16:30 15.6.1 STUDY ON CONFIGURATIONS OF AIRBORNE LAUNCH SYSTEM FOR DELIVERY OF SMALL PAYLOAD TO LOW EARTH ORBIT
T. Goetzendorf-Grabowski¹, L. Kiszkowiak², A. Kwiek¹, P. Zalewski², K. Chudy², M. Figat¹; ¹Warsaw University of Technology, Poland ;²Military University of Technology, Poland
The paper presents a feasibility study of airborne launch systems enabling the delivery of a small payload into low Earth orbit. The concept of a disposable rocket launched from a fighter aircraft is being analyzed. As alternatives, the paper investigates a reusable rocket plane carried by a mother plane and a three-stage system with a rocket.
  16:30 17:00 15.6.2 ON THE EXTRAPOLATION OF STABILITY DERIVATIVES FOR DIFFERENT AIRSPEEDS AND ANGLES-OF-ATTACK AND SIDESLIP
Luiz Campos¹, Joaquim Marques, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologias, Universidade de Évora, Portugal; Pedro Serrão¹; ¹IDMEC/CCTAE - IST, Portugal
Analytic extrapolation factors are obtained for all 12 longitudinal plus 12 lateral stability derivatives of linear decoupled motion. The extrapolation formulas were validated by comparison with results of CFD using RANS equations. The comparison concerns the extrapolated full longitudinal–lateral stability matrix from one landing and one takeoff condition of a V-tailed aircraft.
  17:00 17:30 15.6.3 ASSISTED AND AUTOMATED AERIAL REFUELLING – OVERVIEW OF THE CONDUCTED RESEARCH AT THE GERMAN AEROSPACE CENTER (DLR)
Thomas Jann¹, Nicolas Fezans¹, André Koloschin¹, Sven-Olaf Schmidt¹, Philipp Link¹, Julia Ament¹, Stefan Krause¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Flight Systems, Germany
The German Aerospace Centre (DLR) has developed different methods for the automated aerial refueling of different aircraft systems, like fighter, helicopter, transport aircraft and UAVs, and evaluated their qualities in experiments and simulator tests with pilots. The paper gives an overview about the developments and results achieved within the correspondig project.
  17:30 18:00 15.6.4 FLIGHT DYNAMICS OF POWERED PARAGLIDERS
F. Giulietti, Università di Bologna, Italy
The flight dynamics of powered paragliders is the subject of the paper. A nonlinear model of the vehicle, featuring suspension cable elasticity and parafoil added mass, is derived. A trimming algoirhtm is proposed. Stability is assessed on the basis of a linearized model. Response to controlsis then determined for the linearized and the full nonlinear models.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 15.6.R STRUCTURED H-INFINITY DESIGN OF PREDICTORS FOR THE MONITORING OF AN AIRCRAFT IN ITS FLIGHT ENVELOPE
K. H. Kienitz, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Brazil; A. Gonzalez Sorribes¹, R. Sanz Diaz¹, C. Braga de Mendonça, Boeing Brasil, Brazil; P. J. Garcia¹; ¹Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 15.6.R DYNAMICS ANALYSIS AND CONTROL OF A LARGE WINGSPAN FLAPPING-WING VEHICLE
Chenguang Zhai¹, Bifeng Song¹, Qiang Fu¹, Jianlin Xuan¹, Junying Li¹; ¹NORTHWESTERN POLYTECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 15.6.R DATA-DRIVEN MODEL DISCOVERY OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE TRAINER AIRCRAFT VIA SPARSE IDENTIFICATION OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICS
M.-W. Kang¹, D.-W. Lee², S.-H. Yun¹, H.-C. Bang²; ¹ADD, South Korea ;²KAIST, South Korea
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 15.6.R GROUND EFFECT ON A SLENDER 65 DEG. DELTA WING WITH SIDESLIP, IMAGE METHOD, USING EULER
Raj Nangia¹, Timothy Nangia¹; ¹Nangia, United Kingdom
16.6Advanced Manufacturing Technology 1
Chair(s): E. Guevera , Stezycki, P.
Track 16
08 - Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management
  16:00 16:30 16.6.1 REDESIGN AND MACHINING OF LEADING EDGE OF TRANSONIC COMPRESSOR BLADE IN ROBOTIC GRINDING OPERATION
Heng Li¹, Lai Zou¹, Wenxi Wang¹, Lin Gui¹; ¹Chongqing University, China
Presenter: Lai Zou, Chongqing University

Refined design and machining of the blade, especially the leading edge (LE) are two key steps in determining its aerodynamic performance. However, design and processing in past studies lacked sufficient correlation and feedback. In this work, for the enhancement of performance and size accuracy, the LE profile of a transonic compressor blade is redesigned and machined in robotic blade grinding operation. The LE profile is designed based on clamped B-spline curve to achieve curvature continuous. The redesigned and baseline LE shapes are then evaluated in terms of curvature distribution and aerodynamic performance. From the perspective of robotic grinding, the number of grinding paths affecting the machining efficiency is analyzed for various LE profiles based on toolpath planning algorithms. Secondly, the machining accuracy is predicted based on the dwell time control method.
  16:30 17:00 16.6.2 DESIGN OF A SUSTAINABLE FLEXFORMING PROCEDURE FOR AERO ENGINE COMPONENTS IS ALLOY 718
Peter Ottosson¹, Eva-Lis Westman¹, Ingemar Nygren, Quintus Technologies, Sweden; Timmy Pettersson, Permanova LaserTool in Blekinge, Sweden; Fredrik Niklasson², Lars-Erik Brattström²; ¹RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden ;²GKN Aerospace Engine Systems Sweden, Sweden
The aero engine industry in Sweden continuously strive to develop abilities, processes and products for lightweight solutions that in a fast pace contribute to a sustainable society. GKN Aerospace Engine Systems Sweden and sub-suppliers explore and demonstrate new variants of manufacturing process chains for products that will power fossil free transportation in Sweden and abroad. In this study, a manufacturing procedure for a load carrying aero engine component in alloy 718 was evaluated, including Flexforming and mechanical cutting. The project had a target to considerably reduce material, time and energy consumption by at least 50% each. The virtual die and process design for the Flexforming procedure involved FE-modeling, anisotropic material model calibration and parameter studies to identify best choice in blank design and process parameters with respect to minimal spring back. Predicted responses were compared with measured results from Flexforming tests.
Existing multi-step manufacturing procedures are to a high extent based on a forging processes following machining to reach final geometry. This implies high levels of energy, material, and time consumption to a relatively high cost. The Flexforming process is a low-cost sheet metal hydroform technology, ideally suited for low volume production. Flexform use only one single rigid tool half and a flexible rubber diaphragm, backed up by high-pressure hydraulic oil. In this project the Flexforming method is applied to form a geometry used to apply minimal machining to directly obtain the final part tolerances for production.
A finite element (FE) model of the Flexform process was developed. Material properties for the 718 alloy of which the part is formed needs to be included in the FE model. The anisotropic material model YLD2000-2D in the software Ls-Dyna was applied.
The study shows promising agreement between predicted and measured responses such as material thinning and shape deviation. Al
  17:00 17:30 16.6.3 PRESERVING HUMAN EXPERTISE: EXPLORING MIXED REALITY TRAJECTORY PLANNING FOR ROBOTIC BELT GRINDING
W. -X. WANG¹, H. -L. HE¹, T. -Y. ZHOU, Cardiff University, United Kingdom; L. WAN¹, H. YANG¹, L. ZOU¹; ¹Chongqing University, China
Presenter: Wenxi WANG, Chongqing University

This paper is dedicated to learning the experience of manual work and proposes a new method for robot grinding and polishing trajectory planning based on mixed reality and pose measurement. The method will capture the movements of a skilled operator when surface polishing a blade part, and generate the path and direction of robot polishing based on this manual polishing trajectory.
  17:30 18:00 16.6.4 A DIGITAL METHOD FOR THE COMPENSATED MOLD DESIGN OF COMPOSITE PARTS
Elias DELSOL¹, Ismail TAOUIL¹, Wiyao AZOTI², Bruno CASTANIE², Philippe OLIVIER², Léon RATSIFANDRIHANA, Segula, France; ¹Segula - ICA, France ;²ICA, France
Designing a mold that compensates the residual deformations after curing of a composite part is today an expensive trial and error procedure. A numerical method, based on a in-house curing simulation tool, is proposed. The optimization problem is presented, the convergence, performance and limitation of the method are analyzed.
Reserve Paper 16.6.R A DEEP LEARNING NETWORK FOR MACHINING FEATURE RECOGNITION FROM B-REP MODELS
Z.-S. Zhang, Beihang University, China
17.6Thermal Management
Chair(s):
Track 17
07 - Systems, Subsystems and Equipment
  16:00 16:30 17.6.1 DYNAMIC SIMULATION COMPARISON OF NANOFLUIDS APPLICATION ON TMS OF HYBRID ELECTRIFIED AIRCRAFT
S. Caggese, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This work investigates nine different types of nanoparticles as a cooling medium in the TMS of hybrid-electric aircraft. Various features are compared thanks to dynamic simulations: type of nanoparticle, volumetric fraction, particle diameter, heating output, and conventional base fluid. Metal, smaller, higher concentration of particles allow the system to achieve the best thermal performance.
  16:30 17:00 17.6.2 ANGLE AND DISTANCE EFFECT ON PHOSPHOR THERMOMETRY
Q. Yin¹, Y. Quan¹, L. Ma¹, J. Liu¹, J. Chai¹, J. Liu¹, L. Zhang¹; ¹Beihang University, China
Phosphor thermometry is a non-contact technology that holds promise for measuring gas turbine temperatures. This paper investigated the effects of angle and distance on phosphor thermometry of four samples. We found that different samples responded differently to angles and distances, with a maximum effect of 3% and 12.8% on the thermometry results for YSZ: Dy and YSZ: Sm powders, respectively.
  17:00 17:30 17.6.3 VOID FRACTION CALCULATION MODEL BASED ON TWO-PHASE FLOW PATTERNS IN THE SCAVENGE PIPE
J.-W. Xie¹, P.-F. Zhu¹, J.-P. Hu¹, Y.-G. Lyu¹, Z.-X. Liu¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
This paper employs a “virtual binocular method” to capture images of the oil-air two-phase flow within the scavenge pipe from two perspectives. Through three-dimensional reconstruction techniques, a stereoscopic representation is established to obtain the void fraction values. Subsequently, a void fraction calculation model is developed based on flow patterns.
  17:30 18:00 17.6.4 A STUDY ON THE AIRLOCK MECHANISM OF THE OIL SUPPLY PUMP IN AERO-ENGINE LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM
Z.-S. Zhang, China; Z.-P.-F. Zhu, China; F.-H. Fan, China; L.-Z.-X. Liu, China
The external gear pump is the core component of the oil supply part in the aero-engine lubricating oil system. This study uses numerical simulation and experimental methods to analyze the airlock phenomenon that occurs in the pump during the starting process. An analytical method for the airlock is established. The influencing factors and formation mechanism of the airlock are obtained. The results have guiding significance for the design of lubricating oil systems.
Reserve Paper 17.6.R POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS FOR THERMAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF NEXT GENERATION AIRCRAFT
E. Revello¹, M. Boccaccio, Leonardo Labs, Italy; F. Acerra, Leonardo SpA, Italy; A. H. Monteverde¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, DISAT, Italy
Reserve Paper 17.6.R RESEARCH ON MODELING THE TEMPERATURE FIELD OF A NEW AEROSPACE SERVO ELECTRO-HYDROSTATIC MODULE BASED ON THERMO-MAGNETIC BIDIRECTIONAL COUPLING ANALYSIS
Xintong HU¹, Yongling FU¹, Dingchong LYU¹, Jiangao ZHAO¹, Shoujun ZHAO, Beijing Institute of Precision Mechatronics and Controls, Labora, China; Jian FU¹; ¹School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang Univers, China
1.7GSA - Propulsion & Energy 1
Chair(s):
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  10:30 10:55 1.7.1 BARRIERS TO MW CLASS ELECTRIFIED POWERTRAIN AIRCRAFT PROPULSION SYSTEMS
Gaudy M. Bezos-O'Connor, NASA, United States
INVITED SPEAKER FOR THE GLOBAL SUSTAINABLE AVIATION TRACK
  10:55 11:20 1.7.2 NASA HYBRID THERMALLY EFFICIENT CORE PROJECT OVERVIEW
A.L. Nerone, NASA, United States
Invited speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track
  11:20 11:45 1.7.3 JAXA EN-CORE PROJECT OVERVIEW AND ACHIEVEMENTS
T. Yamane, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan
invited speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track
  11:45 12:10 1.7.4 Q&A - MINI PANEL
QA A,
Q&A - MINI PANEL
2.7High Lift Common Research Model Ecosystem (CRM-HL) 1
Chair(s):
Track 2
15 - Guest lectures
  10:30 10:55 2.7.1 A CFD VALIDATION ECOSYSTEM TO ADVANCE THE PREDICTION OF LOW-SPEED AERODYNAMICS
J. Slotnick, United States
CFD validation efforts to advance the understanding of low-speed (high-lift) flow physics to ultimately enable a robust predictive capability are well underway within the international aerospace community, driven mainly through CFD prediction workshops. With the completion of the geometric definition of the High Lift Common Research Model (CRM-HL) in 2016, an informal consortium of organizations has been formed to create a CRM-HL “Ecosystem” to design, fabricate, and test a baseline set of CRM-HL configurations in several wind tunnels over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. These data will be used to validate existing and emerging CFD technologies. This paper will discuss the original genesis of the Ecosystem concept, the requirements that drove the technical efforts, and a summary of what has been accomplished and what is expected in the future.
  10:55 11:20 2.7.2 CHALLENGES IN GEOMETRY DEVELOPMENT FOR THE CRM-HL ECOSYSTEM
A. Clark, United States
In 2016, the High-Lift Common Research model (CRM-HL) was developed by Boeing and made publicly available to support efforts at NASA to develop advanced aerodynamic technologies. Since then, further development has occurred to define configurations of interest, including takeoff, landing, and small perturbations to challenge CFD validation exercises. These development efforts have launched a robust Ecosystem, with its foundations built on several experimental models of different scales developed by various partners around the world. Ensuring that the physical models developed are a faithful representative of the reference CRM-HL configurations presents unique challenges. Additionally, accurate and robust CFD simulation to match the physical experiments also requires specific focus. This paper will discuss the geometric considerations for consistent development and experimental testing of the CRM-HL configurations, as well as highlight requirements for CFD modeling across the CRM-HL Ecosystem.
  11:20 11:45 2.7.3 NASA CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HIGH LIFT COMMON RESEARCH MODEL ECOSYSTEM
M. Rivers, United States
As part of the High Lift Common Research Model (CRM-HL) ecosystem, NASA has designed and built
two CRM-HL models. The first model is a 5.2% scale semispan model that has been tested in the NASA
Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel (14x22), the low-speed wind tunnel DNW-NWB in Germany
and in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at NASA Langley Research Center. Information on the NASA
tests that will include wind tunnel information, model details, test methods and some test data will be
presented in the final document. The second model is a 2.7% scale model that will also be tested in the NTF
in both full span and semispan configurations. Information on the design and fabrication of this model will
be included in the final document.
There will be a total of four tests of these two models in the NTF. The first 5.2% semispan test focused on
force and moment and surface pressure measurements to compare with other data obtained for the
ecosystem and to provide high Reynolds number data. The second 5.2% semispan test will focus on flow
field measurements, both on and off surface. The third test will be of the 2.7% full span model that will
also focus on force and moment and surface pressure measurements while the fourth test will be of the
semispan 2.7% model that will focus on comparisons of full span versus semispan data differences. More
information will be provided in the final document.
1
  11:45 12:10 2.7.4 CRM-HL ECOSYSTEM - DLR CONTRIBUTIONS
R. Rudnik, Germany
With the aim to collect unique aerodynamic and aero-acoustic data to validate computational
fluid dynamics (CFD) methods as well as to improve the understanding of wind tunnel
installation effects, DLR carried out experimental investigations of the NASA Common
Research Model in high lift configuration (CRM-HL) in the low speed wind tunnel DNW-NWB
in Braunschweig. The data are collected and analyzed as part of the DLR project ADaMant
(Adaptive Data-driven Physical Modeling towards Border of Envelope Applications).
3.7Design of Sustainable Aircraft 2 (Climate Impact)
Chair(s): S. Bagassi
Track 3
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  10:30 10:55 3.7.1 CLIMATE IMPACT AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF LIQUID HYDROGEN AND SYNTHETIC KEROSENE LONG-RANGE AIRCRAFT CONCEPTS
S. Wöhler, German Aerospace Center, Germany
Aim of this study is to assess the climate impact and economics of different energy carrier options such as fossil kerosene, sustainable aviation fuel and liquid hydrogen on aircraft design and the long-range market segment. Additionally, flight Mach number and maximum altitude are reduced to further identify climate impact saving potentials with regard to the direct operating costs.
  10:55 11:20 3.7.2 SUSTAINABLE AVIATION IN NORDIC COUNTRIES
C Jouanet¹, K. Amadori¹, E. Espinoza Juarez¹; ¹Linköpings University, Sweden
The project examines various propulsion technologies like batteries, fuel cells, hydrogen, and Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) to meet the climate-neutral goal for Swedish and Nordic domestic flights by 2045. The study suggests that a combination of technologies, including the interim use of SAF/Biofuel, is necessary.
  11:20 11:45 3.7.3 A PROPOSAL TOWARDS A STEP CHANGE FROM ECO-DRIVEN TO SUSTAINABILITY-DRIVEN DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS
A. Filippatos¹, D.-N. Markatos¹, A.-M. Theochari¹, S. Malefaki¹, T. Kalampoukas¹, S.-G. Pantelakis¹; ¹University of Patras, Greece
We propose an approach enabling a step change from eco-driven to sustainability-driven design of aircraft components. To this end, sustainability is integrated as a design driver of the conceptual design and the design phase, broadening the interpretation of sustainability beyond environmental concerns. To show the approach, an in-depth case study will center on analyzing a hat-stiffened panel.
4.7LH 2 Aircraft Tank System
Chair(s): M. Padulo
Track 4
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  10:30 10:55 4.7.1 CRYOGENIC TANK SIZING MODEL FOR THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF HYDROGEN-POWERED AIRCRAFT
G. Licheva¹, S. Liscouët-Hanke¹; ¹Concordia University, Canada
This paper presents a parametric model for cryogenic hydrogen tanks for aircraft conceptual design in an MDAO context. The model considers hydrogen properties, filling pressure, tank geometry, insulation, and installation constraints. Case studies for various tank installation and configuration scenarios are presented for a notional business aircraft, considering aircraft-level impact.
  10:55 11:20 4.7.2 HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM DESIGN: CASE STUDIES FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATION
F. Mazzoni¹, G. Accardo², R. Biga², E. Brusa¹, C. Delprete¹, C.A. Manrique-Escobar², V. Vercella²; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy ;²Leonardo S.p.A., Italy
The preliminary design of the on-board hydrogen storage system is performed through a sizing model. The geometrical, mechanical, and thermal properties are analyzed for both compressed, cryo-compressed, and liquid hydrogen tanks. Then, the model is applied to two case studies, representatives of two aircraft categories, to evaluate the technical feasibility of the hydrogen-powered aircraft.
  11:20 11:45 4.7.3 HYDROGEN TANK CONFIGURATION OPTIMIZATION FOR A TUBE AND WING AIRCRAFT
R. Parello, ONERA/ISAE-SUPAERO, France; S. Defoort, ONERA, France; E. Benard¹, Y. Gourinat¹; ¹ISAE-SUPAERO, France
Hydrogen aircraft present huge challenges due to hydrogen complex storage in pressurized cryogenic tank. This study focuses on the integration of a medium-fidelity hydrogen tank model into an overall aircraft design tool and its exploitation to optimize a hydrogen aircraft. This integration allows the comparison of tank configurations at the aircraft level and the search of the optimum ones.
  11:45 12:10 4.7.4 HYDROGEN AIRLINER TANK OPTIMISATION
H. Dance¹, C. Cumpsty¹, I Iturriaga¹, P. De Felipe¹; ¹ZeroAvia, United Kingdom
This paper goes over the retrofit design of a Boeing 737-800 with a Hydrogen Electric Propulsion system. It focuses on the trade-offs with liquid hydrogen tank placement and uses a novel optimization technique to quickly find the optimal design. The results are compared in terms of fuel costs against the original airliner and further notes on technology readiness are given.
5.7Sustainable Aviation 3
Chair(s): S. Ying
Track 5
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  10:30 10:55 5.7.1 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN FOR A COMMERCIALLY VIABLE HYDROGEN-ELECTRIC POWERED RETROFITTED REGIONAL AIRCRAFT
Bartjan Rietdijk¹, Michiel Selier¹; ¹Conscious Aerospace, Netherlands
A Dash 8-300 is retrofitted to a hydrogen-electric powered regional aircraft. The results of the architecture design, introduction of automotive and cryogenics and certification considerations presented in this paper are relevant to design aircraft flying on hydrogen in general, and for the introduction of certifiable and commercially attractive aircraft in the energy transition.
  10:55 11:20 5.7.2 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC REGIONAL AIRCRAFT: EMISSIONS AND CLIMATE CHANGE
K. Abu Salem¹, G. Palaia¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
What is the actual environmental benefit of the transition of regional aircraft to hybrid-electric propulsion? Starting from this question, this paper aims to discuss the methodological limitations, the need for a change in design approach, and the actual overall magnitude of the impact, related to the assessment of the introduction of hybrid-electric regional aircraft in the operating scenario.
  11:20 11:45 5.7.3 CS2/ CA LARGE PASSENGER AIRCRAFT FOR MORE SUSTAINABLE COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT FUSELAGE TECHNOLOGIES – MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS
Y. C. Roth¹, R. Herrmann¹, C. Sanchez Santos, Aernnova, Spain; M. Uellendahl, Airbus Aerostructures, Germany; J. Koopman, GKN Fokker Aerospace, Netherlands; A. Henneberg, Diehl Aviation, Germany; J. Kos, Royal Netherlands Aerospace Centre, Netherlands; I. F. Villegas, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands; A. Choudhary, SAMXL, Netherlands; L. Larsen, DLZ Zentrum für Leichtbauproduktionstechnologie, Germany; S. Ferstl, Premium Aerotec, Germany; B. Diehl, Fraunhofer, Germany; F. Emanuelsson, Saab Aerospace Systems, Sweden; J.-B. Sinechal¹, M. Pleth¹, K. Atherton¹; ¹Airbus, Germany
In the framework of CleanSky2 (CS2) - Large Passenger Aircraft project, a consortium led by Airbus consisting of universities, research centers and industrial partners across Europe investigated various fuselage system, cabin & airframe technologies for commercial aircraft. The goal has been to strongly contribute to the environmental objectives of 20-30% CO2 reduction whereas at the same time performance increase through weight reduction and improved competitiveness through less recurring cost and industrial ramp up capabilities had to be demonstrated.
In total, more than 40 different technologies have been further developed by the European consortium consisting of 14 partners in order to finally deliver an 8m large scale flagship in 2024: the Multifunctional Fuselage Demonstrator. Novel fuselage design and built concepts are demonstrated as well as thermoplastic composite material testing & modelling, elementary parts manufacture and assembly for large scale fuselage structures incl. “zero airframe customization” concepts for cabin installation.
Final results and major achievements of this European funded program will be presented and discussed.

  11:45 12:10 5.7.4 ANALYSIS OF BATTERY WEIGHT REQUIREMENTS IN THE DESIGN OF HYBRID ELECTRIC POWERED AIRCRAFT
Duoneng Liu¹, Ziyi Chen¹, Zheng Guo¹, Bingjie Zhu¹, Gaowei Jia¹, Xixiang Yang¹; ¹National University of Defense Technology, China
The battery of the hybrid electric powered aircraft discharges at high power for a relatively long time during climb, consuming much electric energy and resulting in more battery weight requirements than the takeoff phase. The selection of battery discharge power and the configuration of battery released energy for each phase in aircraft design are investigated.
6.7Shock interactions
Chair(s): E. Stumpf , Fu, S.
Track 6
03.3 - Basic Fluid Dynamics and Flow Control
  10:30 10:55 6.7.1 A BRIEF REVIEW OF PANEL AEROELASTICITY WITH SHOCK INTERACTION
Aiming Shi, China; Yiwen He, China; Earl Dowell, United States
Presenter: Yiwen He

Shock wave is inevitably encountered on flexible panel of high-speed vehicle. Severe pressure and thermal loads aggravate aeroelastic effect threatening structural safety. In turn, aeroelastic behaviors influence dynamics of shock. Via reviewing recent studies on panel aeroelasticity with shock from fluid-structure interaction and shock-boundary layer interaction, control strategies are motivated.
  10:55 11:20 6.7.2 ACTIVE-PASSIVE HYBRID CONTROL OF SHOCK BUFFET FLOW OVER WINGS
C.-Q. Gao, China; K. Ren, China; W.-W. Zhang, China
An active-passive hybrid control method is proposed to eliminate the shock buffet flow over wings. Passive control uses SCB to suppress spanwise instability modes. The active control takes the lift coefficient as the feedback signal, and adopts the model free adaptive control method to adjust the rotation angle of the trailing edge flap to achieve the control of chordal shock wave oscillation. When using only the wingtip flap for closed-loop control, the amplitude of lift coefficient fluctuation can be reduced. This is due to the cancellation of the impact of shock wave oscillation and trailing edge flap deflection, resulting in a reduction in the amplitude of lift fluctuation. Using SCB and trailing edge flap hybrid control can basically eliminate lift fluctuation. Moreover, due to the effect of SCB, the shock wave moves backward at the wing tip, and the lift coefficient slightly increases. From the pressure RMS contour, it can also be seen that the pressure fluctuation on the wing surface has basically disappeared.
  11:20 11:45 6.7.3 WALL TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON AERODYNAMIC HEATING MECHANISMS IN SHOCK WAVE TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER INTERACTION
Z.-Y. Tang, China; H.-N. Xu, China; X.-Y. Li, China; J. Ren, China
The paper points out that the decrease of wall temperature leads to the decrease of the peak heat flux enhancement and reveals the underlying mechanism that is the near-wall turbulent aerodynamic heat dissipation variation with wall temperatures. The conclusion provides some insight about the difference between ground test and flight data, and can guide flow control methods by wall cooling.

  11:45 12:10 6.7.4 NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE FLOW FEATURES ON THE TURRET WITH DIFFERENT CYLINDER HEIGHT IN THE TRANSONIC FLOW
Xiao-Tong Tan¹, He-Yong Xu¹, Zhen Pei¹; ¹Northwest Polytechnic University, China
IDDES is performed to investigate the effect of varying heights of cylinder on the turret at transonic Mach number Ma=0.7. Five levels of height are discussed, ranging from 0 to R. Mean and statistical results are used to compare the effect of the cylinder height. POD and DMD are performed on flow data to further investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of dominant unsteady modes.
7.7EVTOL Concepts
Chair(s):
Track 7
15 - Guest lectures
  10:30 10:55 7.7.1 PSYCHOACOUSTICAL ANALYSIS OF SYNTHESIZED MOTOR-PROPELLER ROTOR SYSTEMS NOISE
J.H. Jeong, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, South Korea; J.W. Ko, Korea Aerospace University, South Korea
The rapid growth of the eVTOL market has underscored the significance of social acceptance regarding noise. However, psychoacoustic understanding remains limited. Conventional numerical methods like CFD and VLM have limitations in capturing unique modulation characteristics. The psychoacoustic analysis addressed this gap using the CONA framework via RPM fluctuation modeling and auralization.
  10:55 11:20 7.7.2 INFLUENCE OF MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS ON OPTIMAL PROPROTOR DESIGN
S. Shahjahan¹, D. Verstraete¹; ¹The University of Sydney, Australia
Proprotor designs often overlook the consideration of the vehicle's motor powertrain. Proprotors are optimised for an eVTOL vehicle employing three distinct electric motors with the same power rating but differs in maximum torque and rotational speed. Results indicate that the Pareto-optimal proprotor designs are significantly influenced by the specific powertrain to which they are coupled.
  11:20 11:45 7.7.3 NOVEL SOFTWARE-DRIVEN VARIABLE-PITCH AND LEVEL FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS FOR SMALL AIRCRAFT WITH A QUADROTOR CASE STUDY
Xiangwen Xiong, International WYNNBEAR Advanced AeroTech Innovation, The US/CHN, United States
An exploratory study presents the achievement of variable pitch using simple and reliable fixed pitch propellers. By employing multiple sets of propellers with different blade angles and employing clever layout and control strategies, propulsive efficiency can be increased by up to 35%.
  11:45 12:10 7.7.4 ANALYSIS OF THE RANGE AND ENDURANCE PARAMETERS OF THE EVTOL AIRCRAFT
A. Batra, Institute of Aerospace Technologies (IAT), University of Malta, Malta
Paper carries out aircraft performance analysis by estimating impact of key parameters such as range & endurance on performance of eVTOLs, by utilizing existing range & endurance equations for fully electric aircraft. Thereby performing a feasibility study on eVTOLs with current state of technologies & establishes roadmap highlighting effect of key technology like batteries on their operations.
Reserve Paper 7.7.R CHALLENGES OF INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS ONTO THE WINGS OF AN UNMANNED SOLAR-POWERED AIRCRAFT
R. ?opusiewicz¹, N. Ksi??ek¹; ¹AGH University of Krakow, Poland
Presenter: Roza Lopusiewicz, AGH University of Krakow
8.7Airframe Aeroacoustics
Chair(s):
Track 8
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  10:30 10:55 8.7.1 SONIC BOOM ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT
A. Glorioso¹, F. Petrosino², M. Barbarino², G. Pezzella¹, A. Viviani¹; ¹University of Campania, Italy ;²CIRA, Italy
Presenter: Antimo Glorioso, University of Campania

The focus of this work is to evaluate and compare the sonic boom of three different supersonic aircraft concepts, developed in the European project MORE&LESS, through a numerical approach. Aerodynamic simulations were performed using the open-source solver SU2, while noise propagation from the aircraft to the ground was evaluated using an in-house code developed at Hamburg University TUHH.
  10:55 11:20 8.7.2 SPARSE POLYNOMIAL CHAOS-BASED SONIC BOOM UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION UNDER MULTI-PARAMETER UNCERTAINTIES
SK Wang¹, H Zhao¹, KY Gan¹, ZY Gong¹, YJ Gan¹; ¹NORTHWESTERN POLYTECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, China
This paper uses the AFBS method for aircraft aerodynamic/sonic boom uncertainty quantification. Establishing a multidisciplinary robust optimal design framework that conducts aerodynamic/sonic boom uncertainty quantification can meet the design requirements of the environment-friendly supersonic civil aircraft.
  11:20 11:45 8.7.3 NUMERICAL EVALUATION FOR FAN-NOISE SHIELDING EFFECTS ON AFT-FUSELAGE MOUNTED AND EMBEDDED ENGINES
Tomoaki IKEDA¹, Ryutaro FURUYA, Ryoyu Systems, Japan; Mitsuhiro MURAYAMA¹; ¹JAXA, Japan
The fan-noise shielding effects are numerically compared for JAXA's low-noise aircraft design between the pylon mounted, and the boundary layer ingestion (BLI) engine configurations in a real scale at a take-off condition. Although both the configurations effectively shield fan noise by the airframe, the BLI configuration shows a better shielding capability through visualization.
  11:45 12:10 8.7.4 RECONSTRUCTION OF AERODYNAMIC NOISE FOR RAE2822 AIRFOIL TRANSONIC BUFFET
Qiao Zhang, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China; Weiwei Zhang, Northwestern Polytec, China
In response to the difficulty in obtaining high-precision aerodynamic noise data, this paper establishes a comprehensive standardization process for predicting the transonic buffet aerodynamic noise of RAE2822 airfoil. Firstly, a prior criterion is proposed based on flow correlation and the prediction accuracy of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) using the Random Forest (RF) algorithm. Subsequently, we determine whether the RF algorithm can be employed to directly obtain high-precision PSD results using this criterion. Successful PSD prediction is specifically determined when monitoring points simultaneously satisfy RMSE_corr<0.05 and RMSE_adj<0.05, the RMSE_corr represents the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the auto-correlation and the cross-correlation coefficients, and the RMSE_adj indicates the RMSE of the PSD for the adjacent monitoring points. If not, we introduce an innovative approach by embedding the RF model into the Compressed Sensing algorithm reconstruction process (RF_CS). This method efficiently achieves high-precision Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) and PSD reconstruction based on sparse sensor positions, demonstrating good robustness and generalization capabilities. Compared to the CS algorithm based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD_CS), this method achieves high-precision PSD (OASPL) reconstruction, with the RMSE has been reduced by a factor of 2 to 50 using 22 (9) sensor positions and 15 (12) basis functions, and the method does not exhibit phenomena such as high-frequency distortion or inflection point distortion.
9.7Trajectory Management
Chair(s): G. Enea , Harigae, M.
Track 9
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  10:30 10:55 9.7.1 AN AIRSPACE STRUCTURE TO INTEGRATE INCREASING DIVERSE OPERATIONS IN THE FINAL APPROACH PHASE REGARDING CAPACITY ASPECTS
T. Welsch¹, M.-M. Temme¹; ¹DLR, Germany
Simulations show that Increasing Diverse Operations (IDO) will result in capacity losses at hub airports, as controllers will have to insert larger gaps between approaches with very different speed profiles. With the help of optimized intercept points on the final, a large part of this loss can be compensated. Thus, supporting the transformation towards individually optimized approach speeds.
  10:55 11:20 9.7.2 VALIDATING FLOW-BASED EN ROUTE AMAN COUPLING ESCAPE LIGHT WITH AIRTOP SOFTWARE
Katsuhiro Sekine¹, Philippe Bouchaudon, EUROCONTROL Innovation Hub, France; Tomoaki Tatsukawa¹, Kozo Fujii¹, Eri Itoh, The University of Tokyo, Japan; Eri Itoh, Electronic Navigation Research Institute, Japan; ¹Tokyo University of Science, Japan
This study simulates air traffic to Tokyo International Airport (RJTT) to validate the mitigation of delay and operational feasibility of En Route AMAN coupling ESCAPE Light and AirTOp Software. The results show that En Route AMAN reduce not only the number of instructions but also the total flight time of RJTT arrivals. These results constitute an excellent initial step toward implementation.
  11:20 11:45 9.7.3 ON THE POSITION ACCURACY NEEDED FOR SAFE SEPARATION OF FLIGHT ALONG CORRIDORS
Luiz Campos¹, Joaquim Marques, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologias, Universidade de Évora, Portugal; Pedro Serrão¹; ¹IDMEC/CCTAE - IST, Portugal
Three probabilities of coincidence are applied to the old standard and new reduced vertical separations of 2000 ft and 1000 ft respectively, for comparison with the ICAO TLS, and also to assess their suitability as safety metrics. The possibility is raised of complementing the ICAO TLS 5E9 per hour, which is suitable for the cumulative probability of collision by two additional safety metrics.
  11:45 12:10 9.7.4 FEASIBILITY STUDY ON OPERATIONAL FLIGHT PLANS ADAPTED FOR TRAJECTORY BASED OPERATION
A. Harada, Kochi University of Technology, Japan
The original contribution of this research is to propose a fuel-optimal trajectory with sufficient buffers of flight time adjustment to be adaptable to ATC instructions, suitable for the OFPs in the future TBO concept.
Reserve Paper 9.7.R PAIRWISE SWAPPING SEQUENCE OPTIMIZATION BY METROPOLIS-HASTING ALGORITHM WITH QUANTUM ANNEALING FOR AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
N Yoshikawa, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Japan
10.7Structural Measurement Techniques
Chair(s):
Track 10
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  10:30 10:55 10.7.1 WEAR AND HEAT SCENARIO OF AIRCRAFT MATERIALS IN DOWNSCALE STUDY OF EMERGENCY LANDING SITUATIONS: CASE OF AL2024-T3
S Penaherrera¹, L Coustenoble², E Deletombe¹, Y Desplanques², P Dufrénoy²; ¹DMAS, ONERA, France ;²Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, UMR 9013 - LaMcube, France
Wear and heat phenomena occur during aircraft emergency landings due to friction between aircraft parts and the runway. This puts passengers in danger, when fuel tanks are concerned, and so these must be protected. This is a first look at results of tests carried out (Al2024 pin on Gabbro disc) as part of ongoing doctoral work, to clarify the thermal/wear phenomena occurring in such situations.
  10:55 11:20 10.7.2 LASER SHEAROGRAPGY-PREDICTION AND OPTIMIZING ITS FLAW DETECTION CAPABILITIES USING AN ADVANCED HYBRID APPROACH
Haim Abramovich, Technion, I.I.T.., Israel; Yair Elbaz, Technion, I.I.T., Israel
The present study presents a theoretical, analytical and experimental study of the engineering prediction of shearography fringe pattern. A methodology was developed and implemented as an easy to run simulation that can evaluate LST fringe pattern in advance. It focuses on a circular delamination flaw stimulated by vacuum excitation. It shows a good agreement with the performed experimental results.
  11:20 11:45 10.7.3 FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED TOOL STEEL
Charmaine: C.M. Johnston¹, Lerato: L.C. Tshabalala¹, Micaela, M. Davids, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa; ¹CSIR, South Africa
Tool-steel is routinely used in South African wind tunnels for wind tunnel model parts and instruments. Additive Manufacturing is useful in this regard however knowledge of the fatigue characteristics of the material is required. Test specimens were manufactured from AM powder, using Selective Laser Melting, and tested. The results are presented.
  11:45 12:10 10.7.4 DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC LOADING COMPOSITE EXPANSION RING THEORY
Z. -X Liu¹, J Liu¹; ¹NORTHWESTERN POLYTECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, China
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11.7Aeroelastic Tailoring 1
Chair(s):
Track 11
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  10:30 10:55 11.7.1 STOCHASTIC BUCKLING ANALYSES OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES UNDER HYGROTHERMAL GAUSSIAN AND NON-GAUSSIAN RANDOM FIELDS
H.E.A.A. Santos, Embraer S.A., Brazil; D.A. Rade, Aeronautics Institute of Technology, Brazil
The paper proposes the evaluation of the effect of stochastic space-dependent temperature and moisture variations on the buckling response of laminated composite plates, considering both Gaussian and non-Gaussian random fields. Discussions and conclusions are brought justifying the importance of incorporating environmental uncertainties in the analysis and design of aerospace composite structures.
  10:55 11:20 11.7.2 NON-INTRUSIVE GLOBAL-LOCAL OPTIMIZATION WITH ITERATIVE COUPLING ARCHITECTURE
A. Pereira do Prado, Embraer S.A., Brazil
Presenter: Alex Pereira do Prado, Embraer S.A.

This study presents a non-intrusive global-local optimization architecture suitable for the continuous gradient-based phase of a two-step aeroelastic tailoring strategy using MSC/Nastran. The global-local strategy is non-intrusive because it does not need to modify the Finite Element (FE) models and can be implemented with standard FE software. The architecture uses a two-level multi-model approach with a Global Finite Element Model (GFEM) and a number of identified regions of interest modeled as Local Finite Element Models (LFEMs). It solves local structural stability problems (linear buckling) in a wingbox using 3D solid-shell elements (3D SSEs) for thick panels where a transition between shell to solid behavior is expected. This element uses a reduced integration scheme in the plane and a different number of integration points through the thickness. The higher accuracy for the critical wingbox panels buckling constraints directly contributes to representativeness of the optimized design and, thus, it supports modification decisions as early as possible in the design cycle attempting to minimize models’ fidelity transition setbacks.
  11:20 11:45 11.7.3 SANDWICH COMPOSITES SKIN PANEL OPTIMIZATION FOR THE COMMON RESEARCH MODEL WING
Yasser M. Meddaikar¹, Johannes K. S. Dillinger¹, Wolf R. Krüger¹, Roeland De Breuker, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands; Gustavo H. Silva¹, Pedro H. Cabral², Alex P. do Prado²; ¹DLR - Institute of Aeroelasticity, Germany ;²Embraer S.A., Brazil
This paper presents an approach for optimizing practical commercial-scale aircraft wings using sandwich composites in a preliminary design stage. The approach uses lamination parameters as design variables in a continuous optimization step. Structural constraints for classic composite laminate design such as material failure and buckling, and for sandwich design such as crimping, wrinkling, dimpling and core shear failure are accounted for using industrial-standard and empirical methods driven by finite element analyses. As an application case, optimization studies are performed at a skin panel level on the open-source Common Research Model (CRM) wing. Optimization trends show areas of the wingbox where sandwich composites offer superior structural performance, as well as potential cost savings by requiring lesser number of stringers. The aim and novelty of this work is to present performance gains that can be achieved using sandwich composites in primary load-carrying aircraft structures when compared with monolithic composite designs and through this, to provide a motivation for further research and development in sandwich composites and their applications.
  11:45 12:10 11.7.4 AEROELASTIC TAILORING BASED ON VIRTUALLY-GENERATED ALLOWABLES AND HIGH ORDER FINITE ELEMENTS FOR IMPROVED COMPOSITE WING
P.H. Cabral¹, A.P. do prado¹, E. Carrera², A. Pagani², A. Racionero Sánchez-Majano², M. Enea²; ¹Embraer S.A., Brazil ;²Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This work proposes the use of progressive failure analysis to conceive new strain allowable curves to be used in aeroelastic tailoring of composite wing design. The allowable curves are generated by simulating coupons whose layup sequence may not fulfil some of the standard design rules. This allows us to explore different stacking sequences whose experimental testing would be unaffordable.
12.7Structural Design and Optimization 4
Chair(s):
Track 12
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  10:30 10:55 12.7.1 STRUCTURAL AND AEROELASTIC OPTIMISATION OF A LARGE AIRCRAFT WING WITH A PASSIVE TWIST WINGTIP
Y.J. Pan¹, M. Alam¹, A. Spinelli¹, E. Bragado Aldana¹; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
A multi-fidelity toolset for structural and aeroelastic analysis is needed for the multi-disciplinary optimisation of an overall aircraft design. This paper presents the use of structural analysis and aeroelastic tailoring tools in designing an optimised composite wing for a large aircraft. The optimisation of the composite wing structure is divided into two stages, adhering to multiple design constraints. The first stage focuses on minimising the wing structural weight subject to static strength and aeroelastic constraints, utilising the in-house Structural Layout Tool (SLoT) and Structural Analysis Tool (SAIT) that relies on skin-stringer panel and wing box elements developed at Cranfield University. Here, the skin-stringer panel sizing, including skin thickness, web thickness, and stringer sizing, are used as design variables. The second stage involves aeroelastic tailoring, where skin and spar laminate layups are modified using a high-fidelity Finite Element (FE) based optimisation program integrating NASTRAN with MATLAB. This aims to maximise the flutter speed for the designated wing design. Furthermore, this study explores the incorporation of a passive twist wingtip (PTWT) in the wing design as an additional module within this toolset. The PTWT design has specific length, shaft, and CG locations, and it replaces the fixed wingtip of the FE model built in the optimisation stages of SLoT and SAIT. This PTWT module chooses torque spring stiffness and mass as design variables, focusing on aeroelastic stability and gust response. Overall, this paper aims at demonstrating that using the design and optimisation of the current multi-fidelity toolset not only achieves weight optimisation but also produces advantageous aeroelastic characteristics, particularly in terms of flutter suppression and gust alleviation for large aircraft.
  10:55 11:20 12.7.2 DEVELOPMENT OF A MASS EVALUATION TOOL FOR CLASSICAL AND DISRUPTIVE AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
V. Priasso¹, A. Lannoo¹; ¹DMAS, ONERA, France
Presenter: Valentin Priasso, ONERA

This presentation deals with a mass evaluation tool of an aircraft structure which uses semi-empirical and numerical models. It aims to be integrated into a Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) process for innovative aircraft. The optimization method is presented and some examples are detailed on both classical and disruptive aircraft structures.
  11:20 11:45 12.7.3 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF NEXT-GENERATION REGIONAL GREEN AIRCRAFT
Luca Pustina¹, Franco Mastroddi¹, Pierluigi Della Vecchia, University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy; Giovanni Cerino, LEONARDO, Aircraft Division, Italy; ¹Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
This paper presents a novel approach for designing next-generation green aircraft, focusing on structural optimization. It employs a simplified FEM to minimize structural weight while maintaining structural integrity for several aircraft configurations, including those with unconventional powertrain architectures.
  11:45 12:10 12.7.4 THE EFFECTS OF MANEUVER LOAD ALLEVIATION ON HIGH ASPECT RATIO TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT
F. Yu, Technical University of Munich, Germany
This research investigated MLA utilizing a high-fidelity, physics-based model, employing a Vortex-Lattice-Method for aerodynamic modelling and a shell/beam element-based Finite Element model for the wing box structure. A maneuver load analysis was conducted to determine the wing box’s sizing load cases, guiding the design of the MLA system. The loads will be recalculated with active MLA. Structure sizing will be performed with alleviated loads to demonstrate weight reduction effects. Additionally, the aircraft performance will be assessed with Breguet equation.
13.7Hybrid Electric Concepts: H2 Fuel Cell Architectures
Chair(s): G. Bezos OConnor
Track 13
05 - Propulsion
  10:05 10:30 13.7.1 HYDROGEN-POWERED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL - GAS TURBINE SYSTEM FOR AERONAUTICAL APPLICATION
- Tanja Neuland, Pedro Nehter ¹, - Jan Hollmann , Cagatay Necati Dagli , LUH, Germany; - Paul-Emile Roux¹, - Arvind Gangoli Rao, Francesca de Domenico, Maurice Hoogreef², - Linder Van Biert, Feijia Yin², - Cecile Rossignol, Laurent Dessemond, Marlu Cesar Steil, INPG, France; - Philipp Maas, Florian Winter, Christopher Warsch , BHL, Germany; - Santiago Salas Ventura, Matthias Metten³, - Marc P. Heddrich, S. Asif Ansar³; ¹AIRBUS, Germany ;²TUD, Netherlands ;³DLR, Germany
HYLENA will investigate, develop and optimize an innovative, highly efficient, hydrogen powered electrical aircraft propulsion concept. This is based on the integration and combination of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) with turbomachinery in order to use both the electric and thermal energy for maximization of propulsive efficiency. This game-changing engine will exploit the synergistic use of: a) an electrical motor: the main driver for propulsion, b) hydrogen fueled SOFC stacks: geometrically optimized for nacelle integration, c) a gas turbine: to thermodynamically integrate the SOFC. This concept will achieve significant climate impact reduction by being completely carbon neutral with radical increase of overall efficiency for short and medium range aircrafts. The HYLENA methodology covers on: - SOFC cell level: experimental investigations on new high-power density cell technologies - SOFC stack level: studies and tests to determine the most light-weight and manufacturable way of stack integration - Thermodynamic level: engine cycle simulations of novel HYLENA concept architectures - Engine design level: exploration, through resilient calculation and simulation, of the best engine design, sizing and overall components integration - Overall engine efficiency level: demonstration that HYLENA concept can reach an outstanding efficiency increase compared to state-of-the-art turbofan engines - Demonstration level: a decision dossier for a potential ground test demonstrator to prove that the concept works in practice during a second phase of the project The HYLENA consortium consists of one aircraft manufacturer (Airbus), 3 universities and 2 research institutes covering the expertise in aircraft design, propulsion system design, SOFC technology, hydrogen combustion and climate impact assessment. This project is fully complementary to Clean-Aviation to investigate a low level TRL concept and bring it to TRL3 in 42 months prior to a demonstrator in phase 2.
  10:30 10:55 13.7.2 MODELLING AND INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF A FUEL CELL AUXILIARY PROPULSION AND POWER UNIT
M. G. Kolb¹, A. Seitz¹, B. Türkyilmaz¹, Y. Ma¹, M. Hornung¹; ¹Bauhaus Luftfahrt e.V., Germany
This paper carries out an initial assessment of a novel Fuel Cell Auxiliary Propulsion and Power Unit (FC-APPU) for a short-to-medium range passenger aircraft with an entry-into-service of 2035. Integration implications of a FC-APPU system in terms of mass, drag and hydrogen consumption for different technology scenarios are presented and compared against a Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit (FC-APU).
14.7Accident prevention, survivability 1
Chair(s): A. Boucher
Track 14
10 - Safety and Security
  10:30 10:55 14.7.1 FROM THA ?S TO REAL-TIME MONITORING: INTEGRATING NEW VIEWS OF SAFETY INTO FLIGHT TEST PROGRAMS
M.M. CARDOSO¹, T.F. Macedo¹; ¹Technological Institute of Aeronautics, Brazil
Presenter: MOACYR Cardoso-Junior, Technological Institute of Aeronautics

This research proposes a novel approach that integrates newer safety philosophies based on continuous monitoring and control of system performance variability. Inspired by Hollnagel’s theory of resilient systems, we enhance THAs with indicators and limits to actively track how hazards manifest during flight tests.
  10:55 11:20 14.7.2 REMOTE OBSERVATION EXPERIMENT OF VOLCANIC ASH USING POLARIZATION LIDAR
Hamaki INOKUCHI¹, Hiroshi OIKAWA¹, Genta MORIMOTO, Metro Weather Co., Ltd, Japan; Shigeru INAKA¹; ¹JAXA, Japan
We are in development of an airborne volcanic ash detection lidar to remotely detect volcanic ash and to determine its degree of danger. Prior to observation flights, we conducted a ground observation experiment. The results indicated the correlation between the lidar reception intensity and the mass concentration of volcanic ash.
  11:20 11:45 14.7.3 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EVTOL,DRONE AND GROUND TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS FOR EMERGENCY DELIVERY OF BLOOD-DERIVED MEDICATION
Davide Angelini¹, Enrico Cestino¹, Daniela Cestino², Francesco Cattel²; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy ;²A.O.U. Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Italy
This study compares eVTOL aircraft and drones to traditional ground transport to deliver blood-derived medicines in emergency scenario. It uses risk maps, demographic data, and optimal path algorithm to find efficient routes. Using a figure of merit eVTOLs excel in urgent deliveries, while cars are better for routine tasks. The study investigates also hub placements to improve the delivery sistems
  11:45 12:10 14.7.4 ENABLING AIRWORTHINESS SECURITY BY A HOLISTIC SECURITY ENGINEERING PROCESS AT VARIOUS AIRCRAFT DESIGN LEVELS
Marvin Blecken¹, Hartmut Hintze¹, Ralf God¹; ¹Hamburg University of Technology, Germany
This paper introduces a holistic security engineering methodology that enables airworthiness security in accordance with the certification specification CS-25.1319. By applying model-based methods and by connecting various aircraft design levels a continuous flow of security information is enabled. Thus, consistency and traceability is ensured which finally facilitates aircraft certification.
Reserve Paper 14.7.R ON THE SEVERE WEATHER IMPACT MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR AIRCRAFT
T. Wan, Tamkang Univ,, Taiwan, China
15.7Innovative UAV Technologies
Chair(s): J. Palmer , Grabowski, T.
Track 15
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  10:30 10:55 15.7.1 DYNAMICS OF THE MECHANISM FOR VENTILATION ACROSS FEATHERS IN FLAPPING WING UAV
R.C. Silva¹, D.D. Bueno¹; ¹UNESP, Brazil
The work is focused into understanding the dynamics of feathered flapping-flight. The problem under investigation is the dynamic formation of ventilation channels between flexible feathers in a flapping wing model. The understanding of the physics from this ventilation mechanism is relevant for increasing efficiency of the flapping flight from bio-inspired unmanned aerial vehicles.
  10:55 11:20 15.7.2 TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION OF EVTOL VEHICLES FOR URBAN AIR MOBILITY USING INDIRECT METHODS
K. Mall¹, R. Gadre¹, J. Gerardus¹, D. A. DeLaurentis¹; ¹Purdue University, United States
This paper is first instance of using advanced indirect methods of optimization for finding optimal cruise, descent, and landing phases of eVTOL vehicles for UAM missions. Such optimization has not been studied much and would be needed to make UAM more profitable and feasible. Government agencies, companies, and university researchers in the UAM domain will benefit from this study.
  11:20 11:45 15.7.3 IN-FLIGHT VIBRATION SIGNAL BASED DETECTION AND LOCALIZATION FOR UAV PROPELLER ANOMALIES UNDER UNCERTAINTY VIA MACHINE LEARNING TYPE METHODS
I.A. Iliopoulos¹, J.S. Korolis¹, S.D. Fassois¹, J.S. Sakellariou¹; ¹University of Patras, Greece
In this study, an unsupervised machine learning method for in-flight vibration-based anomaly detection in UAV propellers is presented. Effective detection of single and multiple rotor faults in various configurations may be accomplished using vibration signals, even from a single sensor, ensuring the safety and reliability of UAV operations.
Reserve Paper 15.7.R AN UAV MANEUVERING DECISION-MAKING ALGORITHM BASED ON DEEP TRANSFER REINFORCEMENT LEARNING
Ke LI¹, Kun ZHANG¹, Haining LIU², Yang LI², Qian WANG¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China ;²Shenyang Aircraft Design and Research Institute, China
16.7Advanced Manufacturing Technology 2
Chair(s): P. Stezycki , Guevara, E.
Track 16
08 - Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management
  10:30 10:55 16.7.1 AN ONTOLOGY-BASED APPROACH FOR THE CO-DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF AIRCRAFT CABIN DESIGN AND ASSEMBLY ARCHITECTURES
Y. Ghanjaoui¹, J.H. Bussemaker¹, J. Biedermann¹, B. Nagel¹; ¹DLR, Germany
To address the challenges faced by the aeronautical industry concerning sustainability and the growing demand for aircraft, it is crucial to evaluate innovative technologies at early design stages. This should include their impact on the overall architecture in terms of design and assembly. This work introduces an ontology-based approach for co-development and optimization in the aircraft domain.
  10:55 11:20 16.7.2 FRICTION RIVETING OF THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE WITH A CNC MACHINE: EXPERIMENTAL WORK
I. Tan¹, G. Cohen¹, A.-C. Araujo¹, A. Daidié¹; ¹Institut Clément Ader, France
Friction riveting is an innovative joining technique which presents a good alternative to assemble thermoplastic composite. This work studies the feasability of a riveting process in two phases: implantation and closing of the rivet head by friction. Experiments are performed using a CNC machine with internal and external sensors in order to understand the impact of process parameters on the joint
  11:20 11:45 16.7.3 PRELIMINARY RESULTS FOR AN INSTRUCTION DESIGN PROCEDURE IN AERONAUTICAL MANUFACTURING
M. Bartolomei¹, F. Barravecchia¹, L. Mastrogiacomo¹, F. Franceschini¹, F. Acerra², D. Cannizzaro², D.M. Gatta²; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy ;²Leonardo S.p.A, Italy
This study introduces a systematic approach to enhance assembly instruction design protocols in aerospace manufacturing. It incorporates a detailed taxonomy of assembly-related information to assist designers in formulating instruction content, and subsequently applies dual evaluation criteria to determine the most effective and comprehensive format for delivering instructions.
  11:45 12:10 16.7.4 GENERATION OF SURFACE TEXTURE ON GEAR PUMP WITH ELECTROCHEMICAL MICROMACHINING TO IMPROVE TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
Qingliang Zhang, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
Experiments of electrochemical micromachining was conducted on 2A50 aluminum alloy to generate micro-dimple array with a flexible PDMS mask. The dimension of the micro-pit array was 116.709 ?m in diameter, 12.038 ?m in depth and 11.88% in area ratio. The standard deviations of diameter and depth were 1.20 mm and 0.56 mm, respectively. Considering area of the workpiece, 17,000 micro-pits were achieved within a 60s.
Reserve Paper 16.7.R ELECTRON BEAM PROCESSED SURFACE TEXTURES ON TITANIUM ALLOYS FOR FLUID-DRAG REDUCTION
Kai Li, AVIC Manufacturing Technology Institute, China
Reserve Paper 16.7.R DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE VISUAL AND AUDITORY LAYER FOR DIFFERENT CABIN/COCKPIT LAYOUT
M.C. Moruzzi, Università di Bologna, Italy
17.7Digital Processes for Non-Destructive Evaluation
Chair(s):
Track 17
11 - Operations and Sustainment
  10:30 10:55 17.7.1 CINNABAR PROJECT – MIXED REALITY FOR AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL DENT & BUCKLE NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION
Ann-Kathrin Koschlik¹, Michael J. Scott², Thore Keser¹, Fiete Rauscher¹, Hendrik Meyer¹, Wim Verhagen², Pier Marzocca², Florian Raddatz¹, Gerko Wende¹; ¹DLR, Germany ;²RMIT, Australia
new integrative process for the evaluation of dent and buckels of an airplane including integration into digital twin for future automation and AR assessment for mechanics for advanced decision making
  10:55 11:20 17.7.2 CINNABAR PROJECT - AUGMENTED REALITY WORKFLOW FOR AIRCRAFT DENT & BUCKLE INSPECTION
Thore Keser¹, Rahel Schmied-Kowarzik¹, Ann-Kathrin Koschlik¹, Lina Kaschub², Michael J. Scott, RMIT University, Australia; Rebecca Rodeck², Gerko Wende²; ¹German Aerospace Center (DRL), Germany ;²German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
Conventional aircraft Dent & Buckle inspection is a time-intensive task. The CINNABAR project introduces an Augmented Reality (AR) supported workflow. This paper approaches object tracking on HoloLens using infrared-reflective markers to detect the aircraft pose and align visualizations. The preliminary assessment results show high potential and usefulness for the introduced AR system.
  11:20 11:45 17.7.3 CINNABAR PROJECT: EXAMINING THE POSSIBILITIES OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE INSPECTION IN AUGMENTED REALITY – A USER STUDY
Rahel Schmied-Kowarzik¹, Thore Keser¹, Lina Kaschub¹, Ann-Kathrin Koschlik¹, Rebecca Rodeck¹, Gerko Wende¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
This paper examines whether an Augmented Reality approach is applicable to help overcome challenges in aircraft structure inspection through a user study. The focus lies on the methodology and conduction of the user study to ensure that the implementation is acceptable, usable, and functions correctly.
  11:45 12:10 17.7.4 CINNABAR PROJECT – COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL PROCESSES FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTIONS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
J. Aigner¹, A.-K. Koschlik¹, H. Meyer¹, F. Raddatz¹, G. Wende¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
The study focuses on the cost-benefit analysis of implementing digital processes for aircraft inspection using state-of-the-art laser-scanning technology, augmented reality, and digital twins. The findings offer valuable insights for aircraft maintenance companies and decision-makers regarding the feasibility and potential benefits of adopting digital processes for structural aircraft inspection.
Reserve Paper 17.7.R A NOVEL DEEP MULTIMODAO INFORMATION FUSION MODEL FOR AERO-ENGINE STATE PREDICTION
Yufeng Huang¹, Gang Sun¹, Jun Tao¹, Jinzhang Feng¹; ¹Fudan University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 17.7.R DIGITAL TWIN OF AN AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR TO ENHANCE FAILURE ANALYSIS AND MANAGE PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE
D.Y. Sabag¹, O.A. Yakimenko, Naval Postgraduate School, United States; H. Alian¹; ¹Israeli Air Force, Israel
1.8GSA - Propulsion & Energy 2
Chair(s):
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  14:00 14:25 1.8.1 CLIMATE NEUTRALITY IN AVIATION - AN OVERVIEW
F. Donus, MTU Aero Engines, Germany
invited speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track
  14:25 14:50 1.8.2 Q&A - MINI PANEL
QA A,
Q&A - MINI PANEL
2.8High Lift Common Research Model Ecosystem (CRM-HL) 2
Chair(s):
Track 2
15 - Guest lectures
  14:00 14:25 2.8.1 BOEING CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CRM-HL ECOSYSTEM
K. Hood, United States
Boeing contributions to the High Lift Common Research Model Ecosystem include a 6% scale model of the CRM-HL as well as, in partnership with NASA, a roadmap for the incorporation of icing impacts on high-lift aerodynamics through experimental testing within the CRM-HL Ecosystem. The Boeing 6% scale CRM-HL model has been designed to be as modular as possible and capable of testing at a variety of dry air wind tunnel facilities. Artificial ice testing using a range of representative shapes at a range of flight conditions and configurations is needed to inform computational improvements. We will present an overview of key 6% Boeing CRM-HL Model features, model capabilities, and a summary of clean and iced results from the first entry at the QinetiQ 5-Metre Low-Speed Wind Tunnel.
  14:25 14:50 2.8.2 TEST SUMMARY OF THE FULL-SPAN HIGH-LIFT COMMON RESEARCH MODEL AT KHI AERO-ACOUSTIC LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL
T. Hashioka, Japan
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI) introduced 3.23% CRM-HL model as a check model for the Kawasaki Low speed aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel (KLWT) has 3 * 3m test section in 2022. In this paper, test results in Jan.2023 are summarized with related CFD results after some introduction about KLWT and its CRM-HL model.
  14:50 15:15 2.8.3 ACTIVITY PLANS USING CRM-HL AT JAXA
M. Kohzai, Japan
ACTIVITY PLANS USING CRM-HL AT JAXA
3.8AI in Systems Design
Chair(s): S. Conway , Jouannet, C.
Track 3
02 - Systems Engineering and Integration
  14:00 14:25 3.8.1 APPLYING MODEL-BASED SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND DEVOPS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN AI-BASED COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM
Thomas Stefani¹, Johann Maximilia Christensen¹, Elena Hoemann¹, Akshay Anilkumar Girija¹, Frank Köster, DRL, Germany; Thomas Krüger¹, Sven Hallerbach¹; ¹DLR, Germany
The work is demonstrating an efficient way of an agile DevOps approach for implementing and testing an AI-based collision avoidance system, while complying to the W-model published by EASA. From high-level requirements to verification and validation, the engineering process is executed by Model-based System Engineering using SysML.
  14:25 14:50 3.8.2 LARGE LANGUAGE MODELS IN AIRCRAFT SYSTEM DESIGN
P. Krus, Linköping University, Sweden
The objective in this paper is to demonstrate how large language models models such as ChatGPT-4 can revolutionize the automation of the engineering design process. In this paper the configuration of aircraft hybrid propulsion systems is studied. It is shown how a system configuration can be generated and presented in the form of UML component diagrams and how it can be simulated.

  14:50 15:15 3.8.3 A HUMAN-CENTERED SYSTEMS ENGINEERING APPROACH FOR INTEGRATING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN AVIATION: A REVIEW OF AI SYSTEM
L.D.O. Morais¹, P. Krus, Linköping University, Sweden; L. Pereira¹; ¹UFABC, Brazil
The introduction of AI Systems in the design of aeronautical products inserts new layers of complexity into Systems Engineering methods, impacting also human factors aspects. The clarity of information for pilots is a great concern for the aviation industry. This paper aims to provide a review of AI Systems applications in aviation and their relationship with human factors and systems engineering.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 3.8.R AUTOMATING THE VERIFICATION OF GEOMETRIC REQUIREMENTS FOR AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEMS USING KNOWLEDGE-BASED ENGINEERING
B. Boden¹, M. Padilha¹, T. Burschyk¹, C. Cabaleiro de la Hoz¹, E. Moerland¹, M. Fioriti, Politecnico di Torino, Germany; ¹DLR, Germany
4.8Unmanned Aerial Systems and Advanced Aerial Mobility 1
Chair(s): M. Lott
Track 4
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  14:00 14:25 4.8.1 A DESIGN APPROACH FOR A MODEL-SCALE VTOL POWERED BY TWO PIVOTING KEROSENE TURBINES
Volker Gollnick, Institute of Air Transportation Systems, Germany
The Institute of Air Transportation Systems is developing an innovative VTOL model with kerosene turbines for research and student projects. It is designed for various missions such as disaster monitoring and vehicle jettisoning. The paper outlines the design process, two main concepts, calculations and future steps to realise this aircraft.
  14:25 14:50 4.8.2 ENERGY AND EMISSION ANALYSIS OF AN AIR-TAXI SERVICE USING DYNAMIC EVTOL SYSTEM MODELS
Nirmit Prabhakar¹, Francesco Salucci¹, Dominik Karbowski¹; ¹Argonne National Laboratory, United States
Electric Vertical Take-off and Landing (eVTOL) Vehicles, given their size and power requirements can serve as
the perfect test-beds to study the feasibility of sustainable powerplants. At Argonne National Laboratory, we
have been developing a 6-degrees of freedom eVTOL model, using Aeronomie to understand, predict, and
eventually optimize the impact these aircraft will have on our current energy, emissions, and mobility
infrastructure. This model can simulate the aircraft and powerplant dynamics for a thrust-vectoring eVTOL
aircraft. In this paper we will analyze a hypothetical air-taxi service during the LA 2028 Olympics. Vertiports will
be located at major stadiums around the city, which will be connected through eVTOL air-taxis. The final paper
will discuss total energy use and emissions for different fleet sizes and estimate charging-turnaround time
relationships for such a service.
  14:50 15:15 4.8.3 SCALED FLIGHT TESTING FOR EVALUATING DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC PROPULSION
Henk Jentink, Royal Netherlands Aerospace Centre NLR, Netherlands; Carsten Döll, ONERA, France; Pierluigi Ianelli, CIRA, Italy; Maurice Hoogreef, TU Delft, Netherlands; Daniel Kierbel, Airbus, France
The scaled flight testing methodology is applied, first on a known aircraft configuration with jet engines and on an aircraft configuration with distributed electric propulsion through six electrically driven propellers. Especially the dynamics and control of the aircraft is studied. Results from wind tunnel tests, taxi tests and flight tests are presented.
  15:15 15:40 4.8.4 DETERMINISTIC HYBRID POWER RATIOS CONSIDERING VARIOUS FAILURE SCENARIOS FOR QUAD TILTROTOR AIRCRAFT
Minjun Park¹, Nahyeon Roh¹; ¹Hanwha systems, South Korea
Presenter: Minjun Park, Hanwha Systems

This paper proposes deterministic hybrid power ratios for a light series hybrid electric propulsion system in a generic quad tiltrotor aircraft, guided by five sizing rules. It compares four failure scenarios against three, with a focus on reducing aircraft weight. The paper also suggests the best configuration of the hybrid power sources, specifically tailored to the current battery technology.
Reserve Paper 4.8.R RETROFITTING A JET DRIVEN UAV TO FORM A MULTI-PURPOSE TEST PLATFORM
D. Teubl¹, T.S. Sissing¹, M. Hornung¹; ¹Chair of Aircraft Design, Technical University of Munich, Germany
Reserve Paper 4.8.R A STUDY ON BATTERY SEPARATION DRONES TO EXTEND ENDURANCE
H. Kim¹, T. Kim, Seoul Digital University, South Korea; C. Son¹; ¹Cheongju University, South Korea
Reserve Paper 4.8.R OPTIMIZATION DESIGN FOR DRAG REDUCTION OF AIR-GROUND DOUBLE-MODE EVTOL AIRCRAFT BASED ON UNSTEADY MONUMENT SOURCE METHOD
X. Xu, Unmanned System Research Institute,Northwestern Polytechnical U, China
5.8Aerolastic Applications of CFD
Chair(s): C. E. S. Cesnik , Azevedo, J.L.
Track 5
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  14:00 14:25 5.8.1 DATA-DRIVEN UNSTEADY AERODYNAMIC MODELS FOR AEROELASTIC STABILITY ANALYSES
A. C. N. Carloni, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brazil; J. L. F. Azevedo, Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço, Brazil
This work is concerned with systematically investigating different data-driven techniques for identifying CFD-based reduced-order models of the unsteady aerodynamics necessary to formulate the aerodynamic operator for transonic aeroelastic stability analyses. Focus is given to the relative merits and costs of the different methods in predicting the flutter onset.
  14:25 14:50 5.8.2 NUMERICAL STUDY OF FLOWS OVER LAUNCH VEHICLES WITH VARIOUS FAIRING BY SECOND-MOMENT CLOSURE DETACHED-EDDY SIMULATION
Quanzheng Li¹, Gang Wang¹, Mengzhu Qin¹, Lincheng Xu¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
The influence of fairing geometry on hammerhead launch vehicle buffeting is studied by second-moment closure detached-eddy simulation. The low-frequency domain fluctuation load on the vehicle booster can be reduced by decreasing the fairing boat angle. Increasing the fairing cylinder length can reduce the booster's full-frequency fluctuation load and the shock buffeting on the fairing.
  14:50 15:15 5.8.3 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED AERODYNAMIC FORCES CONSIDERING LAMINAR-TURBULENT TRANSITION ON A NLF WING
Carlos Sebastia Saez¹, Jaime Martin Ferres¹, Mirko Hornung¹; ¹Technical University of Munich, Germany
The wing’s dynamic aeroelastic stability analysis, referred to as flutter analysis, typically involves potential-
flow-theory-based methods to model unsteady aerodynamics, which do not consider viscous or non-linear
effects. Modern sailplane wings with Natural-Laminar-Flow (NLF) airfoils present significant chordwise runs of
laminar boundary layer. Assuming an inviscid or completely turbulent flow over the wing chord would result in
completely wrong predictions of the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of the wing and hence an inaccurate
prediction of the dynamic aeroelastic behavior.
This study presents a coupled FE beam model of a sailplane with a CFD model to calculate the Generalized
Aerodynamic Forces (GAF). The influence of transition on the unsteady aerodynamic response of a modern
sailplane’s NLF wing is investigated numerically with the Gamma-Transition Model. The GAF are compared to
the results obtained with the fully turbulent Spalart-Allmaras (SA) model.
  15:15 15:40 5.8.4 LINEAR SYSTEM TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO NONLINEAR AEROSERVOELASTIC ANALYSES
J. L. F. Azevedo, Institute of Aeronautics and Space, Brazil; J A. A. Lyrio, Aeronautics Institute of Technology, Brazil
Identification techniques are used to compute aerodynamic transfer functions on a 3 dof airfoil. The aerodynamic response of the aeroelastic system is obtained from the unsteady Euler equations. Radial Basis Functions are used to execute the mesh motion. A LQR controller is designed to delay the flutter boundaries on the aeroservoelastic system using the identified aerodynamic transfer functions.
Reserve Paper 5.8.R EFFECT OF THE STRUCTURAL FORM ON THE FLEXIBLE HOVERING FLAPPING WING
Y.L. Luo, China
Reserve Paper 5.8.R A BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATION FORMULATION FOR POTENTIAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS AROUND DEFORMABLE BODIES
E. Levati¹, C. Pasquali¹, G. Bernardini¹, M. Gennaretti¹; ¹Roma Tre University, Italy
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.8.R SURROGATE MODELLING OF FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION FOR VORTEX SHEDDING TURBINE IN LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER
J.L. Kurniawan¹, M. Hu¹; ¹Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.8.R PREDICTION OF TRANSIENT DEFOMATION BY COUPLING CFD AND FEM ANALYSIS USING MACHINE LEARNING BASED CORRELATION FUNCTION
Jan Parez¹, Patrik Kovar¹, Tomas Vampola¹; ¹Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic
Presenter: Jan Pa?ez, Czech Technical University in Prague
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.8.R MODELLING OF AERODYNAMIC DECELERATOR INFLATION USING FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERTACTION STRATEGIES
E. Malof¹, J. Bayandor¹; ¹University at Buffalo CRASH Lab, United States
6.8Lift and wake characteristics
Chair(s): C. Breitsamter , Zahn, R.
Track 6
03.3 - Basic Fluid Dynamics and Flow Control
  14:00 14:25 6.8.1 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOWS AROUND AN AIRFOIL DURING ACCELERATED AND DECELERATED FLIGHT
R. Yamashita, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Numerical simulations are performed to analyse flows around a NACA64A006 airfoil during accelerated and decelerated flight. Computational results show that flow behaviours differ according to the flight phase. The rear shock wave during the decelerated flight persists even in subsonic regions. This leads to hysteresis phenomenon of aerodynamic forces between the accelerated and decelerated phases.
  14:25 14:50 6.8.2 STRUCTURE DESIGN AND AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ANALYSIS OF VARIABLE CAMBER WING BASED ON DRIVE METHOD OF FINGER TENDON
W.-X. Wang, Xi'an Jiaotong university, China
To enhance load-bearing and deformation, a multi-block wing design is proposed, combining flexible skin with a mechanical structure. Simulations identify optimal deformation ranges and angles, leading to significant aerodynamic improvements. The design is validated through ground testing, achieving smooth and continuous deformation, meeting flight requirements.
  14:50 15:15 6.8.3 NONLINEAR DROPLET DYNAMICS IN IDEALIZED TRAILING VORTICES
Orr Avni¹, Yuval Dagan¹; ¹Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
We explore droplet-vortex interactions in trailing vortices, in which transport phenomena such as evaporation, condensation, and mass transport are significant. Our preliminary results illuminate the complex interactions between carrier flow, droplet dynamics, and environmental conditions, uncovering underlying physical mechanisms.
  15:15 15:40 6.8.4 FLYING WING CIRCULATION DISTRIBUTIONS, AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE AND WAKE ROLL-UP
M.P.J. Sanders¹, L.H. Groot Koerkamp¹, A. van Garrel¹, C.H.V. Venner¹, H.W.M. Hoeijmakers¹; ¹University of Twente, Netherlands
Prandtl’s Lifting-Line theory is used to predict aerodynamic characteristics of wings with various distributions of circulation, including bell-shape distributions. Expressions for induced upwash distribution, lift, drag, bending moment, yawing moment and center-of vorticity are derived for numerically-computed or prescribed distributions of the circulation. Analysis includes computation of vortex wake roll-up.
Reserve Paper 6.8.R NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF HOVERING ROTOR IN GROUND EFFECT
Xin-Long Li¹, Jian-Hua Xu¹, Weng-Ping Song¹, Shao-Qiang Han, Sichuan University, China; Zhong-Hua Han¹; ¹ Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
7.8Aerodynamic Instrumentation and Measurement
Chair(s): M. Benner
Track 7
03.2 - Experimental Aerodynamics
  14:00 14:25 7.8.1 DESIGN OF MEASUREMENT SETUP FOR HIGH-ALTITUDE IN-FLIGHT EXPERIMENTS ON DU89-134/14 AIRFOIL
M. Avirovic¹, C. Brunelli¹, K. Wykes², C. Mengdehl², B.G. Marinus¹, J. Degroote, University of Ghent, Belgium; J. Van Beeck, Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Belgium; ¹Royal Military Academy, Belgium ;²Stemme Belgium, Belgium
The goal of this research is to design a measurement setup for high-altitude in-flight experiments and to investigate the aerodynamic impact of the test airfoil configuration on the HAPS flight demonstrator, which will be used as the unmanned test aircraft. The design of the test airfoil, pressure measurement, infrared thermography, and temperature sensitive paint setups will be presented.
  14:25 14:50 7.8.2 UPGRADE OF THE VTI T-38 BLOWDOWN TRISONIC TEST FACILITY: WIND TUNNEL CONTROL SYSTEM
Biljana Ilic¹, Goran Ocokoljic¹, Marija Samardžic¹, Jovan Isakovic, Academy of Applied Technical Studies, Serbia; ¹Military Technical Institute, Serbia
The paper addresses a recent major facility upgrade of the VTI T-38 wind tunnel. More than 30 years after the wind tunnel commissioning, a novel solution for test automation developed by VTI brings more than an order of magnitude improved testing accuracy, higher versatility of information obtained from the tests, as well as significantly reduced wind-on time and energy consumption, confirming the VTI T-38 ability to perform tests with the uniform quality from low subsonic speeds via transonic conditions and up to high supersonic speeds.
  14:50 15:15 7.8.3 DEVELOPMENT OF UNSTEADY PRESSURE-SENSITIVE PAINT FOR LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER WIND TUNNEL TESTS IN LOW-PRESSURE ENVIRONMENTS
S. Takaya¹, K. Shibata¹, D. Numata¹; ¹Tokai University, Japan
From the present study, it was found that the number of dye solution coatings does not significantly affect the pressure sensitivity of PSP, it has a significant impact on its time response characteristics if the coating conditions are not strictly controlled.
  15:15 15:40 7.8.4 SURFACE VISUALISATION OF TIME AVERAGED FLOW BEHAVIOUR AROUND RIGID AND FLEXIBLE HEMISPHERES UTILISING UV SENSITIVE OIL
N Menakath¹, N.J. Lawson¹, G.A. Vio, Defence Science and Technology Group, Australia; ¹The University of Sydney, Australia
Testing has been conducted to provide a comparison between the surface flow characteristics around a thin walled, flexible hemisphere and a rigid hemisphere immersed in a turbulent boundary layer, to observe the variance due to fluid-structure interactions. This work is applicable to design of use morphing structures externally on the fuselage of aircraft, such as for usage as a sensor shroud.
Reserve Paper 7.8.R EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON TURBINE VANE SURFACE WITH DIFFERENT BLOWING RATIOS
YIxuan Zhang¹, Zhengang Liu¹, Rongsheng Ruan¹, Long Cheng¹, Zhenxia Liu¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 7.8.R REVITALIZATION OF A FLOW-CELL DEVICE FOR AIR INTAKE TESTING AND ITS INTEGRATION WITH WIND TUNNEL SYSTEMS
D. Damljanovic¹, Dj. Vukovic¹, L. Petrovic¹; ¹Military Technical Institute, Serbia
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 7.8.R DESIGN AND PRODUCTION OF TWO STANDARD WIND TUNNEL MODELS USING RAPID PROTOTYPING, AND THEIR EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION
Dj.V. Vukovic, VTI (recently retired), Serbia
8.8Propeller Aeroacoustics
Chair(s):
Track 8
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  14:00 14:25 8.8.1 AERODYNAMICS AND AEROACOUSTICS OF PROPELLER WITH DIFFERENT BLADE SWEEP AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER
S Shubham, United Kingdom
Employing the high-fidelity and mid-fidelity simulations, the study analyzes a 2-bladed, 0.3m diameter propeller using NACA4412 airfoil cross-section, across nine blade sweep configurations. A backward sweep tends to increase the mean (by 5-6 %) performance. In contrast, a forward sweep reduces the mean performance (by 2-3 %) of all parameters indicating a potentially less efficient operation.
  14:25 14:50 8.8.2 REFINED PREDICTIONS COMPARED WITH THE PROPULSION AIRFRAME AEROACOUSTICS AND AIRCRAFT SYSTEM NOISE FLIGHT RESEARCH DATA
H Thomas, NASA Langley Research Center, United States
To achieve improvements in aircraft noise prediction and understanding, NASA funded an ambitious aeroacoustic flight research effort, the PAA & ASN flight research test. It was formulated in a highly collaborative process between NASA and Boeing teams and conducted with a Boeing 787-10 aircraft. The paper describes some key aspects of the objectives and comparisons of data with the refined predictions with NASA’s ANOPP-Research code.
  14:50 15:15 8.8.3 AEROACOUSTIC INVESTIGATION OF PROPELLER LEADING EDGE TUBERCLES APPLIED TO ADVANCED AIR MOBILITY
D. Skrna, Austria; M. de Rosa Jacinto, Brazil; M. Berens, Germany
Presenter: Dominik Skrna, Technische Universität Wien

This paper evaluates the potential of applying leading-edge tubercles to propellers to be used in advanced air mobility vehicles in order to reduce their noise emission. The geometry is parameterized and multiple designs are assessed aerodynamically and acoustically via simulations. The influence of each parameter and the effectiveness of such modifications to reduce propeller noise are discussed.
  15:15 15:40 8.8.4 AEROACOUSTIC INVESTIGATION OF VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINES WITH DIFFERENT NUMBER OF BLADES USING MULTI-FIDELITY APPROACH
S Shubham, United Kingdom
The aeroacoustics of small-scale Darrieus vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTS) are investigated. The investigation is performed for four different configurations with varying number of blades: 1, 2, 3 and 4. Simulations are performed using a multi-fidelity approach. The current work aims to have a better understanding of the most efficient VAWT configuration with respect to noise generation.
9.8Climate Impact of Air Transport System
Chair(s): T, Finck , Mori, R.
Track 9
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  14:00 14:25 9.8.1 INTEGRATION OF PROSPECTIVE LCA METHODS INTO AEROMAPS TO EVALUATE THE SUSTAINABILITY OF FUTURE AIR TRANSPORT SCENARIOS
F. Pollet¹, T. Planès¹, S. Delbecq¹; ¹Fédération ENAC ISAE-SUPAERO ONERA, Université de Toulouse, France
This paper aims to develop and implement a prospective life cycle assessment module in the open-source framework AeroMAPS, which enables the evaluation of prospective scenarios for the aviation sector. To this end, several tools such as premise and Brightway are integrated into the framework. The relevance of the proposed methodology is illustrated through case studies.
  14:25 14:50 9.8.2 ESTIMATING THE IMPACT OF NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION DATA MODELS ON SHORT-HAUL MINIMUM COST TRACKS
N.K. Wickramasinghe, Electronic Navigation Research Institute, Japan
This study investigates the impact of weather forecast error in flight planning and its influence in aircraft operational performance. Minimum Cost Tracks over the Tokyo/Fukuoka flight route from a Dynamic-Programming-based trajectory optimizer based on three weather models are used in the evaluation and the results are compared with a series of flight plan data and Quick Access Recorder data.
  14:50 15:15 9.8.3 MITIGATING THE CLIMATE IMPACT OF AVIATION BY OPERATIONAL MEANS - A COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR DIFFERENT WEATHER SITUATIONS
Z. L. Zengerling¹, M. Mendiguchia Meuser¹, A. Lau¹, V. Gollnick, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Germany; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
Aviation’s non-CO2 climate effects can efficiently be reduced by operational measures, such as temporal, vertical, or lateral adjustments to the individual flight trajectories. We investigate suitability of these measures under different meteorological boundary conditions combining trajectory and climate impact assessment with a newly defelvoped data set of climate sensitivity grids.
  15:15 15:40 9.8.4 CHARACTERISING THE ROLE OF FLEET RENEWAL ON THE PATHWAY TO 2050: A EUROPEAN AIRLINE CASE STUDY
N Barry¹, C Gallagher¹, S Fitzgerald, Ryanair, Ireland; C Stuart¹; ¹Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
This work creates a simulation tool that incorporates both aircraft parameters and airline operations into a combined optimisation algorithm to schedule aircraft from a defined fleet to meet the passenger demand of a given network of airports in the most economically and environmentally sustainable way. An holistic design space is characterised to aid in the research of sustainable aviation.
Reserve Paper 9.8.R OVERVIEW OF FACTORS RELATED TO AIRCRAFT OPERATION ASSOCIATED WITH A NEGATIVE IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
D. Kacik, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
10.8Structures at Extreme Temperatures
Chair(s):
Track 10
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  14:00 14:25 10.8.1 DESIGN OF HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS IN NEW-GENERATION REGIONAL AIRCRAFT
V. Memmolo¹, L.M. Cardone¹, G. Petrone¹, S. De Rosa¹; ¹Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy
This paper showcases the detailed design of hydrogen storing system for regional aircraft. Starting from TLAR, the hydrogen is sized and then designed in detail considering different solutions both for load bearing and proper liquid containment. A further analysis shows the necessity to account the weight of the system versus its volume/surface ratio as a key parameter for preliminary design of such systems.
  14:25 14:50 10.8.2 THIN-PLY COMPOSITES FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS
J Xu, Linköping University, Sweden; E Marklund¹, M Merzkirch¹, F Moreau², F Ohlsson²; ¹Research Institutes of Sweden RISE, Sweden ;²Oxeon AB, Sweden
During this work, the materials (carbon fiber and matrix) were selected and cross ply [90/0]4s composite laminates were manufactured using filament winding. The laminates were inspected for damage, and samples prepared for testing. Quasi-static, mechanical fatigue and thermal fatigue tests were performed. Only a few matrix cracks were observed at a very high load and high number of cycles.
  14:50 15:15 10.8.3 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF LOX FLOW IN AN AEROSPIKE ENGINE ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED COOLING CHANNEL
N. Monokrousos¹, L. Könözsy¹, V. Pachidis¹, E. Sozio², F. Rossi²; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom ;²Pangea Aerospace, Spain
The numerical solution of an LOx flow in an AM cooling channel of an aerospike engine demonstrator is presented. Roughness is generated and modeled through a Gaussian method, instead of being measured. This is of great industrial importance, in terms of cost and time reduction. For the solution of the coolant flow, turbulence models available in commercial CFD packages are employed.
  15:15 15:40 10.8.4 OPTIMIZATION OF POST-PROCESSING HEAT TREATMENT FOR LPBF TITANIUM-MODIFIED 2024 ALUMINIUM ALLOY
M Bona¹, A.-M. Grande¹; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Investigating titanium-modified aluminium 2024 via LPBF through Scheil simulations and SEM analysis to understand the formation of inoculants and classic precipitation. Classic T6 treatment and alternative pathways are explored to improve mechanical properties. Microhardness measurements and as-built vs. post-heat-treatment microstructure analyses enrich understanding of the alloy’s behaviour.
Reserve Paper 10.8.R INVESTIGATION ON THE MECHANISM OF THERMAL CYCLING FAILURE IN C/SIC COATING COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Yanbin Ma, China; Xu Zha, China; Pengfei Cheng, China; Jiahui Xie, China; Lei Li, China; Xiaochuan Liu, China
Presenter: Yanbin Ma, Avic Aircraft Strength Research Institute
11.8Aeroelastic Tailoring 2
Chair(s):
Track 11
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  14:00 14:25 11.8.1 FAST TRANSONIC CORRECTIONS FOR PANEL METHODS USING VISCOUS-INVISCID INTERACTION
A. Crovato¹, P. Dechamps¹, A.P. Prado², P.H. Cabral², V.E. Terrapon¹, G. Dimitriadis¹; ¹University of Liège, Belgium ;²Embraer S.A., Brazil
This work presents a methodology for computing unsteady aerodynamic loads in the transonic regime within the context of preliminary aircraft design. The unsteady pressure loads are obtained using a Source and Doublet Panel Method and are corrected by means of Viscous-Inviscid Interaction, whereby a steady transonic full potential solver is coupled with the integral boundary layer equations.
  14:25 14:50 11.8.2 MULTI-FIDELITY AEROELASTIC TAILORING IN PRELIMINARY AIRCRAFT DESIGN
H.F. Maathuis¹, S.G.P. Castro¹, R. De Breuker¹; ¹Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
In the pursuit of a more sustainable aviation industry, the development of high-performance and eco-friendly aircraft is crucial. However, the push for lighter, more slender wings brings forth challenges in structural integrity and aeroelasticity, especially with the increasing use of composite materials. This paper addresses these challenges through a Multi-Disciplinary Optimisation (MDO) framework, focusing on aeroelastic tailoring while optimising lamination parameters and thicknesses of structural parts. While employing the Classical Laminate Theory (CLT), this study formulates a weight minimization problem while ensuring feasibility through multiple constraints, incorporating diverse disciplines such as structural integrity and dynamic aeroelastic stability. The complexity of this high-dimensional problem often necessitates a sequential optimisation approach across design phases, limiting the exploration of superior designs. To overcome this limitation, the paper proposes a concurrent optimisation strategy utilizing models of varying fidelity — ranging from low-fidelity beam models to high-fidelity shell models — employing multi-fidelity approaches. The work aims to bridge the gap between design stages, allowing for the exchange of crucial information while maintaining computational efficiency. The envisioned design cycle, contrasting past practices with future strategies, highlights the shift from empirical knowledge reliance to physics-based insights, particularly crucial for novel aircraft configurations. By integrating high-fidelity information early in the design process, this work strives to expand design freedom and foster more optimal and structurally feasible aircraft designs.
  14:50 15:15 11.8.3 A-BASIS AND B-BASIS BUCKLING ALLOWABLES FOR AN AIRCRAFT COMPOSITE WINGS
R. A. S. Cardoso¹, M. S. Reis¹, L. P. S Ferreira, FEMTO-ST, France; M. P. Alves¹, S. K. Ha, Hanyang University, South Korea; C. A. Cimini Jr.¹; ¹Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil
This paper aims to establish an approach to determine A-Basis and B-Basis buckling allowables for an aircraft composites wing. A CNN (Convolutional Neural Network) is trained using data from Monte Carlo simulations of a Finite Element model. A surrogate statistical model is then generated to define the A-Basis and B-Basis allowable bending/torsion buckling strength of the composites wing.
  15:15 15:40 11.8.4 ENHANCING THE PERFORMANCE OF SLENDER STRUCTURES WITH GEOMETRIC CONSTRAINTS: A CASE STUDY WITH THE ROORDA FRAME
L. Zhu¹, J. Shen, University of Exeter, United Kingdom; R. M. J. Groh¹, M. Schenk¹, A. Pirrera¹; ¹University of Bristol, United Kingdom
This work aims to increase a slender structure's load-carrying capacity above its buckling point by introducing small imperfections, informed by post-buckling analysis of the unperturbed structure, known as 'modal nudging'. Specifically, we focus on structures with constrained geometry, such as wing panels, exemplified through a case study on Roorda frames.
12.8Composites 1
Chair(s):
Track 12
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  14:00 14:25 12.8.1 ENERGY DISSIPATION BEHAVIOR AND LIFE PREDICTION OF CARBON FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS SUBJECTED TO FATIGUE LOAD
J. Huang, China
The energy dissipation behavior of composite materials subjected to fatigue loading is analyzed. It is found that the total entropy increase caused by damage-related energy dissipation is independent of stress amplitude. Based on damage-related energy dissipation information, the fatigue performance of various composite materials is predicted and verified with traditional fatigue experiments.
  14:25 14:50 12.8.2 SIZE-DEPENDENT MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF 3D WOVEN COMPOSITE UNDER HIGH STRAIN RATE COMPRESSION LOADS
Yang Bai¹, Peng Liu¹, Zhen-q Zhao¹, Chao Zhang¹; ¹Northwesterm Polytechnical University, China
Presenter: Zhenqiang Zhao, Northwestern Polytechnical University

The mechanical behaviors of 3D woven composite exhibits obvious size effect and slight strain rate effect.
The size dependency of 3D woven composite differs from the unidirection composite.
This work provides valuable insights into the determination of dynamic properties for 3D woven composites, and the designing and interpretation of dynamic test.

  14:50 15:15 12.8.3 MULTIAXIAL TESTING OF AERONAUTIC COMPOSITE STRUCTURES AT INTERMEDIATE SCALE
J-C Passieux¹, J-N Périé¹, C Bouvet¹, J-E Dufour¹, Joel Serra¹, Bruno Castanié¹; ¹Institut Clément Ader, France
Achievements of a multiaxial test bench called “VERTEX” are presented. It allows to load a specimen of 500 x 500 mm2 under shear, tension or compression and internal pressure. Tests were conducted on aeronautic composite panels to study large notches, combined loading after impact, wrinkling and buckling of sandwich panels.
  15:15 15:40 12.8.4 DYNAMIC AND STABILITY ANALYSES OF ROTATING THIN-WALLED FILAMENT WOUND GLASS FIBRE COMPOSITE CYLINDERS WITH METAL LINER
Ruiqi Hu, China; Ziwei Yuan, China
Presenter: Ruiqi Hu

The dynamic and stability analyses of cylindrical filament wound composite overwrapped shells with metal liner was carried out to facilitate the lightweight design and improve the structure safety. The FE analysis considered the rotational centrifugal force in ABAQUS, and the reinforcement effect was realized by using the equivalent temperature drop method and the element birth and death technology.
Reserve Paper 12.8.R GENERATING DURABLE TI/CFRP ADHESIVE JOINTS FOR AEROSPACE CONTROL SURFACES BY LASER PRETREATMENT
U Lommatzsch, Fraunhofer IFAM, Germany
Reserve Paper 12.8.R EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON THE FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF COMPOSITE-METAL HYBRID BOLTED LAP JOINTS
Xu JF Xu, Beijing Key Laboratory of Commercial Aircraft Structures and Com, China
13.8Supersonic / Hypersonic propulsion 1
Chair(s): P. Mogilka
Track 13
05 - Propulsion
  14:00 14:25 13.8.1 DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION OF NEXT-GEN SUPERSONIC BUSINESS JET ENGINE WITH A FOCUS ON LANDING AND TAKEOFF (LTO) NOISE
D. Del Gatto¹, S. Adamidis¹, S. Brown¹, C. Mourouzidis¹, V. Pachidis¹; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
Presenter: Dario Del Gatto, Cranfield University

This work illustrates the design space exploration of a mixed-flow turbofan engine for supersonic business jet following an integrated intake/engine approach. It shows the LTO cycle noise constraint impact on the engine design and suggests an alternative engine architecture, providing an overall picture in terms of aircraft performance, and gaseous and noise emissions at airport level.
  14:25 14:50 13.8.2 RAMJET/SCRAMJET TEST BENCH WITH CAVITY INJECTION OF HYDROGEN
F. Strauss¹, T. Nilsson, Lund University, Sweden; K. Manassis¹; ¹German Aerospace Center DLR, Germany
Presenter: Thommie Nilsson, Lund University

In this work we study a small ramjet combustor with cavity injection of hydrogen. The work is embedded within the MDO and Regulations for Low-boom and Environmentally Sustainable Supersonic Aviation (More&Less) project (workpackage WP4) and compares two example cases of experimental combustion data for gaseous hydrogen with CFD simulated data for those cases. Includes an outlook on further data.
  14:50 15:15 13.8.3 PROPULSIVE CFD ANALYSIS OF THE SCRAMJET HYPERSONIC EXPERIMENTAL VEHICLE
O. Russo¹, P. Roncioni¹, M. Marini¹, S. Di Benedetto¹, G. Ranuzzi², S. Pizzurro², M. Albano²; ¹Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA), Italy ;²Italian Space Agency (ASI), Italy
The paper examines the propulsive and combustion performances of a hypersonic scramjet engine along with
emission indexes for different species in the combustion process. Comprehensive Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD) analyses cover the entire internal flow path (inlet, combustor, and nozzle) in a flight-cruise
setup. Both power-off and power-on conditions are assessed using ANSYS FLUENT software with a steady
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model and established chemical schemes from existing literature.
The impact of viscosity on engine performance is also assessed. The findings demonstrate a noteworthy
enhancement in performance and the attainment of high combustion efficiency by the end of the engine cycle.
  15:15 15:40 13.8.4 EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON SEPARATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SERPENTINE CONVERGENT-DIVERGENT NOZZLE
M.-X. Wang¹, L. Zhou¹, J.-W. Shi¹, H. Xiao¹, W.-J. Deng¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
This paper carries out experimental and numerical investigation of a convergent-divergent nozzle. It is shown that the serpentine shape produces a coupling effect with the flow separation in the overexpanded state. The jet produces thrust deflection at low nozzle pressure ratios and its separation is three-dimensional.
Reserve Paper 13.8.R DESIGN OF A WIND TUNNEL MODEL FOR A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE DURING ITS LANDING BURN
A.T. Hoang¹, N.J. Lawson¹, T. Bykerk, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany; ¹The University of Sydney, Australia
Presenter: Nicholas J. Lawson, The University of Sydney
14.8Accident prevention, survivability 2
Chair(s): E. Theunissen
Track 14
10 - Safety and Security
  14:00 14:25 14.8.1 IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO UNFAVORABLE LANDINGS
R. Mori, Kobe University, Japan
Using more than 3000 data of visual approaches, a decision tree model is used to estimate unfavorable landing events, i.e., overspeed approaches and hard landings. By analyzing the obtained model, the related feature affecting such unfavorable landing events are identified.
  14:25 14:50 14.8.2 HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS IN BRAZIL: AN ANALYSIS OF MAINTENANCE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF HUMAN FACTORS
F. de Assis da Silva Junior¹, J.M. Vieira da Fonseca¹, I.N.M. da Silva¹, A.V. Gaspar¹, M.M. Cardoso-Junior¹; ¹Technological Institute of Aeronautics, Brazil
Presenter: MOACYR cardoso-Junior, Technological Institute of Aeronautics

An analysis of helicopter maintenance from the perspective of human factors Where the results were then codified and used to generate tables showing the accident causal factors. It showed interesting results that validates the use of Human Factors Analysis and Classification System-Maintenance Extension HFACS-ME as a tool for the identification and analysis of organizational management problems
  14:50 15:15 14.8.3 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF SAFETY IMPACTING FACTORS BASED ON MODEL OF AVIATION PISTON ENGINE TURBOCHARGING SYSTEM
Guo Li, China; Zilu Wang, China; Yida Teng, China; Tongge Xu, China; Yuchen Zhang, China
Presenter: ZiLu Wang

This paper analyzes the impact of safety impacting factors on the turbocharging system based on the simulation results, in order to adjust the change scopes of factors during the actual flight, so as to reduce the uncertainty of the key factors and to carry out efficient and intuitive safety analysis to improve the safety level of the aviation piston engine turbocharging system.
  15:15 15:40 14.8.4 ANALYZING THE STATISTICAL CORRELATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS WITH TUC IN PILOTS PRIOR TO HYPOBARIC TRAINING
S.-J. Wu, Taiwan, China; C.-T. Kuo, Taiwan, China; N.-S. Chen, Taiwan, China; C.-J. Su, Taiwan, China; K.-K. Jen, Taiwan, China; S.-T. Hsieh, Taiwan, China; C.-Y. Lai, Taiwan, China; C.-L. Kuo, Taiwan, China
This study seeks to gather physiological data, including heart rate, HRV, and SpO2, from 40 military aircrews in Taiwan. The aim is to establish correlations between Time of Useful Consciousness (TUC) and these physiological parameters under simulated hypoxic conditions at an altitude of 25,000 feet, using statistical techniques such as the Generalized Linear Model (GLM).
Reserve Paper 14.8.R STUDY ON THE BALLISTIC-RESISTANT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS FOR COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT COCKPIT DOORS
Tao Hu¹, Jiashan Song¹, Ning Yue¹, Zhuguo Zhang², Yingchun Zhang²; ¹Airworthiness Technology Research & Management Center, China ;²Shanghai Aviation Airworthiness Certification Center, China
Presenter: Tao Hu, Airworthiness Technology Research & Management Center
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 14.8.R A METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC GENERATING SAFETY ANALYSIS BASED ON AVIATION PISTON ENGINE MODEL
G. Li¹, Y.-D. Teng¹, Z.-L. Wang¹, T.-G. Xu¹, S.-T. Ding, Civil Aviation University of China,, China; ¹Beihang University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 14.8.R IMPROVING DISTRIBUTION OF CRASH ENERGY ABSORPTION FOR CIVIL AIRCRAFT BASED ON PROGRESSIVE BENDING FAILURE MECHANISM
T.-J. Jiang¹, Z.-P. Luo¹, Z. Kan¹, J.-W. Xiang¹, X.-C. Liu², C.-Y. Bai², X,-L. Xi²; ¹Beihang University, China ;²Aircraft Strength Research Institute, China
15.8UAV Control Applications
Chair(s): D. Lundström , Bil, C.
Track 15
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  14:00 14:25 15.8.1 IN-FLIGHT MEASUREMENT OF WING SURFACE PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ON A FIXED-WING UAV AND ITS APPLICATION TO FLIGHT CONTROL
Y. Hayashi¹, J. Kim¹, T. Tsuchiya¹; ¹The University of Tokyo, Japan
Birds use their feathers covering wings to sense airflow. In contrast, conventional fixed-wing aircraft rely on IMUs for attitude estimation but often lack sensors to measure airflow around their wings. Inspired by the birds' airflow sensors, a pressure sensor array system working as feathers was developed. Research utilizing the measured pressure values for flight control is planned.
  14:25 14:50 15.8.2 MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL DRIVEN AERIAL GRASPING WITH SOFT OPERATIONAL CONSTRAINTS
J. Novák ¹, P. Chudý¹, J. Hanák¹; ¹BUT, Czech Republic
Physical interaction of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) with it’s environment has the potential to enable many
complex missions in both scientific and industrial domains. This paper deals with coupled Model Predictive
Control (MPC) for an UAV with attached robotic manipulator. Adaptive augmentation loop is used in the trajectory
tracking scheme to compensate for the manipulator dynamics and increase precision of aerial grasping
tasks. Perception constraints ensure that the payload stays within camera field of view. Conducted numerical
simulations show effectiveness of the coupled MPC scheme for aerial grasping and its safety enhanced by the
imposed constraints.
  14:50 15:15 15.8.3 FUZZING ON TARGET DETECTION SYSTEM OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE
Hepeng Dai¹, Zerui Wang¹, Jie Ding¹, Guozhi Li¹, Chentao Wang¹, Leiming He¹, Huai Liu, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia; ¹Chinese Aeronautical Establishment, China
Existing testing techniques are unable to generate test cases that match the UAV's perspective, which may result in inadequate testing target detection systems of UAV. We proposed a novel testing framework based on fuzzing technique, named FTU, to generate test cases from the UAV’s perspective and automatically verify the test results based on metamorphic relations.
  15:15 15:40 15.8.4 FLIGHT PATH RECONSTRUCTION OF AN FLEXIBLE WING UAV WITH WING MOUNTED VANES
T. R. Paula¹, R. C. Nascimento¹, R. G. A. Silva¹, L. C. S. Góes¹; ¹ITA - Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brazil
This work applied an electric flexible wing UAV that underwent flight evaluations to explore flexibility effects and ensure data accuracy. Flight Path Reconstruction (FPR) was used for data compatibility check, showing consistency in recordings but discrepancies for specific states. The study enhances FPR by including structural dynamics, expecting an improvement in the fidelity of results.
Reserve Paper 15.8.R ULTRA-LOW-ALTITUDE PENETRATION ROUTE PLANNING FOR FIXED-WING VEHICLES BASED ON NMP ALGORITHM
H.-X. Huang¹, D.-B. Li¹, P.-Y. Qi¹, Y.-X. Shang¹; ¹beihang university, China
16.8Additive Manufacturing 1
Chair(s): L. Jiang , Gu, D.
Track 16
08 - Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management
  14:00 14:25 16.8.1 THERMAL AND GRINDING PERFORMANCE OF 3D PRINTED COMPLIANCE GRINDING TOOLS WITH ROTARY-ENHANCED HEAT TRANSFER STRUCTURE
MingCong LI, China; Shaoze YAN, China; Kaifan Zhang, China; Wenxi Wang, China; Lai Zou, China; Yun Huang, China
Presenter: Wenxi Wang

Compliance ball-head (BE) grinding tools show promise for precision grinding of complex curved components in narrow areas, represented by integral discs. However, the grinding process generates significant heat in the grinding zone, which can limit the tool's service life and performance. To address this issue, a rotary-enhanced heat transfer (RHET) structure based on turbine blade was designed in this study. Numerical simulations were used to demonstrate the heat transfer mechanism of the tool. The tools were structured using multi jet fusion and their grinding performance was compared to conventional structures through robot-assisted grinding of titanium plates. The results indicated that the REHT improved the heat transfer capability of the BE by introducing high momentum fluids and increasing the pressure at the inner wall. The REHT structure resulted in a reduction of the grinding temperature by over 19.84%, leading to a tool life extension of more than 40%. Furthermore, compliant grinding tools with REHT resulted in a higher cumulative material removal alongside lower and more consistent surface roughness (Ra).
  14:25 14:50 16.8.2 BUILDING METHODS FOR A COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTED VTOL USING 3D PRINTING TECHNIQUES
Volker Gollnick, Institute of Air Transportation Systems, Germany
The Institute of Air Transportation Systems is attempting to pioneer UAV prototyping through 3D printing, particularly for VTOL models. Using Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and various plastics to construct hybrid composite structures, they provide a guide to independent aircraft prototyping, freeing designers from conventional manufacturing constraints.
  14:50 15:15 16.8.3 LIGHT WEIGHT DESIGN AND LASER ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING OF METAL BIPOLAR PLATES FOR THE APPLICATION OF AIRCRAFT FUEL CELL
K.J. Lin, Nanjing University Of Aeronautics And Astronautics, China
In order to reduce the weight of metal bipolar plate for the application of aircraft fuel cell. Four light-weight sandwich structures were designed and manufactured by laser additive manufacturing. This study focuses on the formability, bending mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity properties of the LPBF-processed sandwich structure bipolar plates.
  15:15 15:40 16.8.4 ENHANCED FLIGHT SAFETY AND MAINTENANCE EFFICIENCY USING 3D PRINTED PATCHES FOR RAPID REPAIR OF COMPOSITE AIRCRAFT STRUCT
L. B. Barilaro, The Malta College of Arts, Science & Technology - MCAST, Malta
Design and development of a novel 3D printing method for rapid repair of CFRP aircraft structures, using continuous aramid fiber-based patches. This approach enhances safety and reduces turnaround time. Optimized structural design and testing ensure patch effectiveness under various impact scenarios.
17.8Environmental Impact of Aircraft Operations
Chair(s):
Track 17
11 - Operations and Sustainment
  14:00 14:25 17.8.1 CLIMATE RESILIENCE – THE IMPACT OF EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS - A CASE STUDY: HEATHROW AIRPORT
M P Osund-Ireland¹, B Elzen¹, W A Ireland¹; ¹Susteer AB, Sweden
At ICAS 2022, we introduced our Climate Resilient Assets Assessment Tool and, using a number of representative airports, demonstrated how ICAO guidance could be applied consistently to better inform airport managers. We have further developed the tool and assessed the resilience of a major hub airport to extreme weather events that may increase or decrease in likelihood due to climate change
  14:25 14:50 17.8.2 EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT OF ENGINE LIFE LIMITED PART (LLP) REPLACEMENT
A. Oestreicher¹, A. Rahn¹, J. Ramm¹, J. Städing², C. Keller², K. Wicke¹, G. Wende¹; ¹DLR, Germany ;²MTU Maintenance, Germany
This study presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for engine maintenance Life Limited Part (LLP) replacement. The assessment analyzes both the LLPs and individual maintenance work in terms of their ecological impact. In the long term, the methodology aims to provide a detailed ecological overview of engine maintenance.
  14:50 15:15 17.8.3 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CLIMATE-RELEVANT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF AIR TRANSPORT COMPARED TO RAIL AND ROAD TRANSPORT
J. Roesing, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
To identify where the emissions in the transport sector originate and to draw conclusions on how to reduce them, it is necessary to examine the specific source of the emissions. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the different causes of emissions in air passenger transport compared to rail and road transport. It also examines how emissions are determined in existing literature.
  15:15 15:40 17.8.4 E-KEROSENE POTENTIAL FOR COMMERCIAL AVIATION DECARBONIZATION
Guilherme Quaresma¹, Leandro B. Magalhães, ISEC, ISEC Lisboa, Portugal; Ana F. Ferreira, IDMEC-LAETA, Mechanical Engineering Department, IST/UL, Portugal; André Silva¹; ¹AEROG-LAETA, Aerospace Sciences Department, UBI, Portugal
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft transport is crucial to achieving climate goals. In this sense,
the present study looks into the suitability of e-fuels such as e-kerosene in reducing CO2 emissions. The Fleet
System Dynamic Model is employed to examine data and predict future trends in line with the Committee on
Aviation Environmental Protection. While the findings suggest that achieving carbon-neutral growth is possible,
it might take longer than current forecasts indicate. For instance, considering an e-fuel production rate of 15%,
it is possible to cut emissions by half around 2060 concerning 2005 levels.
Reserve Paper 17.8.R ON THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE GREENING OF ALL CLASSES OF AIR TRANSPORT
Luiz Campos¹, Joaquim Marques, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologias, Universidade de Évora, Portugal; Pedro Serrão¹; ¹IDMEC/CCTAE - IST, Portugal
Presenter: Pedro Serão
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 17.8.R ENSURING THE NEXT GENERATION GREEN AIRCRAFT’ SUSTAINABILITY FROM THE DESIGN PHASE VIA A LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSIS
E. Stefana¹, E. De Paola¹, L. Pustina¹, R. Patriarca¹, F. Mastroddi¹; ¹Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
1.9GSA - Propulsion & Energy 3
Chair(s):
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  16:00 16:30 1.9.1 GE AEROSPACE: RISING TO THE CHALLENGE FOR MORE SUSTAINABLE FLIGHT
R.-S. Seele, GE Aerospace, Germany
Invited speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track
  16:30 17:00 1.9.2 PANEL DISCUSSION
PD D,
PANEL DISCUSSION
2.9Japanese R&D on GX and DX in Aviation
Chair(s):
Track 2
15 - Guest lectures
  16:00 16:30 2.9.1 OVERVIEW OF JAPANESE R&D ACTIVITIES ON GREEN TRANSFORMATION AND DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION IN AVIATION
S. Watanabe Watanabe, Japn Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan
This lecture will overview the progresses and challenges of R&D in Japan on GX and DX technologies in aviation, illustrating the features of the promising technologies under development and the eco system to facilitate the collaborations across the different technical fields and organizations.
  16:30 17:00 2.9.2 DEVELOPMENT OF CORE TECHNOLOGIES FOR HYDROGEN AIRCRAFT
Masahide Kazari, Kawasaki Heavy Industries,Ltd., Japan
Discussions about decarbonizing aircraft to prevent global warming are becoming more active, and there is also growing interest in the development of hydrogen aircraft. In this lecture, I will present about the development of hydrogen combustor, hydrogen supply system and liquefied hydrogen tank, etc., which are the core technologies necessary for the realization of hydrogen aircraft.
  17:00 17:30 2.9.3 AIRCRAFT DX IN COMMERCIAL AVIATION SYSTEMS
Y. Yamaguchi, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd./Commercial Aviation Systems, Japan
This paper introduces the overview of DX/MBSE challenges in Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. The future vision of DX in commercial aircraft, which leads to the improvement of the visibility from all the stakeholders, will be described. In addition, the details of our current DX activities in Design, Production, and Certification will be explained.
  17:30 18:00 2.9.4 DEVELOPMENT OF AIRCRAFT SYSTEM ELECTRIFICATION AND HYBRID ELECTRIC PROPULSION
N Seki¹, T Inoue¹; ¹IHI Corporation, Japan
To achieve the decarbonization of air transportation in 2050, IHI has been conducting research and development to improve energy efficiency of aircraft by applying hybrid electric propulsion and aircraft system electrification with the contract of Japanese national funding. In this paper, the development activities will be presented.
3.9Design of Unconventional Configurations
Chair(s): K. Rinoie
Track 3
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  16:00 16:30 3.9.1 STRUT-BRACED WING INDUCED DRAG MODELING FOR REGIONAL TURBOPROP AIRCRAFT DESIGN
Giuseppe Grazioso, University of Naples Federico II, Italy; Agostino De Marco, University of Naples, Italy
Strut-braced wing (SBW) can contribute to reducing regional aviation's environmental impact. However, trade-offs emerge, with increased parasite drag compensated by lower induced drag and wing weight. The paper proposes a parametric model to consider the induced drag penalties in the preliminary design stage. The potential reduction in mission fuel consumption is estimated for the ATR 72-600.
  16:30 17:00 3.9.2 STEADY ANALYSIS OF THREE-SURFACE AIRPLANES: IMPROVING THE AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE THROUGH REDUNDANT LONGITUDINAL CONTROL
S. Cacciola¹, C.E.D. Riboldi¹, C. Spitale¹; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Improving the fuel efficiency of airplanes does not necessarily require innovative propulsion or highly unusual designs. In this work, we demonstrate with numerical examples that a three-surface configuration with redundant longitudinal control, obtained via two movable surfaces located on both the horizontal tail and canard, can be significantly effective in increasing the lift-to-drag ratio.
  17:00 17:30 3.9.3 LONGITUDINAL STABILITY PARAMETERS FOR FLYING BOOM AERIAL REFUELING
L. H. Peristy¹, R.E. Perez¹; ¹Royal Military College of Canada, Canada
This work introduces a new parameter called Positional Static Margin (PSM), which is used to make predictions about aircraft longitudinal stability during flying boom aerial refueling. A vortex lattice method is used to examine the PSM of different tanker-receiver pairs, with aircraft geometry being demonstrated as an important consideration, independent of flight conditions.
  17:30 18:00 3.9.4 ON THE FUTURE OF TRANSONIC FLIGHTS: CURVED PLANFORM WINGS FOR BUFFET-ONSET CONTROL
M. R. Chiarelli¹, S. Bonomo¹, G. Cascinelli¹; ¹Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Pisa, Italy
The results of studies on a curved planform wing are discussed: these studies consist of 3D unsteady CFD analyses. To test the calculation reliability, 2D analyses were carried out on the NACA0012 profile to estimate the buffet boundary. The curved wing configuration allows a notable reduction of the drag and the aeroelastic instability is postponed compared to a conventional swept wing.
Reserve Paper 3.9.R INVESTIGATION ON AERODYNAMIC DESIGN OF VTOL PROPELLER
L.D. Deng¹, W.P. Song¹, J.H. Xu¹; ¹School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reserve Paper 3.9.R ON THE EXISTENCE OF A FAMILY OF IDEAL AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATIONS
R. J. Huyssen, CSIR, South Africa; G. R. Spedding, University of Southern California, United States
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 3.9.R TEST AND ANALYSIS OF RPAS EQUIPED WITH A GROUND EFFECT WING
J. -P Pinero Delgadillo, ITA, Brazil
4.9Unmanned Aerial Systems and Advanced Aerial Mobility 2
Chair(s): M. Lott
Track 4
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  16:00 16:30 4.9.1 DEVELOPMENT OF A SERVO-DRIVEN FLAPPING-WING AIR VEHICLE WITH FOLDING-WING MECHANISM
E.-H. Lee¹, H.-H. Yang¹, S.-G. Lee¹, J.-H. Han¹; ¹KAIST, South Korea
This study presents a novel folding-wing mechanism for enhanced lift efficiency in a flapping-wing air vehicle (FWAV). It establishes a flapping-wing flight simulation environment and validates aerodynamic and dynamic models for the FWAV. A prototype is flight-tested, allowing an analysis of control and performance, especially with increased wing movement degrees.
  16:30 17:00 4.9.2 A PRELIMINARY DESIGN EXPLORATION OF PROSPECTIVE MULTIROTOR AEROBOTS FOR MARTIAN EXPLORATION WITHIN DEFINED PARAMETERS
V Youhanna¹, L Felicetti¹, D Ignatyev¹; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
This preliminary design exploration assesses rotorcraft configurations for Martian exploration within defined parameters. Analysis includes single, dual, and quad rotorcrafts, focusing on power consumption in hover, climb, and forward flight. Findings highlight quad rotorcrafts' efficiency but underscore practical constraints. The study aids Martian aerobot designers in optimal configuration selection.
  17:00 17:30 4.9.3 MISSION-BASED OPTIMAL PROPELLER SELECTION FOR VTOL SUAV CONFIGURATION
C. Reyner¹, C. Lee¹, D. Kim, Ecole Nationale de l’Aviation Civile, France; R.P. Liem¹; ¹The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR of China
This paper presents a method for optimal propeller selection in VTOL sUAV, maximizing efficiency for any mission profile. Using unsupervised ML and surrogate models, the approach reduces flight data complexity and predicts performance in various conditions. This offers a rigorous basis for optimal propeller from hundreds of selection and can benefit sUAVs operation in real-world environments.
  17:30 18:00 4.9.4 MICRO-SIZE MARS AIRPLANE FOR THE STEPWISE MARS LANDING EXPLORATION PROGRAM
Yuriko Shiratsuchi¹, Kento Kaneko, The University of Tokyo, Japan; Shion Okada, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan; Akira Oyama², Kazuhiko Yamada², Hiroto Tanaka², Makoto Sato¹; ¹Kogakuin University, Japan ;²Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan
Mars exploration mission using a micro-size Mars airplane is proposed. We assume the airplane and a deployable aeroshell are stored in 3 units (30 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm) and the weight of the airplane is 1kg. The present feasibility study shows micro-size Mars airplane that flies 25km is possible.
5.9CFD and Sustainable Aviation
Chair(s): R. Fusaro , Dagan, Y.
Track 5
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  16:00 16:30 5.9.1 APPLICATION OF NUMERICAL TOOLS FOR PREDICTION OF HEAT EXCHANGER RAMAIR-CONCEPTS FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC PROPULSION AIRCRAFT
A.-R. Hübner¹, J. Kirz¹, K. Weinman¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
To reduce the overall emissions of aviation hybrid-electric propulsion concepts have a great potential satisfying this challenge. For fuel cell applications heat exchangers are required to dissipate the waste heat produced by the fuel cell. The integration of the heat exchangers has an impact on the aircraft aerodynamics. With a new tool implementation for the simulations of heat exchangers in the DLR-TAU code, a generic application case is calculated and analyzed.
  16:30 17:00 5.9.2 TOWARDS REFINED CONTRAIL SIMULATIONS OF FORMATION FLIGHT SCENARIOS
J. Pauen¹, S. Unterstrasser¹, A. Stephan¹; ¹DLR, Germany
Formation flight is a promising option to reduce aviation's CO2 emissions and even more the contrail climate impact. Contrail LES with RANS-based wake vortex initialisation will be performed to improve our understanding of early contrail processes. Hereby, single aircraft scenarios as well as formation flight configurations are investigated.
  17:00 17:30 5.9.3 PERFORMANCE AND ACOUSTIC ANALYSIS OF A DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC PROPULSION UNMANNED AIRCRAFT
R. Navarro García¹, L.M. García-Cuevas González¹, J. García-Tíscar¹, F.N. Ramírez¹; ¹Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
Aircraft with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) have a strong interaction between the propulsion system and the airframe, which gives rise to interesting optimisation opportunities but significant design challenges. This paper presents a comparison of performance and noise emission calculations of an unmanned aircraft with DEP using different methods with increasing levels of fidelity.
  17:30 18:00 5.9.4 HIGH FIDELITY MODELING OF ACOUSTIC LINERS FOR AERONAUTICAL APPLICATIONS
L. Pinelli¹, M. Marconcini¹, A. Arnone ¹, D. Bacci, Oxford Thermofluids Institute, University of Oxford, United Kingdom; ¹Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Florence, Italy
Aircraft noise is a polluting emission from civil aviation and is the most significant cause of adverse community reaction related to the operation and expansion of airports. Reducing the population affected by significant aircraft noise is therefore a key priority for aircraft-engine designers.
Acoustic liners are a well-established technology to abate noise emissions and they have been installed in the engine intake and turbine nozzle from a long time. Such passive devices are usually designed to absorb a target band of the noise spectrum radiated from the aft and rear part of the engine.
Liner panes based on single-degree-of-freedom cavities are usually designed by means of semi-analytical methods and verified with experimental campaign in dedicated grazing tube rig. Thanks to the growth in computational capability, high fidelity simulations of such devices are becoming viable and can be used instead of expensive experimental campaigns. This is particularly true when screening non-conventional geometries of the resonator cavity as Triply Periodic Minimal Surface (TPMS).
In this context, the paper presents and validates a high-fidelity numerical approach based on the OpenFOAM opensource CFD code to predict the acoustic impedance and absorption of liner panels. LES simulations of a single resonator cell have been performed with and without grazing flow for different Sound Pressure Level (SPL) of the planal acoustic waves to investigate linear and non-linear regimes of the resonator. Liner impedance and absorption coefficients have been derived by mean of the well-know in-situ method.

Reserve Paper 5.9.R COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF A DIRECT AIR CAPTURE FILTER SYSTEM
M Panagopoulos¹, N Lawson¹, D D’Alessandro¹, E Kearns¹; ¹University of Syndey, Australia
6.9Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamics
Chair(s): S. Prince , Zingg, D.
Track 6
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  16:00 16:30 6.9.1 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF A FIXED-WING DRONE FOR MARS EXPLORATION ACTIVITIES
G. Barbato¹, G. Pezzella¹, A. Viviani¹; ¹Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy
Presenter: Gennaro Barbato, Università della Campania \\\"Luigi Vanvitelli\\\"

This paper deals with the preliminary design of a fixed-wing drone for Mars surface exploration activities. The design cycle is detailed in the paper and justifications for design requirements and constraints are also provided and discussed. Outcomes of design phase are provided in the paper with several details.
Keywords: Mars exploration aircraft, Design Requirements, Design Constraints.

  16:30 17:00 6.9.2 PARELLEL UNSTEADY REYNOLDS-AVERAGED NAVIER-STOKES (URANS) STUDEIS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ONR WATERJET AXWJ-2
S.E Monroe, Clarkson University, United States
The accuracy of SimericsMP+ Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) is validated by studying turbulent flow past counter rotating propellers (CRPs). Subsequently, URANS is used to study an axial flow in an Office of Naval Research (ONR) waterjet and the pump’s performance. Specifically, experimental data from Miller (1976) as well as LES results from Hu et al (2019) are employed to compare against the current URANS results. Due to the large size of both simulations, parallel computing over 80 cores is involved. For the CRP study, torque and thrust coefficients are plotted against a range of advance ratios, ensuring a Reynolds number of less than 500,000. For the pump, torque and head coefficients are plotted for a range of flow rates. For both studies, two different mesh sizes were utilized. The finer meshes of both studies contained roughly twice the number of cells found in their respective coarse meshes. These refinements lead to minor improvements, showing good convergence. The URANS torque and thrust coefficients were found to be within 10% of that from experimental data across all advance ratios for the CRP set, showing good agreement. The torque and head coefficients for the pump displayed even better agreement, with the greatest error across all flow conditions remaining under 3%.
  17:00 17:30 6.9.3 NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON THE LIQUID SLOSHING DAMPING INSIDE A TANK WITH A FLEXIBLE ANTI-SLOSHING DEVICE
F. Rossetti¹, L. Pirillo¹, M. Cimini, ENEA, Italy; M. Bernardini¹, F. Stella¹; ¹Sapienza University, Italy
Presenter: Lorenzo Pirillo, Sapienza University

This paper explores the lateral sloshing phenomenon in a tank equipped with Anti-Sloshing Devices (ASD). Initially, the analysis neglects the ASD deformability. Subsequently, two-way Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) simulations investigate the benefits of ASD deformability in enhancing the damping ratio of the sloshing phenomenon within the tank.
  17:30 18:00 6.9.4 AERODYNAMIC INVESTIGATION OF FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE-SKELETON WINGS IN LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER ENVIRONMENTS
Y.-Y. Guo¹, W.-Q. Yang¹, J.-L. Xuan¹, W. Wang¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
We conduct fluid-structure interaction (FSI) numerical simulations involving flexible wings. This will take into account factors such as the spanwise distance between two wing ribs, the distribution and size of the wing shape supported by the front and rear edges in the chordwise direction, membrane material properties, membrane pre-stress, and other relevant parameters.
Reserve Paper 6.9.R NUMERICAL SIMULATION STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF WING SPACING OF DRAGONFLY-INSPIRED FLAPPING WINGS
Yang-Luo: Y.-L. Luo, China; Lei-Wang: L.-W. Wang, China; Jiaxin-Wang:J.-W Wang, China; Xinyu-Lang:X.L. Lang, China; Xiaojun-Yang:X.Y Yang, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 6.9.R VALIDATION OF CFD-BASED DATA SERVICE FOR DRONE INSPECTION OF WIND FARMS WITH FLIGHT TEST DATA
M. J Turner¹, M Kopacz¹, D Standingford¹, C Sequeira², B Sanby², C Rider², G Furse ²; ¹Zenotech, United Kingdom ;²Flare Bright, United Kingdom
7.9Fan and nozzle flow control
Chair(s): G. Heller , Vijgens, P.
Track 7
03.3 - Basic Fluid Dynamics and Flow Control
  16:00 16:30 7.9.1 MECHANISM STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF PULSED JET AT THE BLADE TIP LEADING EDGE ON THE FLOW FIELD IN COMPRESSOR
Yuxuan Yang, Civil Aviation Flight University of China, China; Hongxin Zhang¹, Weiyu Lu, Nanjing Tech University, China; Cheng Zhang¹, Chi Xu¹, Guoping Huang¹; ¹Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
A pulsed jet hole is introduced at leading edge on the casing wall of a simplified model of compressor rotor cascade and LES is conducted. The mechanism of periodic flow control is found to resonate with the tip gap vortex, leading to more organized vortices that wrap around the primary leakage vortex with smaller pitch and radius, thereby reducing the affected area and delaying vortex breakdown.
  16:30 17:00 7.9.2 IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL ON A SHORT-INLET UHBR ENGINE NACELLE
S. Hayböck¹, C. Breitsamter¹; ¹Technical University of Munich, Germany
Innovative nacelle designs and disruptive technologies are required to address drag and weight penalties of high bypass ratio turbofan nacelles. Active Flow Control is a promising technology to improve flow quality for short-inlet nacelle geometries. The formation of counter-rotating vortex pairs is crucial for the effectiveness of the system.
  17:00 17:30 7.9.3 DIFFERENTIAL FLOWFIELD OF TRUNCATED LINEAR AEROSPIKE NOZZLE
J. Hassan ¹, R. Marsilio¹, G. M. Di Cicca¹, M. Ferlauto¹; ¹Dept. of Mech. and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
2D flowfield of truncated linear aerospike nozzle is investigated. Numerical simulations carried out both without and with differential throttling for thrust vectoring. Results compare well with experimental data. In differential throttling mode, relationship between flow structures and resultant side-force is investigated. Effect of differential throttling on thrust and thrust-angle is analyzed.
  17:30 18:00 7.9.4 ON THE OPTIMIZATION OF (GENERALIZED) IMPEDANCE FOR ACOUSTIC LINERS
E. De Bono, France; A. Diniz, Italy; S. De Rosa, Italy; G. Petrone, Italy; M. Ouisse, France; R. Teloli, France
Presenter: Arthur Diniz

In this work, we provide a review of optimization criteria for acoustic liner impedance, and the reduction of noise transmission in ducts. The new prospectives provided by metamaterials and active liners, require proper guidelines and physical insight on the mechanisms which lead to optimal noise attenuation. The contribution of this work is to combine analytical and numerical tools for general liner design.
Reserve Paper 7.9.R NUMERICAL SIMULATION RESEARCH OF THE TEMPERATURE FIELD OF JET-FLOW ON CARIER-BASED AIRCRAFT
C.-J. CHENG, AVIC Shenyang Aircraft Design and Research Institute , China
8.9Applications of Aerodynamic Optimisation
Chair(s):
Track 8
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  16:00 16:30 8.9.1 AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION OF FILLETED INTERSECTIONS WITH SURFACE MESH DEFORMATION
Hannah Hajdik¹, Anil Yildirim¹, Joaquim Martins¹; ¹University of Michigan, United States
Component intersections are a persistent challenge in aerodynamic design. In this work, we present a method based on inverse distance warping to deform a fillet between two components for the minimum drag design. We show that this is tractable within gradient-based aerodynamic shape optimization and results in lower drag designs than those optimized without changing the intersection region.
  16:30 17:00 8.9.2 NOVEL GRADIENT-ENHANCED MULTI-FIDELITY SURROGATE MODEL ASSISTED ROBUST MULTIDISCIPLINARY DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF TAILLESS
Huan Zhao¹, Keyao Gan¹, Zhiyuan Gong¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Presenter: Huan Zhao

The tailless flying wing design encounters a significant challenge from the lack of longitudinal control. This paper establishes an efficient robust aerodynamic/stealth design optimization method based on the proposed gradient-enhanced multi-fidelity polynomial chaos-Kriging model. This proposed method is validated to significantly improve the aerodynamic/stealth/control performance of a tailless flying wing.
  17:00 17:30 8.9.3 DESIGN AND AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION OF A THIN-HAUL AIRCRAFT WITH DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC PROPULSION: ZETHA
G. Beghetto¹, M. Boffadossi¹; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Presenter: Giacomo Beghetto, DAER, Politecnico di Milano

The work focuses on the design and aerodynamic analysis of a thin-haul aircraft with DEP. After the aircraft's preliminary design, the aerodynamic improvements achieved through the DEP activation are analyzed. A significant lift enhancement is obtained due to the propellers' slipstream induced on the wing, leading to radical modifications of the aircraft in order to improve efficiency and range.
  17:30 18:00 8.9.4 ABOUT MODELLING OF EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS WITHIN AERODYNAMIC PROFILES USING HIGHER ORDER NEURAL NETWORKS
Patrik Ková?, Center of Advanced Aerospace Technology, Czech Republic; Ji?í Fürst, Department of Technical Mathematics, Faculty of Mechanical Engin, Czech Republic
Nowadays, numerical simulations remain time-consuming. Consequently, empirical correlations keep their importance as a valuable tool for compressor design and for estimating flow parameters. This contribution utilizes higher order neural networks to predict flow parameters for new family of airfoils, offering an alternative to time-expensive simulations or inaccurate empirical correlations.
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 8.9.R LOCALIZED AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
Maurice Nayman¹, Ruben E, Perez¹; ¹Royal Military College of Canada, Canada
9.9Airspace Management
Chair(s): , Johnson, M.
Track 9
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  16:00 16:30 9.9.1 WEATHER-AWARE INTEGRATED AIRPORT/AIRSPACE CAPACITY PREDICTION TECHNOLOGIES
Tom Reynolds¹, Gabriele Enea¹, Bill Crawley, NAV CANADA, Canada; ¹MIT Lincoln Laboratory, United States
Presenter: Gabriele Enea, MIT Lincoln Laboratory

This paper will describe an integrated suite of technologies being developed to enable more effective weather-aware decision support for Air Traffic Management needs. Technologies tailored to specific needs in terms of weather situational awareness and impact translation at airport, terminal and en route airspace resources are described.
  16:30 17:00 9.9.2 PROBING AND MODELING LARGE-SCALE AIRLINE NETWORK DISRUPTIONS: 2022 SOUTHWEST AIRLINES SCHEDULING CRISIS
M. Peng¹, A. Kamat¹, V. Tran, Harvard University, United States; C. Dawson², C. Fan², M. Z. Li¹; ¹University of Michigan, United States ;²Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States
Presenter: Max Zhaoyu Li

Large-scale airline disruptions result in large financial losses, along with passenger dissatisfaction and environmental impacts. We extract data-driven insights regarding the Southwest Airlines December 2022 disruption, using agent-based modeling and probabilistic programming approaches. Our work will be helpful for airline and air traffic control stakeholders during decision-making processes.
  17:00 17:30 9.9.3 TIME-BASED CONTROL TO REDUCE TRAJECTORY COMPLEXITY IN THE FLOW-CENTRIC AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL PARADIGM
K. Tominaga¹, N. Inoue¹, M. Schultz, University of the Bundeswehr Munich, Germany; Y. Zeng, Nanyang Technological University Singapore, Singapore; E. Itoh¹; ¹The University of Tokyo, Japan
Presenter: Eri Itoh, The University of Tokyo

This study examines how planned trajectory complexity in an ASEAN en-route airspace may be reduced using tactical time control alone. Networks of fluid queues are applied at hotspots as well as departures, and the effectiveness is measured in a Fast-Time Simulation experiment. Its findings are anticipated to facilitate evaluation of Flow-Centric Operations, a novel Air Traffic Control paradigm.
  17:30 18:00 9.9.4 APPLICATIONS AND CHALLENGES FOR AIRBORNE AD-HOC COMMUNICATION NETWORKS IN ORP AIRSPACES USING THE L-BAND
T. Marks¹, A. Hillebrecht¹, M. A. Bellido-Manganell¹; ¹German Aerospace Center, Germany
Presenter: Alexander Hillebrecht, German Aerospace Center

Data communication is an essential part of today's air traffic operations, enabling more flexible routing of aircraft leading to increased airspace capacity. In our work we analyze applications enabled by AANETs and identify challenges for the design and development of the communication technology with a focus on using the L-Band.
Reserve Paper 9.9.R DETERMINING FACTORS OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT BASED ON AIRCRAFT DEPENDENCIES IN ATC USING CPA EVALUATION TOOL
A. Errico, CIRA - Italian Aerospace Research Center, Italy
10.9SHM
Chair(s):
Track 10
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  15:30 16:00 10.9.1 CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS ALGORITHMS FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF AIRCRAFTS COMPOSITES PANELS
Fabrizio Ricci, Università di Napoli , Italy
Composite materials replaced metals even in aircrafts primary structures but they can be affected by hidden damages hardly detectable. An SHM system based on sensorised structures and deep neural networks signal analysis methodologies is presented in this paper with the scope of detect and localise delaminations into composites plates.
  16:00 16:30 10.9.2 IMPROVING SHAPE SENSING OF AERONAUTICAL STRUCTURES WITH STRAIN PRE-EXTRAPOLATION AND SENSOR PLACEMENT OPTIMIZATION
E. Del Priore¹, L. Lampani¹; ¹Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
This study addresses shape sensing of aeronautical stiffened panels using the inverse finite element method (iFEM). The effectiveness of the iFEM is improved by integrating it with strain pre-extrapolation and sensor optimization via a multi-objective genetic algorithm that accounts for multiple loading conditions.
  16:30 17:00 10.9.3 STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF CFRP DURING FATIGUE LOAD VIA THE ASSESSMENT OF CRACK DENSITY BY MEANS OF THERMOGRAPHY
R. De Finis, Università del Salento, Italy; D. Palumbo¹, U. Galietti¹; ¹Politecnico di Bari, Italy
In the present work, a new procedure is presented to measure the crack density via thermography in quasi-isotropic CFRP made by an innovative industrial process: Automated Fiber Placement.
The measured crack densities during constant amplitude fatigue tests were compared with the Ogin analytical model.
The thermal parameter adopted was the second amplitude harmonic of the temperature signal.

  17:30 18:00 10.9.4 EMBEDDED SENSORS FOR AIRCRAFT PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE: SHM SYSTEM INTEGRATION & TRADE-OFF ANALYSIS
VAGEESHA SHARMA MADHUSUDHANA¹, PRANAV JHA¹, SAMANYUSREE VEMAVARAPU¹, ARUNDHATHI SHARMA¹, MAHESHWARI SMRATI¹, MAMATHA G S¹; ¹RV College of Engineering, India
Integrating NDT with SHM, this research automates inspections in aging aircraft using Ultrasonic Inspection, Vibration-Based Methods, Acoustic Emission, Strain Sensors, and Fiber Optic Sensors. Focused on Airbus A380, it compares sensor accuracy for enhanced safety, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. Study includes trade-off analysis aligning with aerospace industry needs and testing guidelines.
11.9Aeroelastic Tailoring 3
Chair(s):
Track 11
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  16:00 16:30 11.9.1 THE EFFECTS OF ENGINE MASS AND ITS LOCATION ON THE FREE VIBRATION AND FLUTTER BEHAVIOUR OF AIRCRAFT WINGS
Jnan Ranjan Banerjee¹, Ajandan Ananthapuvirajah¹, Pedro Higino Cabral, Embraer S.A., Brazil; ¹City, University of London, United Kingdom
The effects of engine mass and its location on the free vibration and flutter behaviour of two representative transport aircraft wings are investigated using an assembly of coupled bending-torsion beams and Theodorsen type unsteady aerodynamics. The aeroelastic computer program CALFUN (CALculation of Flutter speed Using Normal mode method) has been used when computing the results which are discussed and commented on
  16:30 17:00 11.9.2 ADVANCEMENTS IN AEROELASTIC OPTIMIZATION: EMBRACING NONLINEAR STRUCTURAL STABILITY CONSTRAINTS
F. M. A. Mitrotta, University of Bristol, United Kingdom
Embraer's Aeroelastic Tailoring Framework pioneers a nonlinear structural stability approach to reduce aircraft emissions. Tests on a simplified version of NASA's CRM wingbox achieved up to 29.6% mass reduction, surpassing linear methods. Using MSC Nastran and OpenAeroStruct, the study explores complex scenarios, promising more efficient and lightweight airframes for sustainable aviation.
  17:00 17:30 11.9.3 RANDOM MATRIX MODELLING FOR UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION IN PRESTRESSED STRUCTURES
A. Mannoosseril¹, S. Adhikari¹, A. P. Prado², P. H. Cabral²; ¹James Watt School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom ;²Embraer S.A., São José dos Campos, Brazil, Brazil
This paper introduces random-matrix-based uncertainty quantification to prestressed complex structures, which is particularly beneficial for large-scale structures such as aircraft. The proposed Wishart Random Matrix model quantifies uncertainty in critical structural components—mass, stiffness, and damping matrices. The approach is implemented using NASTRAN, Monte Carlo Simulations and Python.
12.9Composites 2
Chair(s):
Track 12
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  16:00 16:30 12.9.1 PROCESS MODELING OF COMPOSITES USING A MULTISCALE FRAMEWORK
Gregory Odegard, Michigan Technological University, United States; Marianna Maiaru, Columbia University, United States
The goal of this research is to use molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the residual stresses in composite laminates and optimize processing parameters to minimize the residual stress
  16:30 17:00 12.9.2 MICROMECHANICAL MODELING OF THE VISCOELASTIC-VISCOPLASTIC RESPONSE OF FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES
Y. Chen, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
This work describes a newly proposed viscoelastic–viscoplastic constitutive model that is used to characterize the effective mechanical behaviors of fiber-reinforced composites based on micromechanical modeling. The proposed micromechanics-based constitutive model has an explicit form, which contributes to the computational efficiency of the multiscale simulations for the composite structures.
  17:00 17:30 12.9.3 A DYNAMIC TEST METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING THE LONGITUDINAL COMPRESSIVE RESPONSE AND ITS STRAIN-RATE EFFECT OF COMPOSITE FIBER TOWS
Jiahui Gu¹, Zhenqiang Zhao¹, Chao Zhang¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Textile composites have been applied widely in aircraft structure, such as fan blades and cases of aero-engine, since of their excellent impact resistance, great delamination resistance and high damage tolerance [1]. Composite fiber tows, as the main load-bearing component, have a critical influence on the dynamic performance of textile composites and even the whole composite structures [2]. However, determination of the Intrinsic properties of individual composite fiber tow mainly rely on theoretical and numerical predictions. Because of small size and challenges in effective loading of this unidirectional composites [3] in dynamic testing, it strain-rate effects still lacks direct test methodology and experimental results. In this study, a dynamic compression test method for composite fiber tows is proposed based on the Split Hopkinson compressive bar system combined with an ultra-high-speed camera. Firstly, the volume fraction, porosity content and fiber misalignment distribution of composite tows are evaluated characterized to compare the influence of different preparation methods. The comparison of several common specimen designs by quasi-static and dynamic compression test and finite element simulation shows that dumbbell design is a reasonable design. Then, the validity and applicability of the test methodology are verified systematically and comprehensively from stress distribution, data reduction method, dynamic stress balance and failure morphology. The preliminary test results show that the compressive properties of composite fiber tows are significantly dependent on the strain rate, and the compressive strength increases by more than 50% when the strain rate ranges from 0.01 s-1 to 400 s-1. This work will realize the direct and efficient test of composite tows and provide insightful inputs for multiscale analysis of textile composite.
  17:30 18:00 12.9.4 INVESTIGATION ON VARIABLE-HEIGHT PROTRUSION ARRANGEMENT OF METAL–COMPOSITE HYBRID JOINTS UNDER A TENSILE LOAD
YUERAN ZHAO, China; WENZHI WANG, China; XIAOPENG WAN, China
Metal–composite hybrid joints with variable-height pins reinforced were numerically investigated to analysis its mechanical behavior. Results showed that stress concentration of these joints occurred in different positions, and the reinforcing efficiency of protrusions varied across the overlapping area. These findings provided guidance for optimal protrusion arrangement of hybrid joints.
Reserve Paper 12.9.R DETECTION OF DELAMINATION FAILURE IN COMPOSITES BY EMBEDDING SENSORS DATA IN PHYSICS-INFORMED AI SOLUTION
F. Danzi, Leonardo Spa, Italy
13.9Supersonic / Hypersonic propulsion 2
Chair(s): P. Mogilka
Track 13
05 - Propulsion
  16:00 16:30 13.9.1 MODEL-BASED CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A SOLID-FUEL SCRAMJET VEHICLE
Megha Bhardwaj¹, S Rajashankar¹, N. Ananthkrishnan¹, Anurag Sharma¹, Wan-Do Ki², Hyuck-Joon Namkoung²; ¹Yanxiki Tech, India ;²Hyundai Rotem, South Korea
Presenter: Hyuck-Joon Namkoung, Hyundai Rotem

A solid-fuel scramjet (SFSJ) vehicle is conceptually designed. Initially, an integrated model is constructed in MATLAB where each engine component is modeled employing empirical data or analytical relations. Aim is to ensure that the model generates ample thrust. Subsequently, the SFSJ is modeled in Simulink. Comparison of results from MATLAB and Simulink validates the design's integrity.
  16:30 17:00 13.9.2 THE IMPACT OF EQUIVALENCE RATIO VARIATION ON MODE TRANSITION IN A SCRAMJET
Y. Meng, Shanghai Jiao Tong Univerity, China
Abrupt changes occur during mode transition as the equivalence ratio increases. Stable position of the pre-combustion shock wave is determined by heat release during combustion while both pre-combustion shock wave and fuel injection depth determine combustion modes and flame anchoring position. Dynamic variation of shock waves plays an important role in contributing to abrupt mode transitions.

  17:00 17:30 13.9.3 AERODYNAMIC DEFORMATION EXPERIMENT OF SERPENTINE NOZZLE FOR TURBOFAN AND ANALYSIS OF FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION METHOD
Q.-L. Li¹, L. Zhou¹, Z.-X. Wang¹, X.-B. Zhang¹, S. Huang¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
In this paper, an experimental study on structural deformation of serpentine nozzle for turbofan engine is carried out?and the reliability of one-way/two-way fluid-structure coupled was verified. The deformation is mainly located in the second bend channel, and the two-way fluid-structure coupled method can more accurately simulate the aerodynamic deformation characteristics of the nozzle.
  17:30 18:00 13.9.4 POLLUTANT EMISSION EVALUATIONS FOR SUPERSONIC AIR-BREATHING VEHICLES: A MULTI-FIDELITY ANALYTICAL AND NUMERICAL APPROACH
B.H. Saracoglu, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Belgium
The request for faster and greener civil aviation is urging the worldwide scientific community and aerospace industry to develop a new generation of supersonic aircraft, which are expected to be environmentally sustainable and guarantee high-level protection of citizens. To pursue this goal, MOREandLESS (MDO and REgulations for Low boom and Environmentally Sustainable Supersonic aviation) consortium, answering the needs of EC on “Towards global environmental regulation of supersonic aviation” research call, aims at supporting Europe in shaping global environmental regulations for future supersonic aviation. Specifically, the project focuses on providing the scientific community with an integrated multi-disciplinary framework consisting of verified and validated tools to holistically assess the environmental impact of supersonic airplanes on the future global air traffic. In this context, this paper describes the multi-fidelity approach, which combines analytical and numerical investigations with experimental activities, to estimate pollutant emissions for future supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 5 and powered with liquid Hydrogen.
Reserve Paper 13.9.R COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF BELL NOZZLE GEOMETRIES IN ROCKET ENGINE’S THRUST
J.P.B.S Primo Basílio de Souza, UFMG, Brazil
14.9Monitoring
Chair(s): C. Munoz
Track 14
10 - Safety and Security
  16:00 16:30 14.9.1 DECODING AN IN-FLIGHT REFUELING INCIDENT: AVIATION COMPLEXITY THROUGH STAMP/CAST AND ACCIMAP METHODS
J.G. Fowler¹, G.V. da Rocha¹, D.M.C. de Lima¹, D.C. Fernandes¹, M.M. Cardoso Júnior¹; ¹Aeronautic Institute of Technology, Brazil
Presenter: Daniella Castro Fernandes, Aeronautic Institute of Technology

This study examines an accident during an in-flight refueling. Utilizing Rasmussen's Accimap and Leveson's STAMP/CAST methodologies, it identifies contributing factors and control failures. Emphasizing the demanding nature of in-flight refueling and the role of human factors, the study advocates for ongoing research in ergonomics. Methodologies' strengths and limitations are discussed.
  16:30 17:00 14.9.2 DYNAMIC RESPONSE MONITORING OF FLIGHT CONTROL WITH INCREMENTAL NONLINEAR DYNAMIC INVERSION
Hannes Hofsäß¹, Florian Holzapfel¹; ¹Technical University of Munich, Germany
A concept for model-based monitoring of aircraft responses to inputs at the pilot inceptor is proposed. The derived modelling structure adds to the state of the art as it provides robustness towards false alarms due to uncertain inner-loop dynamics and thereby improves failure detection capability with respect to allowable aircraft responses as given in high-level dynamic response requirements.
  17:00 17:30 14.9.3 INVESTIGATION OF THE AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WINGS UNDER ICING CONDITIONS AT VARIOUS SWEEP ANGLES
Xiaogang XU¹, Yang ZHANG¹, Gang CHEN¹, Xudong MA, Xi'an Jiaotong UniversityXi'an Jiaotong University, China; ¹Xi'an Jiaotong University, China
The aerodynamic characteristics of multiple swept wing ice wind tunnel test models are determined by numerically simulating the distribution of velocity and angle of attack. This allows for the calculation of parameters such as lift drag coefficient, which are used to generate initial samples. The polynomial chaotic technique is employed to create a surrogate model for uncertainty analysis.
15.9UAV Design and Performance
Chair(s): A. Kwiek , Krus, P.
Track 15
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  16:00 16:30 15.9.1 FLIGHT MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF A VERY FLEXIBLE HIGH-ALTITUDE PLATFORM UNDER UNCERTAINTY CONSIDERATIONS
Y. J. Hasan¹, N. Fezans¹, Arne Voß, DLR Institute of Aeroelasticity, Germany; ¹DLR Institute of Flight Systems, Germany
This paper deals with a flight mechanical analysis of the high-altitude platform developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) respecting uncertainties. For this purpose, various weight and balance parameters of the used flexible flight dynamics model are varied and their influences on the aircraft's flight dynamics are assessed.
  16:30 17:00 15.9.2 FLIGHT PERFORMANCE AND DYNAMICS OF AN UNCONVENTIONAL SOLAR POWERED UAS
G Charruaz¹, A Borgia¹, A Braghin¹, T Bussi¹, A Esposito¹, A Pescosolido¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This paper discusses the performance and flight dynamics analysis of an unconventional, highly efficient solar-powered unmanned aerial system. The design geometry, aerodynamic performance, and mass distribution were analysed to find a solution for a stable and efficient aircraft. The aim of the project is to design and build a sustainable UAS.
  17:00 17:30 15.9.3 ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STRUCTURAL DIGITAL TWIN OF AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE
Xuan Zhou¹, Michal Dziendzikowski², Krzysztof Dragan², Marco Giglio³, Leiting Dong¹, Claudio Sbarufatti³; ¹Beihang University, China ;²Instytut Techniczny Wojsk Lotniczych, Poland ;³Politecnico di Milano, Italy
This paper addresses the scale differences between overall UAV loading and structural detail damage. The integration of load tracking, multi-level structural analysis, and probabilistic crack growth models into a UAV digital twin offers a comprehensive solution, demonstrating efficiency and accuracy and paving the way for real-time damage prediction using the digital twin methodology.
  17:30 18:00 15.9.4 DYNAMIC FREE FLIGHT TESTS WITH A SUB-SCALE AIRPLANE DESIGNED ACCORDING TO THE FROUDE NUMBER
A. S. Davi, lilium GmbH, Germany; R. G. A. da Silva¹, L.C.S. Goes¹; ¹Aeronautics Institute of Technology, Brazil
The use of sub-scales to study flight dynamics is an area that can provide excellent results. With the development of electronics, free flight tests to obtain flight dynamics data on sub-scale aircraft have become increasingly attractive. This paper presents the development of a sub-scale aircraft following the Froude number scaling technique used to achieve representativeness in flight dynamics.
Reserve Paper 15.9.R STUDY ON CONTROL PERFORMANCE OF A NEW TYPE OF TILT-ROTOR AIRCRAFT
K Miyabe¹, M Bando¹, S Hokamoto¹; ¹Kyushu Univercity, Japan
16.9Additive Manufacturing 2
Chair(s): D. Gu , Jiang, L.
Track 16
08 - Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management
  16:00 16:30 16.9.1 EFFECTS OF PROCESSING STRATEGIES ON SURFACE QUALITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES IN HYBRID ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING OF IN718
T. Wang¹, C. Wang¹, J.-J. Li¹, W.-X. Wang¹; ¹Chongqing University, China
Laser metal deposition/grinding hybrid manufacturing process was utilized to produce In718 alloy thin-walled parts. The forming quality, microstructure characterization and mechanical property of the In718 parts were carried out. In addition, the hollow blade was prepared through the optimized process, which verified the feasibility of the hybrid manufacturing system.
  16:30 17:00 16.9.2 RELIABILITY BASED FATIGUE LIFE ANALYSIS OF WIRE ARC ADDITIVE MANUFACTURED TI6AL4V PARTS
GMO Onder, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
In this thesis, wire arc additive manufacturing method is investigated for
production of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. WAAM is a sub category of DED methods. test wall is printed from Ti6Al4V alloy. It's
designed according to required specimen numbers of the standards. Non-destructive
tests are conducted for checking porosity presence. Comprehensive fatigue test is planned to achieve reliability data.
  17:00 17:30 16.9.3 THE PRODUCTION OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS
Chad Beamer¹, Anders Magnusson², Johannes Gårdstam², Andrew Cassese¹; ¹Quintus Technologies LLC, United States ;²Quintus Technologies AB, Sweden
Additive manufacturing enables production of thin-walled heat exchangers but there are challenge in heat treatment of many common materials. This presentation will demonstrate ongoing work with respect to combined HIP and heat treatment cycles which avoid many challenges whilst improving product quality and reliability.
  17:30 18:00 16.9.4 CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION FOR THE AR-ASSISTED AIT OF AEROSPACE COMPONENTS
J. Pesce¹, A. Carini¹, M. Marinacci¹, P. Marzioli¹, M. Pasquali¹, M. Eugeni¹, M. Mecella¹, F. Piergentili¹, P. Gaudenzi¹; ¹Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
This research explores the integration of cyber-physical systems (CPS) and augmented reality (AR) in aerospace assembly, integration, and testing (AIT) processes. Highlighting CPS's real-time monitoring and control capabilities and AR's visual overlays via the implementation of different case studies, the study showcases their transformative potential in the aerospace sector.
17.9Advanced Air Mobility Operations
Chair(s):
Track 17
11 - Operations and Sustainment
  16:00 16:30 17.9.1 OVERVIEW OF MRO FOR VTOLS IN A FUNCTIONAL SEQUENCES SOLUTION SPACE
Stephanos Papakonstantinou¹, Daniel Kloock-Schreiber¹, Marco Ziegler², Aadi Nath Mishra, Hamburg University of Technology, Germany; Pravin Kumar Jaisawal¹, Uwe Wieczorek², Volker Gollnick¹; ¹Hamburg University of Technology, ILT, Germany ;²Airbus Protect, Germany
Presenter: Stephanos Papakonstantinou, TUHH/ILT

The paper reviews current maintenance strategies for VTOLs by classifying them into various categories. The paper also addresses functional design aspects for vertiport using BPMN diagrams. The solution space of BPMN diagrams are extended by integrating damage data generation module. Additionally, security analysis is conducted for drone based visual inspection of vertiport.
  16:30 17:00 17.9.2 ASSESSMENT OF LOW-ALTITUDE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT WIND MODELLING FOR URBAN AIR MOBILITY APPLICATIONS.
Nithya Dhamodharasamy Sundarraj¹, Giuseppe Quaranta¹, Man Liang², Vincenzo Muscarello²; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy ;²RMIT University, Australia
This paper is targeted to assess the capability of fast computing Wind models, employed within the Wind Engineering and Atmospheric science domain, to generate low-altitude wind data for Urban Air Mobility applications. Therefore, the proposed approach is to reproduce Wind Tunnel test conditions of flow around a building with sufficient accuracy for the comparitive analysis and assessment.
  17:00 17:30 17.9.3 A DESIGN OF VFR APPROACH AND DEPARTURE PROCEDURES OF UAM AT VERTIPORTS ADJACENT TO THE AIRPORT
S. Kim¹, O. Park¹, H.S. Shin¹; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
This study focuses on identifying key elements vital for the establishment and operation of urban air mobility (UAM) vertiports adjacent to airports based on the literature survey. On top of that, the approach and departure procedures of UAM to the vertiport adjacent to Incheon International Airport (ICN) were designed.
  17:30 18:00 17.9.4 ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF AN EVTOL AIRCRAFT FLEET FOR URBAN AIR MOBILITY
Marco Fioriti¹, Marco Borghi¹, Guido Pavan¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Presenter: Marco Fioriti, Politecnico di Torino

This paper has the aim to investigate the economic and the environmental impact of the UAM vehicles life cycle. Parametric cost and environmental impact estimation models are employed to provide flexible estimation considering different technologies and vehicle performance. The investigation also includes part of the needed infrastructures to enable the operation such as vertiports and logistics.
Reserve Paper 17.9.R AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF DECARBONIZATION REGULATIONS ON AIRLINES ECONOMY
A. Nieto, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 17.9.R TENDENCIES OF AIR NAVIGATION CHARGES CAUSED BY CHANGES IN GEOPOLITICAL SITUATION
M.A. Lacane, Latvian National Defense Academy, Latvia
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 17.9.R AN INVESTIGATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE AND PILOT VISUAL RANGE UNDER HEVAY BLOWING SNOW
T. Wan, Tamkang Univ,, Taiwan, China
1.10GSA - Airliner OEM Strategy Overview
Chair(s):
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  09:30 10:00 1.10.1 THE CHALLENGE OF SUSTAINABILITY IN COMMERCIAL AVIATION
M K Sinnett, The Boeing Company, United States
Invited speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track.
  10:00 10:30 1.10.2 ATR COMMERCIAL AVIATION SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGY
D.-C. Cuchet, GIE A.T.R, France
invited speaker for the Sustainable Aviation track
  10:30 11:00 1.10.3 PANEL DISCUSSION
PD D,
PANEL DISCUSSION
2.10Integrated CFD Validation Experiments for Low-Speed Aerodynamics
Chair(s):
Track 2
15 - Guest lectures
  09:30 10:00 2.10.1 HIGH-LIFT PREDICTION WORKSHOPS: RETROSPECTIVE, LESSONS LEARNED, AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
C.L. Rumsey, United States
The AIAA High-Lift Prediction Workshop (HLPW) series has been ongoing since 2010. At these workshops, engineers interested in computationally predicting the flows over high-lift configurations have compared and collab-orated with others in an effort to further the goals of the workshop. These goals include: (1) assessing the numerical prediction capability (meshing, numerics, turbulence modeling, high-performance computing requirements, etc.) of current-generation CFD technology/codes for swept, medium-to-high-aspect ratio wings for landing/take-off (high-lift) configurations; (2) developing practical modeling guidelines for CFD prediction of high-lift flow fields; (3) deter-mining the elements of high-lift flow physics that are critical for modeling to enable the development of more accurate prediction methods and tools; and (4) enhancing CFD prediction capability for practical high-lift aerodynamic design and optimization.
By the time of the 34th ICAS Congress, five HLPWs will have been completed, and still more workshops are planned for the future. Significant progress has been made in the workshop process itself, encouraging a more rapid rate of learning and faster dissemination of knowledge and ideas to the high-lift prediction community. This paper will provide a 14-year retrospective on the workshop series, including its trajectory over the years, what has been learned, what still needs to be accomplished, and how integrated validation testing plays a critical role.
  10:00 10:30 2.10.2 SMOOTH BODY SEPARATION EXPERIMENT - RETROSPECTIVE, LESSONS LEARNED, AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
A. Khodadoust, United States
This paper provides an overview of the experimental and computational research carried out, for a simple geometry defined by a Gaussian shape in the flow direction, and an Error function in the cross-flow direction. The geometry is a canonical representation of the upper surface of a commercial transport flap high-lift system. Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes solvers do not predict the flow separation observed over a range of flight conditions of interest representative of low-speed operations of a transport aircraft.
The canonical geometry has been examined at a number of test facilities. The most detailed set of measurements took place on the geometry designed and built for testing in the University of Notre Dame wind tunnel. High-fidelity measurements of on- and off-body measurements documented a range of parameters of interest. This paper provides a summary of the work done, comparisons carried out with computational predictions, lessons learned and next steps.
  10:30 11:00 2.10.3 THE BEVERLI HILL EXPERIMENTS FOR SMOOTH-BODY TURBULENT FLOW SEPARATION - RETROSPECTIVE, LESSONS LEARNED, AND FUTURE PROS
C.J. Roy, United States
Virginia Tech, with support from NASA-Langley, has acquired high-quality turbulence model validation data for three-dimensional smooth-body flow separation. The geometry, called the BeVERLI Hill (Benchmark Validation Experiments for RANS and LES Investigations), has been studied at subsonic Reynolds numbers between 250k and 650k based on the hill height. Experimental data have been obtained for the hill at nominal zero, 30, and 45 degree orientations and includes extensive oil flow visualizations, surface pressures, skin friction via oil film interferometry and laser Doppler velocimetry, and mean and fluctuating velocities using particle image velocimetry, laser Doppler velocimetry, and pitot-static rakes. Detailed boundary conditions and oncoming boundary layer data have also been measured.
  11:00 11:30 2.10.4 SYSTEMATIC CFD VERIFICATION - RESULTS FROM THE 2024 HIGH FIDELITY CFD VERIFICATION WORKSHOP
M. Galbraith, United States
A large number of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) workshops have been held over
the past decade to both assess and advance the current state of the art. These workshops will
generally put forth a suite of test cases and participants from academia, industry, and
governments will attempt to compute fluid dynamic solutions to predict integrated quantities
such as lift, drag, and moment coeffects, or local quantities such as velocity profiles and
surface pressure. Inevitably, when all the results are summarized, there is typically a wide
scatter in the data. Some of this scatter can be explained by participants using different model
fidelities, such as Lattice-Boltzmann vs. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) vs. Reynolds Averaged
Navier-Stokes (RANS), or using vastly different meshes, for example. Other differences are
less obvious. Most workshops will have multiple participants supposedly running the exact
same model yet obtaining different results. The sources of this discrepancies could stem from
lack of non-linear residual convergence, order of accuracy of the discretization, stabilization
terms, bugs in the software, or user input errors to name a few. The overarching goal of The
High-Fidelity CFD Verification Workshop is to establish requirements to obtain consistent
results across a range of discretizations and solution schemes.
3.10Wing Design
Chair(s): T. Gibson
Track 3
01.1 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Basics and Theory)
  09:30 10:00 3.10.1 PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF A WING-INTEGRATED HYBRID LAMINAR FLOW CONTROL SYSTEM
B.M.H.J. Fröhler¹, A.A. Pohya¹, J. Häßy¹, T. Kilian¹, A.H. Bismark¹, M. Radestock, Germany; D. Cruz Palacios, Aernnova Aerospace, Spain; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
This study demonstrates the integration of a HFLC system into a wing in an industrial context. The goal is to evaluate the HLFC system objectively by comparing to a non-HLFC aircraft. The assessment covers a mission performance estimation and a life cycle simulation with three scenarios to determine fuel and cost savings.
  10:00 10:30 3.10.2 AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION OF HORIZONTAL TAIL UNDER ICING CONDITIONS: A COST-EFFICIENT PREDICTIVE METHOD.
S. Corcione¹, A. De Marco¹, V. Cusati¹; ¹University of Naples Federico II, Italy
This study develops a cost-effective 2.5D aerodynamic method predicting icing effects on swept lifting surfaces, integrating with an aircraft's optimization workflow. Employing 2D inviscid methods and CFD simulations, it assesses planform geometry's influence on ice accretion. Results inform a quick-response prediction method, evaluated against test cases for reliability and accuracy.
  10:30 11:00 3.10.3 FUEL-BASED THERMAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ARCHITECTURES AND TANK TEMPERATURE EVOLUTION MODELS FOR AVIATION
S. Favre¹, F. Di Fede, Leonardo Labs, Leonardo S.p.A., Italy; E. Brusa¹, C. Delprete¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Development of a dynamic, system level, model for the evaluation of thermal endurance associated with fuel-based Thermal Management Systems (F-TMS) in the aerospace sector. A hybrid-electric regional transport aircraft is taken as a reference, while TMS performance is investigated over multiple parameters, architectures, and degrees of hybridization.
  11:00 11:30 3.10.4 SCOPING OF AN AIR SUPPLY CONFIGURATION FOR AFC ON A COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT AIRPLANE HIGH-LIFT SYSTEM
C.P. van Dam, University of California - Davis, United States; Seyedeh Sheida Hosseini¹, Shishir A. Pandya¹; ¹NASA Ames Research Center, United States
A scoping study is being conducted on the air supply for a microjet-based active flow control (AFC) system on a twin-turbofan commercial transport airplane. Microjets provide circulation control using small surface-normal pneumatic jets located near the trailing edge of a lifting surface such as a wing or flap. When located on the pressure side of the lifting surface they increase the lift, and when located on the suction side they decrease lift. In this study, microjets are considered for installation in the flaps of the high-lift version of the Common Research Model (CRM-HL). An air supply system involving bleed air from the airplane’s auxiliary power unit (APU) plus ram air provides the air to the microjets. A model based on the 1D compressible flow equations is applied to analyze the air supply system configuration and predict the microjet flow rate with the resulting airplane performance changes based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes modeling of microjets on the CRM-HL. The results of this scoping study are encouraging in that APU air can be used to entrain ram air and thereby increase the AFC mass flow rate to achieve effective lift control and airplane performance enhancement during takeoff and landing.
  11:30 12:00 3.10.5 OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURE FOR THE WING OF A MARS EXPLORATION DRONE
A. Viviani¹, A. Aprovitola¹, L. Iuspa², G. Pezzella²; ¹Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli , Italy ;²Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli , Italy
Presenter: Andrea Aprovitola, Università della Campania

The present paper focuses on a multi-step optimization procedure of a wing potentially suitable for a Martian exploration drone. Starting form the determination of the sub-optimal wing section specifically tailored for low-Reynolds conditions, the procedure is able to provide an optimal 3D wing able to allow an aerodynamic high performance exploration flight in the Mars atmosphere.
Reserve Paper 3.10.R WING FLAP DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A WIG CRAFT CONSIDERING GROUND EFFECT
Y.-H. Wang¹, W.-P. Song¹, H. Nie¹, K.-F. Zheng¹, Z.-H. Han¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reserve Paper 3.10.R WING GEOMETRY OPTIMISATION FOR A SMALL GROUND EFFECT VEHICLE FOR THE AMAZON REGION
F. A. B. Araújo Bortolete, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutico, Brazil
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 3.10.R AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION FOR PARAGLIDER WING DESIGN
L.B Bonin, France
4.10Supersonic and Hypersonic Aircraft 2
Chair(s): J. Melkert
Track 4
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  09:30 10:00 4.10.1 SONIC BOOM COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL TESTS AND NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS
Giovanni Fasulo¹, Luigi Federico¹, Francesco Petrosino¹, Samuele Graziani², Nicole Viola², Sebastien Hengy³, Bastien Martinez³, Marie Albisser³; ¹Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA), Italy ;²Politecnico di Torino, Italy ;³French-German research institute of Saint-Louis (ISL), France
The following paper will compare the numerical and experimental results of the sonic boom test carried out at ISL’s facility within the MORE&LESS project with the Stratofly model.
  10:00 10:30 4.10.2 LANDING AND TAKEOFF NOISE PREDICTION OF CONCEPTUAL SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT
M. Graebert¹, R. Jaron¹, M. Plohr¹, S. Zenkner¹, C. Richter², C. Stöhr², C. Villena Munoz, Cranfield University, United Kingdom; M.-J. van der Meulen³, R. Habing³, M. Huet, ONERA, France; F. Petrosino*, M. Barbarino*, F. Fischer, MTU, Germany; O. Zaporozhets, Institute of Aviation, Poland; ¹DLR, Germany ;²Rolls-Royce Deutschland, Germany ;³NLR, Netherlands ;*CIRA, Italy
Presenter: Matti Graebert, DLR

The design of commercial supersonic aircraft is challenged by the trade-off between minimising drag during supersonic cruise and reducing noise levels in areas close to the airport. In this study, advanced take-off procedures for two business jets with Ma=1.4 and Ma=1.6 and two airliners with Ma=1.8 and Ma=2.2 are optimised to meet the required noise levels.
  10:30 11:00 4.10.3 SENECAS’ AIRCRAFT EMISSIONS EVALUATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
E. Terrenoire¹, M. Muller¹, E. Ramirez Correra², P. Leyland², K. Synylo³, A. Krupko³, O. Zaporozhets, ILOT, Poland; D. Lee*, B. Owen*, L. Lim*, A. Skowron*, R. Rodriguez DE Leon*, D. Marsh*, S. Matthes, DLR, Germany; P. Madden, RR UK, United Kingdom; S. Bake, RR DE, Germany; C. Mourouzidis, CU, United Kingdom; ¹ONERA, France ;²AEDS, Switzerland ;³NAU, Ukraine ;*MMU, United Kingdom
The EU HORIZON 2020 SENECA project is a pre-design project for different supersonic aircraft concepts and associated engines for both passenger airliners or bizjets. This paper covers the studies concerning the aircraft engine pollutant emissions and their environmental impact.
  11:00 11:30 4.10.4 ESATTO: THE HOLISTIC FRAMEWORK TO SUPPORT THE DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE SUPERSONIC AVIATION
R. Fusaro¹, G. Piccirillo¹, D. Ferretto¹, G. Saccone, Italian Aerospace Research Center, Italy; D. Bodmer², J. Jäschke², M. Cremaschi, ENVISA, Italy; N. Viola¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy ;²Hamburg University of Technology, Germany
This paper aims to summarise the status of the development of the ESATTO Framework, an integrated multi-disciplinary framework developed in the framework of the H2020 MORE&LESS project. ESATTO combines validated and accepted tools to holistically assess the environmental impact of supersonic airplanes on the future global air navigation system.
  11:30 12:00 4.10.5 DESIGN OF THE SENECA MACH 1.8 SUPERSONIC AIRLINER WITH MULTI-FIDELITY AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS FOR NOISE-OPTIMISED TAKE-OFF TRAJECTORIES
Cristina Villena Muñoz¹, Craig Lawson¹, Atif Riaz¹, Ankit Sharma¹; ¹Cranfield University, United Kingdom
SENECA advances multi-disciplinary optimisation for sustainable supersonic aircraft, focusing on noise reduction, emission levels, fuel efficiency, and low drag. The project proposes MDO for a Mach 2.2 supersonic airliner, assessing various configurations with different fidelity levels methods. Trade-off studies contribute to a comprehensive description and analysis, enhancing data reliability.
Reserve Paper 4.10.R THERMODYNAMIC DESIGN AND EMISSIONS MODEL OF A MACH 1.8 SUPERSONIC AIRLINER ENGINE
Martin Plohr¹, Sebastian Zenkner¹, Sebastian Bake², Dirk Zeitz²; ¹DLR Institute of Propulsion Technology, Germany ;²Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Germany
5.10Aerodynamic Optimization
Chair(s): G. Pezzella , Zingg, D.
Track 5
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  09:00 09:30 5.10.1 SHAPING THE FUTURE WITH CFD-BASED DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
R. R. A. Martins, University of Michigan, United States
Air transportation's quest for sustainability requires groundbreaking advancements in aircraft design, particularly in the optimization of aircraft configurations, including aerodynamic shape, structural sizing, and propulsive performance. This talk will examine the latest developments in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based design optimization, addressing the critical challenges and innovative solutions in shaping aircraft components for enhanced efficiency and reduced emissions. We will explore the sophisticated integration of CFD with structural mechanics to optimize wing aerodynamics, enhancing lift-to-drag ratios and reducing structural weight. The discussion will extend to the aerodynamic optimization of propellers and turbofans, highlighting how CFD facilitates the design of propulsion systems that integrate optimally with the airframe. By employing multidisciplinary optimization (MDO) approaches, we have advanced the design of these key aircraft components, considering complex interactions and design constraints. We will focus on adjoint methods for efficient gradient computation, which is essential for handling the large number of shape and sizing variables required in aircraft design. We will discuss the integration of these methods with computational geometry that ensures industry-grade smoothness. The talk will present case studies demonstrating the successful application of these methods in optimizing aircraft wings, along with innovative designs of propellers and turbofans, underscoring the role of CFD in driving the future of sustainable air travel.
  09:30 10:00 5.10.2 ADJOINT-BASED TRANSONIC WING AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION INVESTIGATIONS
L. V. Rezende Sanches, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil; G. L. Olichevis Halila¹, F. Issamu Kitadani Odaguil¹, J. L. F. Azevedo, Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço, Brazil; ¹Embraer, Brazil
Transonic wing design involves challenges related to the complex physical phenomena associated with this flow regime.
Adjoint-based shape optimization is the choice to perform aerodynamic shape
optimization (ASO) of transonic wings. We investigate solver
strategies for both analysis and optimization steps to perform robust transonic wing
optimization.
  10:00 10:30 5.10.3 DISCRETE ADJOINT METHOD ON DYNAMIC MESHES WITH LOCAL GRID TOPOLOGY MODIFICATION
G Gao, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
A discrete adjoint method on two-dimensional dynamic meshes with local grid topology modification is presented. An interpolation-free conservative ALE scheme, proposed by Guardone et al., is applied to interprete the local topology modification as continuous deformation of the corresponding elements. The results of several two-dimensional unsteady design problems are presented.
  10:30 11:00 5.10.4 AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION FOR PROPELLER-WING INTERACTION
S. S. Chauhan¹, G. Padovany da Silva, Universidade Federal do Parana, Brazil; G. L. Olichevis Halila, Embraer, Brazil; J. R. R. A. Martins¹, J. L. F. Azevedo, Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço, Brazil; ¹University of Michigan, United States
Presenter: Gustavo Luiz Olichevis Halila, Embraer

We use a gradient-based approach to investigate wing optimization with propeller-wing interaction for a wing with a large tilt-rotor-sized tip propeller. To the best of our knowledge, there are no published studies for this. Initially, we show optimization results for a simple wing with one and two propellers using the CFD code and gradient-based-optimization tools that we are using for this work.
  11:30 12:00 5.10.5 A SEQUENTIAL LOCAL ENUMERATION-BASED IMPROVED LATIN HYPERCUBE SAMPLING METHOD FOR BALLISTIC CONSTRAINT DESIGN SPACE
H. Zeng¹, Z.-H. Han¹, C.-Z. Xu¹, Y. Zhang¹; ¹School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
This paper presents a sequential local enumeration-based improved Latin hypercube sampling method for ballistic constraint design space. It makes up the defect that the traditional design of experiments method is difficult to apply to the ballistic constraint design space, and provides a better sample scheme.
Reserve Paper 5.10.R INFLUENCE OF OFF-DESIGN AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE MAPS ON THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF TRANSONIC AIRCRAFT
RJ Jesudasan, University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 5.10.R SHAPE OPTIMIZATION IN AERONAUTICS:INTEGRATING PARAMETRIC CAD AND MESH MORPHING FOR ENHANCED AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE
A Lopez¹, G Magrì², G Urso, RBF Morph srl, Italy; U Cella ¹, F Della Barba², M.-E. Biancolini¹; ¹Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy ;²Università degli studi di Padova, Italy
6.10Boundary layer transition and control
Chair(s): S. Prince , Vijgen, P.
Track 6
03.3 - Basic Fluid Dynamics and Flow Control
  09:30 10:00 6.10.1 RESEARCH ON EFFICIENT ACTIVE T-S WAVE GENERATION METHOD IN BOUNDARY LAYER
P. Li¹, Z. Cao¹, D. Li¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
In this paper, several methods of artificially excited T-S waves by intermittent blow-suction in boundary layer are analyzed for laminar flow control. It’s found that intermittent blow-suction has higher T-S wave excitation efficiency than continuous blow-suction, so the pump drag caused by laminar flow control can be reduced.
  10:00 10:30 6.10.2 NUMERICALSTUDY ON ACOUSTICRECEPTIVITY OF COMPRESSIBLELAMINARFLOW OBER AFLATPLATE WITH SUPER-ELLIPSELEADINGEDGE
BZ Xu¹, ZL Chen¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
It can be concluded that the higher disturbance frequency, blunter modified super-ellipse leading edge and larger Mach number lead to stronger receptivity. Meanwhile higher disturbance frequency and larger Mach number can promote the Branch-? location upstream.
  10:30 11:00 6.10.3 CROSSFLOW AND GÖRTLER INSTABILITIES IN HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYERS
Youcheng Xi¹, Song Fu¹; ¹School of Aerospace Engineering, Tsinghua University, China
In three-dimensional hypersonic boundary layers, the crossflow and Görtler instabilities are of great importance
and may trigger transition. Using the numerical simulations, stability theory, and together with some
ideas from classical differential geometry, we found the origin of both crossflow and Görtler instabilities over
a three-dimensional hypersonic boundary layer are because of the bending of local inviscid streamline. The
appearance of which instabilities depends on the ratio between the normal curvature and geodesic curvature.
The study suggests that as the crossflow increase, the geodesic curvature of the inviscid streamline would
become much larger than the normal curvature, which shows that the crossflow instability is the dominative at
larger swept angles. The influences of crossflow and surface curvature on the nonlinear developments and the
their secondary instabilities are also discussed.
  11:00 11:30 6.10.4 EFFECT OF BASE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS ON BOUNDARY-LAYER CROSSFLOW INSTABILITY OF A SWEPT TRANSONIC WING
Z.-M. Xu¹, Z.-H. Han¹, H. Nie¹, W.-P. Song¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Crossflow instability (CFI) is a crucial factor in triggering early transition in the three-dimensional boundary layer of a swept wing. This paper aims to investigate the impact of two key characteristics of base-flow velocity profiles on CFI. The findings are utilized to analyze how the sweep angle and pressure gradient influence the development of CFI on a swept wing.
  11:30 12:00 6.10.5 INFLUENCE OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON BOUNDARY-LAYER TRANSITION ON A SWEPT WING
V. Prieto, ONERA and ISAE-SUPAERO, France; M. Forte, ONERA, France; E.R. Gowree, ISAE-SUPAERO, France
Presenter: Erwin Ricky Gowree, ISAE-SUPAERO

This paper studies the effect of surface roughness on the laminar-turbulent transition of the boundary layer of a swept wing. For this purpose, the results from an experimental campaign carried out in a subsonic closed-return wind tunnel at ONERA are presented
Reserve Paper 6.10.R AEROACOUSTIC CAVITY FLOW ENERGY HARVESTING
N Lawson, The University of Sydney, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Australia; G Vio¹, S Moss¹, D Munk¹; ¹Defence Science and Technology Group, Aerospace Division, Australia
Reserve Paper 6.10.R MEASUREMENTS OF T-S WAVES DUE TO ACOUSTIC DISTURBANCES IN EXPERIMENTS
Z Cao¹, P.F Li¹, D Li¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
7.10EAP Regulation and Standards Opportunities and Challenges
Chair(s):
Track 7
15 - Guest lectures
  09:30 10:00 7.10.1 A CALL TO ACTION TO ENGAGE THE COMMUNITY TO MEET THE CHALLENGES THAT MUST BE TACKLED TO MAKE ELECTRIFIED AIRCRAFT PROPUL
Vincent P. Schultz, NASA Langley Research Center, United States; Herbert W. Schlickenmaier, HS Advanced Concepts LLC, United States
More is needed to implement novel electrified aircraft than simply reducing technology risk. These novel EAP companies plan to certify their novel aircraft where no current regulations exist. The NASA Electrified Powertrain Flight Demonstration (EPFD) project has partnered with two companies to build upon their approaches to close these gaps in regulations and standards in their EAP technologies.
8.10Airfoil and Wing Performance
Chair(s):
Track 8
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  09:30 10:00 8.10.1 SUMMARY OF DLR RESULTS OF THE SEVENTH AIAA CFD DRAG PREDICTION WORKSHOP
Stefan Keye¹, Olaf Brodersen¹, Stefan Melber-Wilkending¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
A summary of the German Aerospace Research Center's results from the seventh AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop is presented. DLR has contributed to five out of the six workshop test cases. These include a grid convergence study, angle-of-attack and Reynolds number sweeps, a grid adaptation study, and an aero-structural simulation.

  10:00 10:30 8.10.2 IMPROVING THE THEODORSEN MODEL BY CONSIDERING A VISCOUS EXTENSION FOR THE LEADING-EDGE SUCTION
G.L.S. Torres, Brazil
The dynamic stall is an aerodynamic effect observed in flapping wings and rotor blades. At lower Reynolds numbers, unsteady flow can make way for newer technologies – such as MAVs. The present work proposes a viscous extension for the suction force in Theodorsen's aerodynamic model once the airfoil's suction force is related to the phenomena occurring on the leading edge - as the dynamic stall.
  10:30 11:00 8.10.3 USING SINUSOIDAL WAVE SUPERPOSITION KINEMATICS FOR AIRFOIL PLUNGING
M. E. El-Salamony, Peking University, China
This article presents an investigation into the aerodynamic performance of a plunging airfoil using a novel sinusoidal motion, specifically utilizing superposition of the regular sinusoidal waveform with another less-weighted faster one. The proposed motion shed four vortices per cycle and produces 200% more thrust, compared to sine-plunging, with a small difference in the propulsive efficiency.
  11:00 11:30 8.10.4 MITIGATION OF TRANSONIC-BUFFET PHENOMENON ON NATURAL-LAMINAR-FLOW WING
WIENCZYSLAW STALEWSKI, Lukasiewicz Research Network- Institute of Aviation, Poland
The concept of Retractable Micro Vanes intended to mitigate transonic buffet was developed and investigated through CFD simulations. The device is an array of deployable micro-vanes located at the front part of the upper side of the wing. In transonic flow, in extraordinary conditions of sudden gust, the vanes are deployed to force the laminar-to-turbulent transition of the boundary layer.
  11:30 12:00 8.10.5 FLIGHT TEST AND CFD STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF WING BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION ON AILERON BALANCE
L. Manfriani, Switzerland
A particular training aircraft exhibited an unusual lateral trim change, with a marked tendency to roll left when entering a cloud or passing through an inversion layer. It was found that this behavior was caused by small paint steps causing an asymmetric transition on the wings and affecting aileron balance. A high fidelity CFD was conducted to provide further insight in this peculiar phenomenon.
Reserve Paper 8.10.R TRANSFER LEARNING FOR REDUCED-ORDER MODELING OF TRANSONIC FLOWS BASED ON MULTIFIDELITY DATA
J. Kou¹, C. Ning¹, W. Zhang¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 8.10.R DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A BLUNT TRAILING EDGE WIND TURBINE AIRFOIL WITH LARGE RELATIVE THICKNESS OF 60%
K.-Y. ZHOU¹, S.-Q. ZHANG, Jilin Chongtong Chengfei New Material Co., LTD, China; W.-P. SONG¹, J.-H. XU¹, Z.-H. HAN¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
9.10Airport and ATC Operations
Chair(s): N. Kithmal Wickramasinghe , Pinon Fischer, O.
Track 9
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  09:30 10:00 9.10.1 DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK TO ACCOMMODATE STOCHASTIC AIR TRAFFIC FLOW AT TOKYO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
D. Iwata, The University of Tokyo, Japan; E. Itoh, The University of Tokyo/Electronic Navigation Research Institute, Japan
Departure management is an important congestion mitigation method at airport. This study proposed a new operational framework with 1) machine learning models, 2) departure queuing model using time-varying fluid queue, and 3) reflection of airport-specific characteristics. The validation using the AirTOp simulator showed that the proposed framework reduces departure queues by about 52% on average.
  10:00 10:30 9.10.2 ATM CONTROLLER SUPPORT IN CASE OF SPACIOUS SEVERE WEATHER CONSTELLATIONS ILLUSTRATED USING TWO AIRSPACE EXAMPLES
L. Nöhren¹, O. Gluchshenko¹, M.-M. Temme¹, K. Muth¹; ¹DLR, Germany
An Extended Arrival Manager and a radar display were expanded with procedures and functionalities needed to support approach controllers in severe weather situations. The sequencing and the 4D trajectory calculation processes can start long before the top of descent and consider available weather information and forecasts for more reliable planning.
  10:30 11:00 9.10.3 EXTENDED REALITY IN AIRPORT CONTROL TOWERS: FROM CONCEPT DESIGN TO PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF AN INNOVATIVE HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE FOR AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL OPERATORS
M Corsi, University of Bologna, Italy
In previous projects, the idea of using XR to support ATC operations was explored. Recently, a live platform was tested in a real control tower. The implementation of the solution in the real world confirmed its applicability and usefulness, but it also revealed some challenges, such as data clutter. Ongoing refinement of the system, by exploiting AI for data selection, can address these issues.
  11:00 11:30 9.10.4 A ROADMAP FOR TRANSFORMING TRADITIONAL ATCO TEAMS INTO COLLABORATIVE HUMAN-MACHINE TEAMS
T. Finck, German Aerospace Center, Germany
As tool support improves, the question arises as to whether this could also have an impact on the overall composition of the traditional ATCO team, moving from the executive- planner structure to a human-machine collaboration. The aim of this paper is to provide a roadmap that identifies the necessary obstacles that need to be overcome in this transition and the benefits expected.
  11:30 12:00 9.10.5 MODELING TECHNIQUE FOR THE EVALUTAION OF ENVI-RONMENTAL EFFECT OF FLIGHT-PATH NEAR AIRPORTS: THE CASE STUDY OF A NEW ROU
M. Viscardi, University of Naples, Italy
A modeling activity has been related to the Naples Capodichino Airport where a new climbing proce-dure has been studied to limit the environmental effect on the population.
Due to specific environmental target, a new take-off path has been explored for the airport with the aim to avoid the overflight of the city center for aircraft directed to north europe routes.
The new take-off path has been preliminary explored in terms of airworthiness by the competent institu-tions and once approved has been explored in terms of acoustic footprint and gaseous emissions for a direct comparison with actual situation.
The simulation demonstrated a redistribution of noise isophonics leading to a reduction in the popula-tion exposed to noise.

10.10Challenge of High AR Wings 1: Aeroelastic Issues
Chair(s):
Track 10
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  09:30 10:00 10.10.1 FINITE ELEMENT MODEL UPDATE OF VERY FLEXIBLE AIRCRAFT BASED ON GROUND VIBRATION TESTS
B Sharqi¹, C. E. S. Cesnik¹; ¹University of Michigan, United States
This paper presents the computational and experimental techniques associated with ground vibration test of very flexible aircraft (VFA) for nonlinear aeroelastic model development. It accounts for the suspension system and multiple deformed shapes about which modal characterization needs to be performed. The methodology is validated in a prototypical VFA.
  10:00 10:30 10.10.2 AEROELASTIC CONSTRAINTS IN PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF A HIGH ASPECT RATIO TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT WITH LAMINAR WING
M. R. Ritter¹, M. Schmalz¹, M. Fehrs¹; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
This paper presents the design of a jet transport with high aspect ratio (AR 15.6) as well as an innovative laminar airfoil layout with natural laminar flow (NLF) realized by Crossflow Attenuated Natural Laminar Flow (CATNLF). The structural optimization considers CS-25 load cases and imposes aeroelastic constraints to ensure the performance of the laminar wing throughout the flight mission.
  10:30 11:00 10.10.3 NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE ALLEVIATION OF DYNAMIC LOADS ON HIGH-ASPECT-RATIO-WING VEHICLE
C W Cheng¹, S Duessler¹, R Palacios¹, G Wilson¹; ¹Imperial College London, United Kingdom
We present a nonlinear simulation environment for the design and testing of gust load alleviation systems, which consideres 1) passive solutions such as flared folding wing tips, large wing deflections, complex vehicle geometries and advanced control architectures. We exercise this on a representative vehicle derived from the FLEXOP configuration.
  11:00 11:30 10.10.4 WING-MOUNTED HYDROGEN FUEL TANKS FOR HIGH ASPECT RATIO WING AIRCRAFT
F Healy¹, H Gu¹, D Rezgui¹, J Cooper¹; ¹University of Bristol, United Kingdom
Many proposed liquid hydrogen (LH2) aircraft configurations place the fuel in the fuselage. This is in contrast to conventional designs where fuel is stored in the wings which provides inertial relief, reducing loads and reducing wing mass. This paper uses an aircraft sizing framework to explore alternate LH2 configurations such storing fuel under the wing and the use of floating wingtip devices.
  11:30 12:00 10.10.5 GUST LOAD PASSIVE ALLEVIATION BY MEANS ON NONLINEAR, BUCKLING DRIVEN, STRUCTURAL RESPONSE
Francesco Toffol¹, Chiara Bisagni¹; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy
In this paper, the buckling driven non-linear response is used to passively alleviate dynamic gust load. A novel aeroelastic framework is used to simulate the non-linear stiffness behaviour through a time-marching simulation that evaluates the dynamic response and the load alleviation achieved. The results show how the buckling can be tailored to alleviate the load and to save structural mass.
11.10Loads and Aeroelasticity of Rotorcraft and Propellers
Chair(s):
Track 11
04.2 - Aerostructures Design, Structural Dynamics, Aeroelasticity
  09:30 10:00 11.10.1 ROTOR DYNAMIC LOADS CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS WITH BLADE TIP TWIST DESIGN
Zhihao Yu¹, Jian Huang¹, Qihuang Jiang¹, Feng Fan, CHRDI , Germany; Shuilin Huang¹; ¹CHRDI, China
This article mainly focuses on the influence of distribution of blade tip twist on rotor vibration loads.The rotor lift and dynamic loads were analyzed in detail with the influence of blade twit distribution, the research results of the paper provide technical support and theoretical basis for the design and optimization of low vibration rotors in helicopter.
  10:00 10:30 11.10.2 EFFECT OF FLEXIBILITY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF ROTORS WITH FLEXIBLES BLADES
S. Prothin, ISAE-SUPAERO, France
This article presents the implementation of an experimental test bench dedicated to a rotor with flexible blades in hovering flight. The EMpEROR platform allows and will allow working on these new propellers and these new rotors. We will also compare these results, with low fidelity calculations, from a finite element and Theodorsen calculation code, as well as higher fidelity results made with Star CCM+. The main objectives of this work are first, to identify and analyze the appearance of aeroelastic phenomena in the case of flexible rotor.
  10:30 11:00 11.10.3 INVESTIGATING AN OPTIMAL AEROELASTIC DESIGN FOR AIRCRAFT WINGS WITH DISTRIBUTED PROPELLERS MADE OF COMPOSITES
Morteza Abouhamzeh, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom; Yiyuan Ma, Bauhaus Aviation Research Institute, Germany
Promoting novel technologies to exclude carbon emissions from the civil aviation has initiated research on distributed propulsion. Specifically, features needed for electric aviation can benefit from a distributed propeller wing technology in terms of aero-propulsive efficiency which is crucial regarding the space needed for the battery cells. In order to have a structural design tool in preliminary phases, this paper presents the development of a coupled aeroelastic optimization tool for structural sizing of the wing. The structural modelling implements the geometrically nonlinear response of the composite material. The formulation is based on thin to moderately thick composite wings. Transverse shear deformations and moderate twist angles are taken into account, making it proper for the preliminary design of such structures. Based on the procedure for coupling the aerodynamic and structural fields for optimization, the results are proposed for the final version of this paper.
  11:00 11:30 11.10.4 INFLUENCE OF GRAVITY ON FLUTTER MITIGATION PERFORMANCE WITH A ROTARY NONLINEAR ENERGY SINK
G. P. Araujo, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Aeroelastic flutter can lead to fatigue and failure of aeronautic structures. This way, rotary Nonlinear Energy Sinks can be applied as passive control alternative, although the conventional device consists on a gravity-free horizontal pendulum. This work
numerically studies the influence of gravity for general airfoil angulations on a rotary Nonlinear Energy Sink for flutter passive mitigation.
  11:30 12:00 11.10.5 DRIVETRAIN INFLUENCE ON THE LEAD-LAG MOTION OF HELICOPTER ROTORS
F. Weiss, Germany
Simulations of helicopter rotor dynamics typically only model the rotor, and assume that the rotational hub speed is undisturbed (baseline model). The presented simulation study drops this assumption. The structural model is extended by the drivetrain to study its influence on the rotor dynamics (rotor-drivetrain system). Comparisons of the rotor-drivetrain system’s mode shapes and eigenfrequencies with those of the baseline model show how the drivetrain modifies the collective lead-lag modes. The effects of the drivetrain inertia and stiffness are identified and distinguished. Aeromechanic simulations of the rotor-drivetrain system reveal considerable changes in the blade passage frequency harmonics of the lead-lag loads compared to the baseline model. Since the modified eigenfrequency of the second collective lead-lag mode is near the blade passage frequency, this mode is responsible for the drivetrain’s influence on the lead-lag loads in steady flight. It is investigated whether reduced drivetrain models are suitable for predicting this influence. Finally, it is shown that the inclusion of the drivetrain in the structural model improves the agreement between simulated lead-lag loads and measurements from a wind tunnel test.
12.10Air Taxis
Chair(s):
Track 12
15 - Guest lectures
  09:30 10:00 12.10.1 RESEARCH RESULTS AND PERSPECTIVES ON NON-COOPERATIVE SENSING FOR SAFE UAM OPERATIONS
F. Vitiello¹, F. Causa¹, R. Opromolla¹, G. Fasano¹; ¹University of Naples Federico II, Italy
The paper describes recent results and research paths followed at the University of Naples “Federico II” regarding non cooperative sensing for low altitude airspace surveillance. In particular, the focus is set on architecture and algorithms for detection and tracking based on radars, optical sensors, and data fusion. Near term research perspectives are also discussed.
  10:00 10:30 12.10.2 SENSOR UNCERTAINTY MITIGATION FOR DETECT AND AVOID SYSTEMS
Erik Theunissen, Netherlands Defence Academy, Netherlands
The impact of position- and velocity uncertainty is illustrated in the TCPA-DCPA domain. Following this, Sensor Uncertainty Management (SUM) strategies are presented. To illustrate the performance of a prototype SUM function, baseline alerting performance statistics are provided for two alerting algorithms without SUM that use the bounds of the available trade-space of a DO-365B DAA function
  10:30 11:00 12.10.3 PRELIMINARY APPLICATION OF FORMAL VERIFICATION TO AN AUTONOMY ARCHITECTURE FOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT
L. Humphrey¹, C. Muñoz¹; ¹NASA, United States
In this paper, formal methods are used to verify that modules in ICAROUS, an architecture for building safety-centric autonomous unmanned aircraft applications, interact correctly. Specifically, this paper shows how to use the Spin model checker to specify requirements and model parts of the system, then verify whether the model satisfies the requirements and find and fix errors when it does not.
13.10System-Wide Benefits of MW Class Hybrid Electric Aircraft
Chair(s):
Track 13
15 - Guest lectures
  09:30 10:00 13.10.1 OPTIMIZING FLEET ASSIGNMENT DECISIONS FOR REGIONAL AIRLINES WITH HYBRID ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT UPTAKE
B Chan, University of Pennsylvania, United States
Hybrid electric aircraft will play a critical role in mitigating the climate impacts of the aviation sector. We address barriers to airline operations of HEA by developing realistic operating cost estimations for HEA, together with a mathematical fleet assignment optimization model to demonstrate practical HEA usage for regional airlines seeking to incorporate these new aircraft into their fleets.
  10:00 10:30 13.10.2 SIZING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MW-CLASS EAP SYSTEM FOR A PARALLEL HYBRID TURBOPROP CONCEPT
D. Pham¹, C. Recine¹, R. Jansen, NASA Glenn Research Center, United States; ¹NASA Ames Research Center, United States
This paper discusses an integrated approach to sizing parallel hybrid, multi-MW Electrified Aircraft Propulsion (EAP) systems while assessing performance sensitivities to variations in component-level metrics like specific power, efficiency, and energy density, and their impacts on range and fuel savings for large turboprop class vehicles.
  10:30 11:00 13.10.3 REASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC OPTIMIZATION AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY FOR MILD HYBRID AIRCRAFT PROPULSION SYSTEMS
J. Gladin¹, Egemen Aydin¹, James Kenny¹, Dimitri Mavris¹, Andrew Burrell¹, Jeremy Decroix¹, Turab Zaidi¹, Raphael Gauthier¹; ¹ASDL, United States
The refinement of a previously-published novel parametric framework for analyzing and optimizing hybrid electric propulsion systems is presented here. A study is performed using this framework, employing Boeing 737MAX with CFM LEAP-1B vehicle and engine model as the technology reference aircraft, and a mild hybrid turbofan and open rotor engine and mild hybrid open rotor modeled as well.
  11:00 11:30 13.10.4 VEHICLE ASSESSMENT AND SYSTEM-WIDE BENEFIT ANALYSES OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT - EPFD
Andrew Meade, NASA Ames Research Center, United States
NASA is committed to aiding the aviation community to realize revolutionary improvements in environmental per-formance of subsonic transports using alternative propulsion approaches. One such approach to improving 2030-2035 subsonic transport system-level metrics of emissions and conventional fuel consumption is the use of hybrid electric propulsion. Partnering with U.S. industry, the Electrified Powertrain Flight Demonstration (EPFD) project was created to focus on turning megawatt-class hybrid electric powertrain flight into a reality. A goal of EPFD is integrating megawatt-class propulsion to commercial aircraft. This is a multi-disciplinary system integration effort and vehicle assessment, and system-wide benefits analyses is necessary to ensure we can achieve the goal. This pa-per outlines EPFD efforts in parametric sizing of megawatt-class propulsion applied to state-of-the-art single-aisle turbofan and turboprop aircraft using projected 2030-2035 technologies, and their projected system-wide impact on emissions and fuel use.
14.10Morealis
Chair(s): D. Kuegler
Track 14
10 - Safety and Security
  09:30 10:00 14.10.1 MOREALIS – A HOLISTIC APPROACH TO ENHANCE SAFETY FOR MICRO-AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS
R.O. Kuchar¹, W. Scholz², B. Dörfler, Rödel Aerospace Systems, Germany; P. Herrmann², P. Jamakatel, University of the Bundeswehr Munich , Germany; J. Karger², J.J. Kiam³, J. Klennert*, M. Klennert*, M. Lindlar, German Aerospace Center (DLR-ME), Germany; M.S. May¹, D. Milz¹, N. Mummº, D. Nospes³, L. Peterº, G. Looye¹, A. Schulte³, P. Stütz³; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR-SR), Germany ;²SFL GmbH., Germany ;³University of the Bundeswehr Munich, Germany ;*STAR Healthcare Management GmbH., Germany ;ºAmazilia Aerospace GmbH., Germany
An overview of a safety architecture for a single seat micro-light aircraft (UL-LL, 120kg empty mass, MOREALIS project) is presented, containing: Determination of pilot medical and cognitive states, fault detection functionality for the aircraft and an automated emergency landing functionality based on a dedicated decision engine, terrain database and respective autoflight functionalities.
  10:00 10:30 14.10.2 GENERATION AND COMMUNICATION OF STRATEGIC PLANS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ABSTRACTION FOR INTELLIGENT ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS
P Jamakatel¹, J. J. Kiam ¹; ¹University of the Bundeswehr Munich, Germany
This paper presents the ongoing work on an adaptive intelligent assistance system developed to generate and communicate instructions on how to perform flight tasks, while adapting to the current mental state of the pilot in a single-seat ultralight (UL) cockpit.

Context: Session MOREALIS
  10:30 11:00 14.10.3 PILOT SAFETY – SUPPORT BY BIOMEDICAL MONITORING IN PILOTS WITH HEALTH RISKS
M. Lindlar¹, S. Plath¹, J. Klennert, STAR Healthcare Management GmbH, Germany; ¹German Aerospace Center, Germany
Pilots of microlight aircraft do not undergo flight medical examination when not flying for commercial purpose. Within the MOREALIS research project dan integrated system to protect the pilot in the single-seat-aircraft is developed. A medical monitoring shall detect pilot incapacitation as input to an aircraft intervention management and rescue system. (Intended as part of a MOREALIS session)
  11:00 11:30 14.10.4 MIXED FLIGHT CONTROL LAYOUT FOR ULTRALIGHT GENERAL AVIATION AIRCRAFT
M. May¹, D. Milz¹, W. Scholz², P. Herrmann², J. Karger², L. Peters³, N. Mumm³, R. Kuchar¹; ¹DLR, Germany ;²SFL GmbH, Germany ;³Amazilia Aerospace GmbH, Germany
Ultralight aircraft below 120 kg neither require an airworthiness certificate nor pilot medical examinations. Addressing safety issues like aircraft degradation or pilot incapacitation, we present a mixed flight control layout (where separate automated control surfaces augment mechanical pilot flight controls) and analyze the flight and handling qualities of the resulting aircraft design.
  11:30 12:00 14.10.5 SENSOR AND COVERAGE PATH PLANNING FOR THE MONITORING OF AIRCRAFT EMERGENCY LANDING SITES
David Nospes¹, Peter Stütz¹; ¹University of the Bundeswehr Munich, Germany
This work presents our approach to sensor and coverage path planning for the monitoring of a set of aircraft emergency landing sites with a single onboard camera in the context of the MOREALIS project. Due to ground sample distance requirements of the hazard detection, often only a part of a single landing site can be processed in one view. Therefore, to get an overview of the complete hazard situation, a monitoring sequence for multiple landing sites must be created and combined with an area specific coverage plan. For this, we investigate different combinations of methods on a dataset of landing sites regarding their capabilities of on landing site hazard detection as well as minimization of the time required for a complete scan.
15.10UAV Control Systems 1
Chair(s): M. Logan , Bil, C.
Track 15
06.2 - Flight Dynamics and Control (UAV related)
  09:30 10:00 15.10.1 ENHANCING QUADCOPTER CONTROL: A MODEL REFERENCE ADAPTIVE CONTROL APPROACH WITH NEURAL NETWORKS
S. R. Bassolillo¹, G. Raspaolo², L. Blasi², E. D Amato¹; ¹Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, Italy ;²Università degli Studi della Campania L. Vanvitelli, Italy
Presenter: Egidio D\'Amato, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope

In recent decades, multirotor flying vehicles have garnered significant attention due to their diverse configurations and versatility. This paper focuses on the design and testing of a flight control scheme employing Model Reference Adaptive Control with Neural Networks. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through numerical simulations on a detailed nonlinear simulator and experimental results.
  10:00 10:30 15.10.2 ONBOARD TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION FOR RADIUS TO FIX TURNS
D.M. Gierszewski¹, P. Piprek¹, F. Holzapfel, Technische Universität München, Germany; ¹ Technische Universität München, Germany
An onboard optimization approach is used to generate trajectories for Radius to Fix (RF) turns within an integrated flight guidance and control system. An Optimal Control Problem is formulated such that it accounts for the geometric constraints of the RF as well as the dynamic and limitations of the closed-loop controlled aircraft. The result of the optimization algorithm is verified online.
  10:30 11:00 15.10.3 ADAPTIVE CONTROL AND MISSION PLANNER DESIGN FOR UAV OPERATIONS WITH BATTERY MANAGEMENT
A. Boldrini¹, G. Gozzini¹, D. Invernizzi¹; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Presenter: Giovanni Gozzini, Politecnico di Milano

The primary objective of this work is to leverage adaptive control techniques to effectively counteract the reduction in thrust caused by the battery discharge in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) enhancing their reliability and autonomy while extending their operational range and mission success rates. In addition to this, the w work aims to devise a mission planner capable of ensuring the safe execution of trajectory tracking tasks, such as those related to monitoring/surveillance missions. One of the main contribution of the work is the augmentation of classic baseline controllers with adaptive control mechanisms to dynamically adjust and optimize the control inputs of the UAV as the battery discharges, continuously monitoring and adapting to the changing thrust capabilities, aiming to maintain the UAV's performance within acceptable parameters throughout the mission. Moreover, regarding the autonomous mission planner, the thrust loss estimate, which can be considered as a key parameter of the battery's status, becomes a crucial parameter also for the decision-making algorithms that assess when it is prudent to terminate the mission, ensuring the UAV's safe return to the charging station without risking a depleted battery during flight. Therefore, the mission management system is completed by breaking down the overall mission into different modes and defining a hybrid automaton that enables the transition from one mode to another and a control input that allows the UAV to perform the task autonomously, including when it necessitates to return to the charging base. Lastly, this control scheme and the mission management real-world effectiveness is assessed through a series of tests under different simulation conditions.
  11:00 11:30 15.10.4 PASSIVE FAULT TOLERANT CONTROL OF A DUAL-SYSTEM UAV IN TRANSITION FLIGHT
Junfeng Cai¹, Marco Lovera¹; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy
A novel passive fault tolerant control system for the transition flight of a dual-system UAV is proposed in this paper. The developed control system is able to overcome the partial loss of a single propeller as well as modeling uncertainty during transition flight, which effectively improves the safety and reliability of the flight of the dual system UAV.
Reserve Paper 15.10.R FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM KNOWLEDGE GRAPH CONSTRUCTION BASED ON AERONAUTICAL DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE AUGMENTED LARGE LANGUAGE MODEL
Yi Fan, China; Yu Sun, China; Baigang Mi, China
16.10Student Final
Chair(s):
Track 16
15 - Guest lectures
17.10Advanced Maintenance Data Management
Chair(s):
Track 17
11 - Operations and Sustainment
  09:30 10:00 17.10.1 THE JOURNEY TOWARDS CONDITION-BASED MAINTENANCE: A FRAMEWORK FOR THE HORIZONTAL TAIL ACTUATOR OF AN ADVANCED JET TRAINER
L. Baldo¹, A. De Martin¹, M. Terner, Leonardo S.p.A. Aircraft Division, Italy; M. Sorli¹; ¹DIMEAS, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
In this paper, the first steps towards a comprehensive CBM framework for the horizontal tail (HT) actuator of an Advanced Jet Trainer Aircraft are presented. After a thorough analysis of design documents and operational procedures, the most significant data have been identified, leading to the identification of possible PHM strategies for the specific sub-system. The paper will cover the preliminary framework in which the system will be developed.
  10:00 10:30 17.10.2 NEW APPROACH TO MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF PROCESSES AIMED AT MANAGING THE NEEDS OF AEROSPACE ORGANIZATIONS
J. C. V. Reinhardt, Aeronautics Institute of Technology, Brazil; M. F. Dewes, Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre, Brazil; O. L. Gonçalez, Institute for Advanced Studies, Brazil
This article proposes a new approach to implement the monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of the quality management system processes through the management of the aerospace organization's needs. The needs identification through the analysis of prospective scenarios allows the performance factors and critical variables identification used to implement process monitoring and evaluation.
  10:30 11:00 17.10.3 HOLISTIC AND SCALABLE SMART OPTIMIZATION FRAMEWORK FOR PRESCRIPTIVE MAINTENANCE
A. C. Pereira Mesquita¹, H. Costa Marques¹, A. Martinetti, University of Twente, Netherlands; ¹ITA, Brazil
This paper presents a Prescriptive Maintenance framework, using IoT and analytics to revolutionize maintenance in complex systems. It overcomes traditional methods' limitations, handling diverse data and uncertainties, and steering systems towards optimal solutions. Uniquely, it extends this framework from aviation to healthcare, illustrating its industry-wide applicability and versatility.
  11:00 11:30 17.10.4 HYDROGEN TANKERING: TOOLS FOR ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SCENARIO STUDIES
G. Sirtori¹, L. Trainelli¹, Z. Lahmam¹; ¹DAER, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Hydrogen-powered aircraft operations will be constrained by the lack of H2 refueling infrastructures across airports. Tankering could enable flights to fields that have no H2 infrastrucutre. The proposed methodology assessed the impact on extra fuel consumption, costs and network coverage, considering aircraft performance and H2 distribution, to eventually modify the aircraft design range.
  11:30 12:00 17.10.5 IMPROVED FLEET RENEWAL MODELS FOR PROSPECTIVE SCENARIOS USING TECHNO-ECONOMICAL AND FLEET DATA
T. Planès¹, S. Delbecq¹, L. Joly, ISAE-SUPAERO, Université de Toulouse, France; A. Salgas¹; ¹Fédération ENAC ISAE-SUPAERO ONERA, Université de Toulouse, France
Air transport decarbonisation requires rapid and radical action to be taken. These include reducing operations
inefficiency, switching to alternative low-carbon energies and accelerating aircraft efficiency improvement. The
latter results from improvements at the aircraft level but also from the renewal of the current fleet by the most
recent aircraft types. This paper presents an updated and more accurate fleet renewal model to assess these
effects in a prospective scenarios simulator, AeroMAPS. To do so, a fleet database is used alongside an aircraft
operating cost model to train the updated fleet model so that it captures the logic behind the renewal decisions
of airlines. The model is evaluated and used on an illustrative European network to test the effect of different
policies (carbon taxes, blending mandates) on the fleet composition and subsequent CO2 emissions.
Reserve Paper 17.10.R DIGITALISATION AND SUSTAINABILITY IN CABIN DESIGN: SYNERGIES AND DEPENDENCIES
M.C. Berschik¹, Sven Wehrend¹, F.N. Laukotka¹, D. Krause¹; ¹Hamburg University of Technology, Germany
Reserve Paper 17.10.R COMPARISON OF LIFE CYCLE COST FOR MACH 8 AND MACH 5 HYPERSONIC PASSENGERS AIRCRAFT
L. Pugliese¹, D. Ferretto¹, R. Fusaro¹, N. Viola¹; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 17.10.R REENGINEERING AND LIFECYCLE EXTENSION OF AN ANALOG MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAY
S. Tepper¹, N. Selman¹, C. Calaf¹; ¹DTS SpA, Chile
1.11GSA - Airspace & Operational Efficiency
Chair(s):
Track 1
15 - Guest lectures
  13:00 13:30 1.11.1 TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AVIATION WITH EFFICIENT AIRSPACE OPERATIONS
W. C. Coupe¹, S Saxena¹; ¹NASA Ames Research Center, United States
Presenter: William Coupe

An overview of the airspace operations research being conducted by the Digital Information Platform (DIP) project and the contribution towards NASA’s Sustainable Flight National Partnership mission will be presented. The paper will share the sustainability benefits achieved by DIP’s pre-departure re-routing tool along with the flight demo plan of gate-to-gate trajectory management service.
  13:30 14:00 1.11.2 EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR - SESAR 3 JOINT UNDERTAKING
Joseph Boschen, Sesar 3 Joint Undertaking, Belgium
NOT NEEDED
  14:00 14:30 1.11.3 RECENT FLIGHT EXPERIMENTS SHOW THE CLIMATE BENEFITS OF SUSTAINABLE AVIATION FUELS (SAF) AND ADVANCED ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES
R.H. Moore, NASA Langley Research Center, United States
“invited speaker for the Global Sustainable Aviation track”
2.11Challenge of High AR Wings 2: Design, Aerodynamic and Control Aspects
Chair(s):
Track 2
15 - Guest lectures
  13:00 13:30 2.11.1 OPTIMAL WING ASPECT RATIO OF HIGHLY EFFICIENT LONG-RANGE AIRCRAFT
T. F. Wunderlich, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
OPTIMAL WING ASPECT RATIO OF HIGHLY EFFICIENT LONG-RANGE AIRCRAFT
  13:30 14:00 2.11.2 STRUT-BRACED DRY WING CONCEPT FOR HYDROGEN-POWERED AIRCRAFT
M. Meheut, ONERA, France
This paper aims at presenting the design of a LH2-powered Strut-Braced Dry Wing configuration (SBDW) done within the Clean Aviation UP Wing project. In this framework, ONERA, Technical University of Delft and University of Stuttgart are setting up a common multidisciplinary design process to explore the design space offered by such a configuration where the wing no longer bears the function of carrying the fuel as the cryogenic LH2-tank are located at the rear of the fuselage. The final paper will detail the overall sizing process as well as the disciplinary modules (Structure, aerodynamic, handling quality and aero-elasticity) and will present the overall performance of the optimized concept.
  14:00 14:30 2.11.3 NASA TRANSONIC TRUSS-BRACED WING STUDIES
D. P. Wells¹, G. M. Gatlin¹, J. C. June¹, T. V. Marien¹; ¹NASA Langley Research Center, United States
The focus of this paper is to provide an overview of the NASA-funded and NASA-led truss-braced wing (TBW) research within the context of the integrated TBW vehicle design and analysis. This paper presents NASA-sponsored TBW research that is leading to revolutionary improvements in economics and environmental performance.
3.11Unmanned Aerial Systems and Advanced Aerial Mobility 3
Chair(s): M. Lott
Track 3
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  13:00 13:30 3.11.1 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND SIZING OF A SOLAR POWERED QUAD-ROTOR FIXED WING HYBRID UAV FOR EXPLORATION OVER MARS
P Gupta¹, A Kalgutkar¹, P Priyadarshi, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, India, India; RS Pant¹; ¹Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India, India
This paper presents a comprehensive conceptual design for a solar-powered hybrid unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)
specifically tailored for Mars exploration. The proposed configuration combines quadcopter vertical take-off and
landing capabilities with fixed wings for horizontal propulsion, supported by solar energy harvesting. The study utilizes
a design methodology derived from a literature review of a similar UAV configuration on Earth, adapting it to the
unique challenges and environmental conditions of Mars. Additionally, simulation parameters are modified to accurately
represent Martian conditions, including the incorporation of an illumination model and solar cell methodologies. The
design process involves the generation and evaluation of multiple design points based on desired mass, payload capacity,
and endurance, offering a range of feasible options for Martian UAV missions. The selected configuration has four
motors in a quadcopter configuration for Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) along with fixed wings and a single
motor for horizontal propulsion. Energy is harvested using body-mounted solar cells over the duration of a Martian
day to enable high endurance flight. The literature review is conducted to obtain a design methodology for a similar
configuration of vehicle for earth, albeit without solar power. This methodology is implemented and the code is validated.
The simulation parameters are altered to represent conditions on Mars and an illumination model is added. Design
points are generated and evaluated as per the process presented above. The analysis of various feasible design points
is also conducted, presenting several options based on the desired mass, payload, and endurance. Simulations are
performed for different mission profiles to generate a plot of the battery State of Charge versus time.
  13:30 14:00 3.11.2 INNOVATIVE UAVS WITH CONFIGURATION OF LIKING BOTH PLANE AND KITE FOR WIND POWER
Zong xin Yao, Shenyang Aircraft Design and Research Institute, China
The UAV has a novel configuration of liking both plane and kite for wind power. The fresh wind power UAV comprises two main components of the Kite-plane Integrated Configuration UAV and the Sky-Ground collaborative wind power generation control system, targeting the goal of achieving a 2-kilowatt Airborne Wind Power generation
  14:00 14:30 3.11.3 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EVTOL AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATIONS THROUGH RAPID METHODOLOGY FOR SIZING AND ANALYSIS
R.Y. Yanev¹, I. Staack¹; ¹Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany
Urban air mobility is emerging as a cost-effective alternative to ground transportation. This study explores the impact of design missions, propulsion arrangements, and technological improvements on the short- and mid-term capabilities of multiple electric vertical take-off and landing (eVTOL) aircraft configurations through an in-house developed tool for sizing and analysis.
  14:30 15:00 3.11.4 ANALYSIS OF STEALTH ENHANCEMENT DESIGN PROCESS AND METHODS FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE
Gaowei Jia, China; Dezhao Hu, China; Zheng Guo, China; Yafei Lu, China; Duoneng Liu, China
This article proposes an method for enhancing radar stealth design of UAV, including structural layout optimization, scattering mechanism analysis of strong scattering points, construction a proxy model to evaluate the aerodynamic and stealth characteristics, and joint aerodynamic and stealth optimization of in subregional aircraft. A flying-wing UAV is taken for example during method validation.
4.11Unconventional Aircraft
Chair(s): R. Gerhards
Track 4
01.2 - Aircraft Design and Integrated System (Applications)
  13:00 13:30 4.11.1 FROM THEORY TO FLIGHT: THE BOX-WING CONFIGURATION IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NEXT-GENERATION AIRCRAFT
K. Abu Salem¹, G. Palaia¹, A. Frediani, SkyBox Engineering, Italy; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Through a systematic critical analysis of the literature on the box-wing configuration, the work aims to present a discussion on potential benefits and critical issues of the concept. The performance gains are related with the challenges of introducing macroscopic innovations in aeronautical industrial context, aiming at identifying possible path for the industrial integration of such an aircraft.
  13:30 14:00 4.11.2 PRELIMINARY SIZING OF A LOW-ALTITUDE AIRSHIP INCLUDING ION PLASMA THRUSTERS
C.E.D. Riboldi¹, M. Belan¹, S. Cacciola¹, R. Terenzi¹, S. Trovato¹, D. Usuelli¹, G. Familiari¹; ¹Dept. of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Presenter: Raffaello Terenzi, DAER - Politecnico di Milano

A new preliminary design and sizing technique for low altitude airships coping with the inclusion of ion plasma thrusters on board. Preliminary sizing results will be shown for a demonstrator airship, which will be actually built in project IPROP, showing comparisons with a baseline design with conventional electric motors, and showing trend lines and sensitivities of the design solution.
  14:00 14:30 4.11.3 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SOLAR-ELECTRIC HIGH-ALTITUDE LONG-ENDURANCE AIRCRAFT
Andreas Bierig¹, Daniel Rothe¹, Florian Nikodem¹; ¹DLR, Germany
The publication describes fundamental design relationships for solar-electric high-altitude aircraft in the context of currently available technologies. The publication aids potential developers of such aircraft in making a quick assessment regarding the feasibility of their projects. Furthermore, the described relationships provide the necessary tools to evaluate and compare existing platforms.
  14:30 15:00 4.11.4 CONTINUING DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL CERTIFIABLE AIRLINER “GONDOLA” USING LIQUID HYDROGEN.
Raj Nangia, Nangia Aero, United Kingdom; Les Hyde, Consulting, United Kingdom; Jonathan Cooper, Bristol University, United Kingdom
From certification and safety viewpoints, a LH2 powered aircraft must ensure that LH2 is well separated from the passengers. This has led to a novel twin-fuselage “Gondola” airliner with some asymmetry. We describe continuing development, focusing on the main features including stability and control in symmetric and asymmetric flight.
Reserve Paper 4.11.R COMPARISON OF “STANDARD” FORWARD AND XL REAR MAIN DECK CARGO DOORS IN BOEING 777-FREIGHTER CONVERSIONS
I. Berlowitz, Israel
5.11Aeroacoustic Analysis
Chair(s): M. Barbarino , Kiszkowiak, L-
Track 5
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  13:00 13:30 5.11.1 JET NOISE ABATEMENT VIA SURROGATE MODEL-BASED AEROACOUSTIC OPTIMISATION USING LARGE EDDY SIMULATION
G. Yang, University of Bristol, United Kingdom
This paper presents a surrogate model-based aeroacoustic optimisation framework that is developed and applied to jet nozzle exit geometries. The optimisation package is wrapped around a LES flow solver that is implemented on GPUs, enabling highly efficient CFD and acoustic solutions and thus shape optimisations. Noise reductions are achieved for isolated chevron nozzle geometries.
  13:30 14:00 5.11.2 NUMERICAL STUDIES ON NOISE-SHIELDING EFFECTS OF A BLENDED-WING-BODY AIRCRAFT USING BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD
HY Wang¹, TM Collin¹, ZL Chen¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
A fast Boundary Element Method (BEM) is adopted to study the shielding effects of monopoles on a BWB civil aircraft without freestream flow.The parameter studies of model fidelity of outer mold line, frequency, nacelle, model scaling and engine position on the noise shielding effects of a Blended-Wing-Body aircraft are performed. And the freestream flow effect on noise shielding is under study.
  14:00 14:30 5.11.3 AERODYNAMICS AND AEROACOUSTIC ANALYSIS OF A SUPERSONIC SLENDER-BODY GEOMETRY
Maria De Rosa¹, Antimo Glorioso¹, Giuseppe Pezzella¹, Antonio Viviani¹; ¹University of Campania, Italy
Presenter: Maria De Rosa, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli"

This paper deals with the investigations of the sonic boom phenomenon for a slender-body geometry considering the effect of different shape parameters such as the nose radius-to-diameter ratio r/D in order to investigate its effect on the body Aerodynamics and aeroacoustic in near-field domain and then on the sonic carpet.
  14:30 15:00 5.11.4 COMPUTATIONAL AEROACOUSTICS MODELING OF SUPERSONIC CAVITY FLOWS USING OPEN-SOURCE FLOW SOLVERS
- Kaba, ISTANBUL TEKNIK ÜNIVERSITES?, Turkey
Cavity flow is a fluid mechanics problem that engineers from many different disciplines may encounter. Cavity, one of the most basic configurations, is frequently encountered in various aerodynamic surfaces such as space shuttle hulls, gas turbine ducts, and grooved surfaces in heat exchangers and microelectronic chips. Today, many problems related to structure and components such as aircraft landing gear, weapon and store bays, windshield gaps and sunroofs of vehicles can be defined with this flow.

Although a structural cavity (M219) has a simple geometry, it has a very complex flow physics. This complexity in cavity flow creates high-order drag resistance, energy loss, acoustic vibration and noise for the system or component in which it is located. In addition, it negatively affects the radar visibility, which has been intensively studied in the military industries in recent years. Reducing the radar cross section is often given great importance in the design of modern fighter aircraft. Additionally, features such as transonic and supersonic flight continuity have become essential in new generation military aircrafts. A particular consequence of such requirements is the embedded weapon bay in the aircraft configuration.

With this study, computational aeroacoustic modeling of supersonic cavity flows is to be investigated by using open source flow solvers and the high-accuracy simulations required for the optimization study were performed by using IDDES (Improved Delayed DES) coupling k-w SST. Simulations were compared with reference studies (test and numerical [1]) in terms of SPL and OASPL values. Extensive knowledge has been acquisited about the FFT transformation method, which allows switching from the time domain to the frequency domain for pressure data obtained as a result of the OpenFOAM- HISA analysis. The analysis were run until the flow time of 0.17 seconds.

This case is a challenge for CFD due to its unsteady nature and high freque
Reserve Paper 5.11.R NUMERICAL AEROACOUSTICS ANALYSIS OF WAVY LEADING EDGE VANE ON SOURCE DIAGNOSTIC TEST
A. C. R. G Rodrigues Garcia, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
6.11Turbulence Modeling
Chair(s): M. Choudhari , Halila, G.
Track 6
03.1 - Aerodynamics – CFD Methods and Validation
  12:30 13:00 6.11.1 UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS OF THE AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF EVTOL PROPELLERS VIA REYNOLDS STRESS TENSOR PERTURBATIONS
G. Gori¹, A Zanotti¹; ¹Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, PoliMI, Italy
Computational models are unavoidably affected by epistemic uncertainty.
Indeed, specific assumptions define the structure of turbulence closures in the RANS model, limiting the general credibility of the model.
We suggest a modification of the Eigenspace Perturbation Method to increase the depth of the uncertainty analysis in investigating the aerodynamic performance of two tandem propellers.
  13:00 13:30 6.11.2 ASSESSMENT OF AN ADAPTIVE ONE-EQUATION TURBULENCE MODEL FOR LEADING-EDGE VORTEX FLOWS ON MULTIPLE SWEPT DELTA WINGS
M. Zieher¹, C. Breitsamter¹, D. Sedlacek¹; ¹Technical University of Munich, Germany
The assessment of an adaptive turbulence model based on the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model will show improved results for common (U)RANS CFD simulations for leading edge vortex dominated flows. This simple model improvement can cut computational cost, time, and energy during aircraft design phases, since more relatively low-cost simulations at higher levels of accuracy can be conducted.
  13:30 14:00 6.11.3 ASSESSMENT OF EXPLICIT ALGEBRAIC REYNOLDS STRESS MODELS APPLIED TO AERONAUTICAL FLOWS
T. Chagas Silva, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brazil; J. L. F. Azevedo, Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço, Brazil
This work is part of an ongoing effort to assess the capabilities of nonlinear turbulence models to predict tur-
bulent flows around aeronautical configurations. In the design of complex geometries, the simpler turbulence
models tend to have a poor representation of the complex physical phenomena present in the flow around
these configurations. In these cases, intending to optimize such aerodynamic shapes, it is necessary to resort
to higher fidelity turbulence models, which, in general, are capable of represent more accurately the solution
of the flow. Nonlinear eddy-viscosity turbulence models are an intermediate class of turbulence models ap-
propriate to work with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The main advantage of the
nonlinear turbulence models is the capability to predict the flow more accurately at the same time that to keep
a computational cost similar to linear eddy-viscosity turbulence models. Two explicit algebraic Reynolds stress
models (EARSM) are employed here, coupled with the 3-D RANS equations. This theoretical formulation is
solved by a cell-centered, finite volume method using unstructured meshes. The test cases performed to date
include the transonic flow over the OAT15A airfoil and the subsonic flow over the McDonnell Douglas 30P30N
high-lift airfoil. Other cases of interest in aeronautical engineering are being studied and they will also be
included in the final paper.
  14:30 15:00 6.11.4 EFFECT OF ROTOR AIRFOIL DESIGN PARAMETERS ON AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTIC IN REVERSE FLOW
Cheng-peng Liu¹, Wen-ping Song¹, Shao-qiang Han, Sichuan University, China; Zhong- hua Han¹; ¹Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
An improved high order WENO scheme and IDDES method are used to study the aerodynamic characteristic of rotor airfoil in reverse flow. OA312 airfoil is chosen and morphed with different design parameters. Aerodynamic coefficients of these airfoils are simulated and compared to analyze the influence of different design parameters, which can be used to guide the design of new rotor airfoil.
7.11ICAS Digital Pioneering Initiative
Chair(s):
Track 7
15 - Guest lectures
8.11Aerodynamics of Unconventional Configurations
Chair(s):
Track 8
03.4 - Applied Aerodynamics
  13:00 13:30 8.11.1 LOW-SUBSONIC AERODYNAMIC ANALYSES OF A NONPLANAR BWB MODEL: AN EXPERIMENTAL AND CFD STUDY
Hassan Aleisa¹, Konstantinos Kontis¹, Berkay Pirlepeli², Melike Nikbay²; ¹University of Glasgow, United Kingdom ;²Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
A nonplanar wing concept significantly improves the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft. Hence, adopting nonplanar flow control concepts is essential to achieve an enhanced lift performance and controllability. Likewise, the blended wing body (BWB) concept uses a combined wing and fuselage to create a single lifting surface throughout the entire wingspan. The BWB concept offers various advantages such as reduced operating cost, reduced noise emission and improved aerodynamic efficiency. It was expected that a combination of both nonplanar and BWB model would exhibit better aerodynamic performance. This study investigated the aerodynamic performance of a combined nonplanar and BWB concept model using experimental and computational methods at various pitch and yaw angles. The experimental tests were conducted at the de Havilland low-speed wind tunnel facility at the University of Glasgow, while the numerical simulations were carried out using OpenFOAM 8.0. Additionally, optimization of the wingtip shape was performed to improve the aerodynamic performance further. The aerodynamic characteristics and flowfield analyses of the wing model were presented and explained using the post-processed figures.
  13:30 14:00 8.11.2 ASPECT RATIO AND ADVANCE RATIO EFFECTS ON AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FLEXIBLE FLAPPING WINGS
R. Addo-Akoto¹, S.-G. Lee¹, J.-S. Han, Chungnam National University, South Korea; J.-H. Han¹; ¹KAIST, South Korea
Presenter: Reynolds A.-A, KAIST

In this study, experiments are conducted to examine the aspect ratio AR and advance ratio J effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of flexible flapping wings. Three aspect ratios and five J cases are considered in this study. The study reveals that flexible wings can generate non-negative (? 0) transient lift in the upstroke for higher J cases, which is in contrast to the negative lift reported in literature for rigid wings. An increase in J decreases both the cycle-average aerodynamic lift and power irrespective of AR. Hence, a negative exponential relation is found to exist between the cycle-average lift and J, and cycle-average power and J. The AR = 1.5 and 6.0 wings are found to produce almost the same amount of lift for each change in J. However, the AR = 3.0 wing produced the best aerodynamic performance in terms of maximum lift generation and balance in efficiency. To maximize lift at mid-downstroke, the study reveals the existence of an optimum combination of J and AR. Furthermore, the resultant effect of AR and J on the forward force and pitching moment on the virtual body of the flapping flier is examined. The study reveals the tendency of low AR wings (= 1.5 and 3.0) to restore the body to its neutral position; convergence with increasing J. In addition, the low AR wings produce higher forward force than the high AR (= 6.0) wing, emphasizing the dominance and benefits of adopting a low AR wing in flapping flight applications.
  14:00 14:30 8.11.3 NUMERICAL STUDY ON THE FIRST-STAGE RE-ENTRY TRAJECTORY USING AN INFLATABLE BALLUTE
V. Orlandini¹, R. Paciorri¹, A. Assonitis¹, A. Bonfiglioli, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Italy; ¹University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy
The work explores using an inflatable ballute for decelerating reusable launch vehicle (RLV) first stages during re-entry. This innovative approach, tested on a rocket with a liquid propellant engine, extends mission time, reduces stress at higher altitudes, and significantly lowers speed near the ground. It aims to assess the feasibility and advantages of this method w.r.t. other devices.
  14:30 15:00 8.11.4 AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A FLAP-BASED DEPLOYABLE RE-ENTRY SYSTEM UNDER RAREFIED CONDITIONS
Rodrigo C. Palharini¹, Diego Vera¹, Emanuela Gaglio, Scuola Superiore Meridionale, Italy; Raffaele Savino, University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy; ¹Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Marpia, Chile
In this paper, a flat-based deployable heat shield for cubeSat reentry and recovery is presented. It is a new way to bring small satellites back to Earth and reuse them for new missions. The altitude effect on the flowfield structure, forces, and surface properties will be presented in detail in the final version of the paper.
Reserve Paper 8.11.R ANALYSIS OF A LIPPISCH WING WITH POWER-AUGMENTED RAM IN GROUND-EFFECT
D. Garcia-Ribeiro, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brazil
Reserve Paper 8.11.R NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WING STRUCTURE OF A SEAPLANE PLANNING IN WAVE
Z.-W Lu¹, Y.-H Li¹, J.-C Chen¹, M.-B Tong¹, B Wu¹; ¹Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 8.11.R RESEARCH ON OPTIMAL TORSIONAL DEFORMATION OF FLAPPING WING
Jiayuan Liu¹, Dong Xue¹; ¹School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Reserve Paper (Interactive) 8.11.R NUMERICAL VIRTUAL FLIGHT SIMULATION OF ROLL CONTROL OF A FLYING-WING AIRCRAFT USING TRAILING-EDGE JETS
SS Shao, National University of Defense Technology, China
9.11Trajectory Planning and Wheather
Chair(s): T. Reynolds , Andreeva Mori, A.
Track 9
09 - Air Transport System Efficiency
  13:00 13:30 9.11.1 COMPARING CONVECTIVE WEATHER IMPACTS ON AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS IN UNITED STATES, CANADA & EUROPE
G. Enea¹, T.G. Reynolds¹, T. Polishchuk², A. Lau³, A. Lemetti², J. Solzer³, V. Polishchuk², J. Venuti¹, T. Bölle³; ¹MIT Lincoln Laboratory, United States ;²Linköping University, Sweden ;³German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
Best practices and models to evaluate the impact of convective weather on air traffic in Canada, Europe and United States are compared in this paper. The results are used to highlights differences in weather types and mitigations to present lesson learned to benefit the international community.
  13:30 14:00 9.11.2 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AIRCRAFT ROUTES AND TURBULENCE-RELATED WEATHER DATA
Y. Nakamura¹, A. Senoguchi¹; ¹Electronic Navigation Research Institute, Japan
Presenter: Yoichi Nakamura, Electronic Navigation Research Institute

An accurate prediction of turbulence is hard while turbulence is one of the major safety concerns in aviation. This paper aims to establish the objective indices using EDR (Eddy Dissipation Rate) and turbulence-related weather data. Through the comparison between the data, the availability of the data for the future ATM system including a management of severe weather avoidance route was examined.
  14:00 14:30 9.11.3 ROUTE PLANNING FOR VOLCANIC ASH AND RADIOACTIVITY IN-SITU DRONE MEASUREMENTS USING A GENETIC ALGORITHM AND KRIGING
K. A. Buchtal¹, A. Lau¹, D. Ebert², J. Richters², K. Schneiders²; ¹German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Air Transport, Germany ;²German Weather Service (DWD), Radioactivity Monitoring, Germany
The project MEASURE pursues the development and testing of a measurement drone system for in-situ measurement of volcanic ash and radioactivity to maintain aviation safety. This study presents a method for route planning for in-situ measurements of volcanic ash and radioactivity using a genetic algorithm and kriging. This method shows high potential in different propagation scenarios.
  14:30 15:00 9.11.4 INTEGRATING ECO-EFFICIENT FLIGHT PLANNING IN AIRCRAFT CONCEPTUAL DESIGN: MINIMAL NOX ROUTES FOR HIGH-SPEED AIRCRAFT
F. Borgna¹, V. Borio¹, R. Fusaro¹, N. Viola¹, G. Saccone, Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA), Italy; ¹Politecnico di Torino, Italy
This paper reviews strategies for assessing the environmental impact of NOx emissions based on the spatial location of the emission points and investigates route optimization in eco-friendly flight planning. A specialized algorithm is proposed for high-speed hydrogen-fueled aircraft, resulting in the formulation of a route characterized by minimal environmental impact in terms of NOx emissions.
Reserve Paper 9.11.R STRUCTURED ANALYSIS ESTIMATION FOR A PARAMETRIZED MODEL OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY DEMAND ON AIRPORT OPERATIONS IN UPCOMING DE
TC Oliveira, The Boeing Company, Brazil
10.11Bonding / Mechanical Behaviour
Chair(s):
Track 10
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  13:00 13:30 10.11.1 PATCHBOND II - CERTIFICATION OF ADHESIVE BONDED REPAIRS FOR PRIMARY AEROSPACE COMPOSITE STRUCTURES
J. Jokinen, Tampere University, Finland; T. Thorvaldsen, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Norway; P. Nijhuis, Royal Netherlands Aerospace Centre, Netherlands; M. Kadlec¹, R. Ruzek¹, L. Munch, University of Stuttgart, Institute of Aircraft Design, Germany; M. Hoffmann, Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Germany; T. Viitanen, Technical Research Center of Finland Ltd, Finland; M. Wallin, Patria Aviation, Finland; G. Sagvolden, Light Structures AS, Norway; C. Sbarufatti², L. Martulli², A. Bernasconi²; ¹Czech Aerospace Research Centre, Czech Republic ;²Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Italy
The European Defence Agency (EDA) project PATCHBOND II (June 2020 – June 2025) was established for studying adhesively bonded repairs of primary composite structures. This multinational project is based on collaboration between several aerospace companies, governmental institutions, research institutes and universities. The main targets are to study damage tolerance and monitoring of the bonded repairs of primary aircraft structures. The project is divided into four technical work packages, for which motivations and developments are presented. The on-going project work has already provided valuable results in the field of adhesively bonded repairs.
  13:30 14:00 10.11.2 INTEGRATED PROCESS DESIGN BETWEEN HOT FORMING AND DIFFUSION BONDING FOR TITANIUM ALLOY SHEETS
Hyeonil Park¹, Dong Jun Lee¹, Yong Nam Kwon¹, Jong-Hwa Hong¹; ¹Korea Institute of Materials Science, South Korea
An integrated process between hot forming and diffusion bonding was developed for application to Ti-6Al-4V sheets to effectively improve buy-to-fly (BTF) ratio of aircraft components. Finite element simulation was conducted to analyze the viscoplastic behavior occurred in the integrated process. Microstructural analysis and mechanical lap shear tests were performed to estimate the bonding quality.
  14:00 14:30 10.11.3 HOT-WET CONDITIONING AND THE SENSITIVITY OF MECHANICAL TESTING WITHIN SURFACE TREATMENT QUALIFICATION FOR AIRCRAFT
D. Blanco Garde¹, F. Mews¹, J. Jokinen¹, N. Pournoori¹, M. Kanerva¹; ¹Tampere University, Finland
Surface treatments are necessary for durable adhesive bonds either within aircraft assembly or repair bonding during service engineering. This study focuses on comparing effects of environment (ambient versus hot-wet) on adhesive bond strength when carbon fibre-reinforced composite surface has been qualified by contact angle measurements. The results indicate that conditioning is beneficial.
  14:30 15:00 10.11.4 STUDY OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF AL-CU ALLOY OBTAINED BY 3D PRINTING AND ITS POTENTIAL USE IN THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY
R. S. Solis, Center for Research and Development in Aerospace Sciences/ FACH, Chile
The mechanical behavior of an Al-Cu alloy, obtained with additive manufacturing using Selectiv Laser Melting (SLM), was studied. The alloy was characterized tensile and microstructurally. The results were compared with traditionally manufactured material. Managing to establish the viability of this technique to replace conventional methods for its use and development in the aeronautical industry.
Reserve Paper 10.11.R STABLE LOCALIZED CORROSION IN A 7075-T6 ALUMINUM ALLOY FSW JOINT: MECHANISM AND MITIGATION
K Li¹, Y Ma, Chongqing University of Technology, China; Y Han¹; ¹AVIC Manufacturing Technology Institute, China
Presenter: Kai Li, AVIC Manufacturing Technology Institute
11.11AI in Structural Analysis
Chair(s):
Track 11
04.1 - Aerospace Grade Materials, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance
  13:00 13:30 11.11.1 TRAIN ON SYNTHETIC - TEST ON REAL: DOMAIN ADAPTATION FOR STRAIN-BASED DAMAGE DETECTION ON AN AIRCRAFT WING
Philipp Conen¹, Florian Raddatz¹, Gerko Wende¹; ¹DLR, Germany
This paper evaluates the transferability of a machine learning model that is trained with synthetic data. The virtually trained model should predict the existence, location, and geometrical characteristics of cracks in the physical domain. This paper contributes to the fields of structural health monitoring and domain adaptation.
  13:30 14:00 11.11.2 MACHINE LEARNING AND NUMERICAL OPTIMIZATION OF BIO-INSPIRED 3D-PRINTABLE SANDWICH CORE CELL
B. Omede'¹, A.M. Grande¹; ¹Politecnico di Milano, Italy
This article delves into the increasing need for lightweight, energy-absorbing structures, with a focus on additive manufacturing. It integrates Machine Learning (ML) in the crashworthiness optimization of bio-inspired geometries. A circular elytra-inspired design undergoes optimization through ML and genetic algorithms, providing a cost-effective approach to advanced structural engineering solutions.
  14:00 14:30 11.11.3 FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION OF TWO-PHASE SCATTERER METAMATERIALS FOR VIBRATION SELF-SUPPRESSION
W.H. Yuan¹, Y.J. Chai¹, X.W. Yang¹, F. Ripamonti, Politecnico di Milano, Italy; X. Wang¹, Y.M. Li¹; ¹Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
Presenter: Wenhan Yuan, Xi’an Jiaotong University

Lower-frequency band gaps are favored by the fluid-structure interaction of two-phase scatterer locally resonant metamaterials. The vibration-damping capacity is enhanced by increasing the solid-liquid contact rate. The obtained results provide a simple passive active control design scheme for resisting the vibration noise of fluid-structure interaction structures in high-end equipment.
  14:30 15:00 11.11.4 DEVELOPMENT OF DATA-DRIVEN SURROGATE MODELS FOR SIMULATING FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES IN PROGRESSIVE FRACTURE TESTS
JR Reiner, Deakin University, Australia
A combination of efficient finite element continuum damage simulations, global sensitivity analyses, and data-driven regression approaches is presented to rapidly estimate the mechanical behaviour of fibre reinforced composites subjected to open-hole tension tests.
Reserve Paper 11.11.R A PHASE FIELD BASED DEEP LEARNING APPROACH FOR MECHANICAL PROPERTY PREDICTION OF SINTERED SILVER IN POWER ELECTRONICS
B.R. Yang¹, W. Wan¹, G.C. Fu¹, X.H. Wang¹, X.H. Wang¹, J. Yao¹; ¹Beihang University, China
Reserve Paper 11.11.R